Yuma County, Arizona

Yuma County
Old Yuma City Hall.jpg
Olneya-tesota-01.jpg
Ocean to Ocean Bridge, Yuma, AZ.jpg
Yuma County Courthouse.jpg
Kofa Mountains 002.jpg
Mcphaul's bridge, yuma.jpg
Downtown Yuma Arizona (3).jpg
Yuma County 651.jpg
Clockwise from top: Old Yuma City Hall, Ocean to Ocean Bridge, Kofa Mountains, Downtown Yuma, Yuma County administration building, McPhaul Suspension Bridge, Yuma County Courthouse and the Sonoran Desert near Yuma.
Flag of Yuma County
Official seal of Yuma County
Map of Arizona highlighting Yuma County
Location within the U.S. state of Arizona
Map of the United States highlighting Arizona
Arizona's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 32°47′13″N 113°58′58″W / 32.786944444444°N 113.98277777778°W / 32.786944444444; -113.98277777778
Country United States
State Arizona
FoundedNovember 9, 1864
Named forYuma (Quechan) people
SeatYuma
Largest cityYuma
Area
 • Total5,519 sq mi (14,290 km2)
 • Land5,514 sq mi (14,280 km2)
 • Water5.1 sq mi (13 km2)  0.1%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total203,881
 • Estimate 
(2021)
206,990 Increase
 • Density37/sq mi (14/km2)
Time zoneUTC−7 (Mountain)
Congressional districts7th, 9th
Websitewww.yumacountyaz.gov

Yuma County is a county in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Arizona. As of the 2020 census, its population was 203,881.[1] The county seat is Yuma.[2]

Yuma County includes the Yuma, Arizona Metropolitan Statistical Area.

The county borders three states: Sonora, Mexico, to the south, and two other states to the west, across the Colorado River: California of the United States and the Mexican state of Baja California.

Being 63.8% Hispanic in 2020, Yuma is Arizona's largest majority-Hispanic county.[3]

History

Long settled by Native Americans of indigenous cultures for thousands of years, this area was controlled by the Spanish Empire in the colonial era. In the 19th century, it was part of independent Mexico before the Mexican–American War and Gadsden Purchase.

Yuma County was one of four original Arizona counties created by the 1st Arizona Territorial Legislature.[4] The county territory was defined as being west of longitude 113° 20' and south of the Bill Williams River.[5] Its original boundaries remained the same until 1982, when La Paz County was created from its northern half.

The original county seat was the city of La Paz; in 1871 it was moved to Arizona City, later renamed as Yuma in 1873.[6]

Economy

This county is the highest crop producer in the state by dollar value per year.[7] Yuma County tops the list for the categories of vegetables + melons + potatoes + sweet potatoes at $782,293,000, and fruits + tree nuts + berries at $62,499,000.[7] Overall this is the second (to Maricopa) producing county for all agricultural products at $1,143,068,000 per year[7] and for organic production.[8]: 320  Almost all of the dates (Phoenix dactylifera) in the state are grown here,[8]: 299  about 10 million pounds (4,500 metric tons; 5,000 short tons) worth $35 million per year.[9] This is the second highest citrus producer behind Maricopa,[8]: 302  a distant second in grapefruit,[8]: 302  limes,[8]: 302  and oranges[8]: 303  but producing far more lemons.[8]: 302  Some olives,[8]: 299  clingstone peaches,[8]: 300  and plums[8]: 301  are grown here. Yuma County produces almost all of the vegetable seed grown in the state.[8]: 311  The average farmer age is the lowest in the state, at 56.6 years.[8]: 326 

During the winter agricultural season from November to March, some 40,000 Mexican workers cross the border daily to work in United States fields.[10] The area is watered by the Colorado River, and the sector supplies a large part of the US leafy vegetables.[11][12] The Yuma Lettuce Days festival and agritourism is connected to Yuma agriculture. In 2017 the county produced vegetables worth $782,293,000, ranking first in the state and third in the entire country, from 107,908 acres (43,669 ha).[8] Fruits brought $62,499,000, also first in the state, 56th out of >3000 counties in the country.[8] Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a valuable native crop here.[13]: 239  From here it has also been introduced into cultivation in other countries.[13]: 239 

