Jonê County

Jonê County
卓尼县 · ཅོ་ནེ་རྫོང་།
Jonê (pink) within Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (yellow) and Gansu (grey)
Jonê (pink) within Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (yellow) and Gansu (grey)
Jonê is located in Gansu
Jonê
Jonê
Location of