The Sweetpotato Whitefly (Silverleaf Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci) is a common pest here.[14]: 47  The county is planted with large extents of several crops which serve as hosts.[15]: 263 

Date trees (Phoenix dactylifera) were planted here in the 2010s.[16] In this county, plantations suffer from the Carob Moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae) and the Banks Grass Mite (Oligonychus pratensis).[16]

Leaders in the county are aware their economy is tied to that of Mexican states on the other side of the border; both have to be considered. "There are automotive plants in Ciudad Juárez, across from El Paso; aerospace plants in Mexicali, southwest of Yuma; and medical devices’ manufacturers in Tijuana, near San Diego. On the American side, there is a mix of retail stores, warehouses and trucking companies..."[10]

Because of Yuma County's location along the U.S.-Mexico border, large numbers of aliens entering the United States illegally pass through Yuma County. From October 2004 to July 2005, some 124,400 undocumented foreign nationals were apprehended in the area, a 46% increase over the previous year.[17] In 2015, however, only 6,000 people were apprehended, as the border was fortified and augmented.[citation needed] The number of undocumented immigrants also declined with slumps in the US economy.[10]

The Greater Yuma Economic Development Corp anticipates many agricultural jobs in the county will soon transition to robotics.[18]

Government

The Board of Supervisors is the governing body of the county and a number of special districts. The board has members from five districts.[19] The Board adopts ordinances, establishes programs, levies taxes, appropriates funds, appoints certain officials, and zones property and regulates development in the unincorporated area. In addition, members of the Board represent the County on numerous intergovernmental agencies.[20]

In Arizona's first 52 years as a state, Yuma County was a primarily Democratic county, only voting for Republicans four times in presidential elections prior to 1968. From 1968 on, it has consistently voted for Republican presidential candidates. In 2016, county voters elected more Democrats to the Board than Republicans for the first time since 2004.[21] However, their margins of victory have been reduced in recent years as the county has rapidly grown in population and become majority-Hispanic. Donald Trump only won the county by 560 votes over Hillary Clinton in the presidential election of 2016. However, Trump's margin did improve to over 4,000 votes as he won the county again in 2020 over Joe Biden.

United States presidential election results for Yuma County, Arizona[22]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 36,534 52.14% 32,210 45.97% 1,328 1.90%
2016 25,165 47.47% 24,605 46.42% 3,240 6.11%
2012 23,352 55.50% 18,059 42.92% 662 1.57%
2008 24,577 56.15% 18,559 42.40% 636 1.45%
2004 22,184 57.58% 16,032 41.61% 313 0.81%
2000 15,708 54.82% 12,055 42.07% 889 3.10%
1996 13,013 47.03% 12,267 44.33% 2,391 8.64%
1992 11,652 41.55% 10,367 36.97% 6,026 21.49%
1988 13,253 58.95% 8,952 39.82% 275 1.22%
1984 13,848 67.61% 6,458 31.53% 175 0.85%
1980 13,393 63.34% 6,014 28.44% 1,738 8.22%
1976 9,324 52.15% 7,998 44.73% 558 3.12%
1972 9,596 63.52% 4,755 31.48% 755 5.00%
1968 6,856 46.85% 5,770 39.43% 2,007 13.72%
1964 6,548 45.44% 7,857 54.52% 5 0.03%
1960 5,547 45.45% 6,642 54.42% 15 0.12%
1956 5,330 47.96% 5,776 51.98% 7 0.06%
1952 4,761 51.72% 4,444 48.28% 0 0.00%
1948 2,324 33.37% 4,483 64.37% 157 2.25%
1944 1,831 34.46% 3,472 65.35% 10 0.19%
1940 1,870 31.01% 4,138 68.61% 23 0.38%
1936 976 21.22% 3,428 74.54% 195 4.24%
1932 1,162 24.06% 3,463 71.70% 205 4.24%
1928 2,328 59.43% 1,589 40.57% 0 0.00%
1924 1,280 41.75% 851 27.76% 935 30.50%
1920 1,606 57.71% 1,177 42.29% 0 0.00%
1916 727 32.46% 1,322 59.02% 191 8.53%
1912 90 8.43% 424 39.74% 553 51.83%

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the county has an area of 5,519 square miles (14,290 km2), of which 5,514 square miles (14,280 km2) is land and 5.1 square miles (13 km2) (0.1%) is water.[23] The lowest point in the state of Arizona is on the Colorado River in San Luis in Yuma County, where it flows out of Arizona and into Sonora in Mexico.

Yuma County is in the west, and northwestern regions of the north–south Sonoran Desert that extends through Sonora state of Mexico to the border of northern Sinaloa state. West of the county across the Colorado River in southeast California is the Colorado Desert, (a northwestern subregion of the Sonoran Desert). North of the county, with La Paz County the regions merge into the southeastern Mojave Desert. Southwest of Yuma County, is the entirety of Northwest Mexico, at the north shoreline of the Gulf of California, and the outlet of the Colorado River into the Colorado River Delta region, now altered with lack of freshwater inputs. Notable mountains in Yuma County include the Gila Mountains and the Tule Mountains.

Adjacent counties and municipalities

Major highways

National protected areas

Climate

Climate data for Yuma, Arizona (1991–2020 normals[a], sunshine 1981–2010, extremes 1878–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 88
(31)
97
(36)
102
(39)
107
(42)
120
(49)
122
(50)
124
(51)
120
(49)
123
(51)
112
(44)
98
(37)
86
(30)
124
(51)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 80
(27)
84
(29)
93
(34)
100
(38)
106
(41)
113
(45)
115
(46)
114
(46)
111
(44)
102
(39)
90
(32)
78
(26)
117
(47)
Average high °F (°C) 69.8
(21.0)
73.4
(23.0)
80.2
(26.8)
86.4
(30.2)
94.3
(34.6)
103.3
(39.6)
106.7
(41.5)
106.4
(41.3)
101.4
(38.6)
90.2
(32.3)
77.7
(25.4)
67.8
(19.9)
88.1
(31.2)
Daily mean °F (°C) 58.8
(14.9)
61.9
(16.6)
67.6
(19.8)
73.1
(22.8)
80.6
(27.0)
89.1
(31.7)
94.6
(34.8)
94.8
(34.9)
89.5
(31.9)
78.0
(25.6)
66.1
(18.9)
57.3
(14.1)
76.0
(24.4)
Average low °F (°C) 47.9
(8.8)
50.4
(10.2)
55.0
(12.8)
59.8
(15.4)
66.9
(19.4)
75.0
(23.9)
82.6
(28.1)
83.2
(28.4)
77.6
(25.3)
65.7
(18.7)
54.4
(12.4)
46.8
(8.2)
63.8
(17.7)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 38
(3)
41
(5)
45
(7)
50
(10)
57
(14)
65
(18)
75
(24)
75
(24)
67
(19)
55
(13)
44
(7)
37
(3)
36
(2)
Record low °F (°C) 22
(−6)
25
(−4)
31
(−1)
38
(3)
39
(4)
50
(10)
61
(16)
58
(14)
50
(10)
35
(2)
29
(−2)
22
(−6)
22
(−6)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.39
(9.9)
0.38
(9.7)
0.39
(9.9)
0.14
(3.6)
0.06
(1.5)
0.01
(0.25)
0.24
(6.1)
0.20
(5.1)
0.68
(17)
0.13
(3.3)
0.23
(5.8)
0.43
(11)
3.28
(83)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 2 2 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 16
Mean monthly sunshine hours 268.4 270.8 335.5 365.5 407.4 415.4 392.6 375.6 341.7 319.6 270.1 252.7 4,015.3
Percent possible sunshine 84 88 90 94 95 97 90 91 92 91 86 81 90
Average ultraviolet index 3 5 7 8 10 10 11 10 9 6 4 3 7
Source 1: NOAA[24]
Source 2: Weather Atlas [25]

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
18701,621
18803,21598.3%
18902,671−16.9%
19004,14555.2%
19107,73386.6%
192014,90492.7%
193017,81619.5%
194019,3268.5%
195028,00644.9%
196046,23565.1%
197060,82731.6%
198090,55448.9%
1990106,89518.0%
2000160,02649.7%
2010195,75122.3%
2020203,8814.2%
2021 (est.)206,990[26]1.5%
U.S. Decennial Census[27]
1790–1960[28] 1900–1990[29]
1990–2000[30] 2010–2020[1]

2000 census

As of the census of 2000, there were 160,026 people, 53,848 households, and 41,678 families residing in the county. The population density was 29 people per square mile (11/km2). There were 74,140 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile (5/km2). The county's racial makeup was 68.3% White, 2.2% Black or African American, 1.6% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 23.6% from other races, and 3.2% from two or more races. 50.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 43.7% reported speaking Spanish at home Language Map Data Center.

There were 53,848 households, out of which 36.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.3% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.6% were non-families. 18.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.86 and the average family size was 3.27.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 28.9% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, and 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 102.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.1 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $32,182, and the median income for a family was $34,659. Males had a median income of $27,390 versus $22,276 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,802. About 15.5% of families and 19.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.9% of those under age 18 and 8.7% of those age 65 or over.

2010 census

As of the 2010 census, there were 195,751 people, 64,767 households, and 48,976 families residing in the county.[31] The population density was 35.5 inhabitants per square mile (13.7/km2). There were 87,850 housing units at an average density of 15.9 per square mile (6.1/km2).[32] The racial makeup of the county was 70.4% white, 2.0% black or African American, 1.6% American Indian, 1.2% Asian, 0.2% Pacific islander, 20.8% from other races, and 3.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 59.7% of the population.[31] In terms of ancestry, 10.6% were German, 7.4% were English, 6.9% were Irish, and 3.2% were American.[33]

Of the 64,767 households, 41.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.8% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.4% were non-families, and 19.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.93 and the average family size was 3.39. The median age was 33.8 years.[31]

The median income for a household in the county was $40,340 and the median income for a family was $42,718. Males had a median income of $36,345 versus $27,262 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,418. About 17.6% of families and 20.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.7% of those under age 18 and 12.7% of those age 65 or over.[34]

Communities

Map of Yuma County showing incorporated and unincorporated areas as well as Indian reservations in the county.

Cities

Town

Census-designated places

Other unincorporated communities

Ghost towns

Indian reservations

County population ranking

The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Yuma County.[35][36]

county seat

Rank City/Town/etc. Population (2010 Census) Municipal type Incorporated
1 Yuma 93,064 City 1914
2 Fortuna Foothills 26,265 CDP
3 San Luis 25,505 City 1979
4 Somerton 14,287 City 1918
5 Avenue B and C 4,176 CDP
6 Wellton 2,882 Town 1970
7 Donovan Estates 1,508 CDP
8 Martinez Lake 798 CDP
9 Gadsden 678 CDP
10 Rancho Mesa Verde 625 CDP
11 Tacna 602 CDP
12 Orange Grove Mobile Manor 594 CDP
13 El Prado Estates 504 CDP
14 Dateland 416 CDP
15 Wall Lane 415 CDP
16 Drysdale 272 CDP
17 Wellton Hills 258 CDP
18 Padre Ranchitos 171 CDP
19 Buckshot 153 CDP
20 Aztec 47 CDP
21 Yuma Proving Ground 0 CDP

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.

References

Specific
  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 27, 2022.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ "2020 Census". 2020 Census. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 24, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ "Yuma County Sheriff's Office: History". www.yumacountysheriff.org. Retrieved October 30, 2021.
  5. ^ Wagoner, Jay J. (1970). Arizona Territory 1863–1912: A Political history. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. pp. 58. ISBN 0816501769.
  6. ^ Walker, Henry (1986). Historical Atlas of Arizona, p. 32. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. ISBN 978-0806120249
  7. ^ a b c "Census of Agriculture - State and County Profiles - Arizona" (PDF). USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service. 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved July 29, 2022.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "National Agricultural Statistics Service - 2017 Census of Agriculture - Volume 1, Chapter 1: State Level Data". USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service. 2017. Retrieved July 29, 2022.
  9. ^ ""Naked Dates"? Harvest for the Middle Eastern Fruit Wraps up in Yuma County". KAWC-FM. 2017. Retrieved September 16, 2022.
  10. ^ a b c Fernanda Santo, "In Arizona County Where Latinos Have an Edge, So Did Trump", New York Times, December 13, 2016; accessed December 13, 2016
  11. ^ "Sweat Vinaigrette". Edible Baja Arizona Magazine. May 9, 2016.
  12. ^ Nolte, Kurt D. "Winter Lettuce Production" (PDF). University of Arizona. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022.
  13. ^ a b Al-Khayri, Jameel M.; Jain, S. Mohan; Johnson, Dennis Victor (2019). Industrial and Food Crops. Advances in Plant Breeding Strategies. Vol. 6. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature Switzerland AG. pp. xv+744. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-23265-8. ISBN 978-3-030-23265-8. OCLC 1124613891. S2CID 204460085. ISBN 978-3-030-23264-1. ISBN 978-3-030-23267-2.
  14. ^ King, Edgar George; Phillips, Jacob R.; Coleman, Randy J. (1996). Cotton Insects and Mites: Characterization and Management. Cotton Foundation Reference Book Series. Memphis, Tennessee: Cotton Foundation. p. 1008. ISBN 978-0939809035. OCLC 35285443.
  15. ^ Yamamoto, Izuru; Casida, John E. (1999). Nicotinoid Insecticides and the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor. Tokyo: Springer Tokyo. ISBN 978-4-431-67933-2. OCLC 828775443.
  16. ^ a b Wakil, Waqas; Faleiro, Jose Romeno; Miller, Thomas A., eds. (2015). Sustainable Pest Management in Date Palm: Current Status and Emerging Challenges. Sustainability in Plant and Crop Protection. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing Switzerland. pp. xx+429. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-24397-9. ISBN 978-3-319-24397-9. LCCN 2015958728. OCLC 933587290. S2CID 28329824. ISBN 978-3-319-24395-5.
  17. ^ Economist, August 27, 2005
  18. ^ City of Tucson. "City of Tucson". U.S. Economic Development Administration. Retrieved September 20, 2022.
  19. ^ "Board of Supervisors | Yuma County". www.yumacountyaz.gov. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
  20. ^ "Committees served by Board Members | Yuma County". www.yumacountyaz.gov. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
  21. ^ Santos, F. (December 13, 2016). In Arizona county where Latinos have an edge, so did Trump. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/13/us/politics/yuma-county-arizona-latinos-trump.html
  22. ^ "Dave Leip's Atlas of United States Presidential Elections". Retrieved June 11, 2011.
  23. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 23, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2015.
  24. ^ "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Weather Service. Retrieved August 3, 2022.
  25. ^ "Yuma, Arizona, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved May 17, 2019.
  26. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Counties: April 1, 2020 to July 1, 2021". Retrieved September 27, 2022.
  27. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  28. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  29. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  30. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  31. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
  32. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 – County". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
  33. ^ "DP02 Selected Social Characteristics in the United States – 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
  34. ^ "DP03 Selected Economic Characteristics – 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
  35. ^ "2010 U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
  36. ^ "2010 Census Block Maps - Geography - U.S. Census Bureau". Archived from the original on December 29, 2014. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
General
  • "Cross-Border, Cross-Purposes". The Economist. August 27–September 2, 2005.

External links

  • Yuma County official web site
  • Geographic data related to Yuma County, Arizona at OpenStreetMap

Coordinates: 32°47′13″N 113°58′58″W / 32.78694°N 113.98278°W / 32.78694; -113.98278

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Yuma_County,_Arizona&oldid=1133734360"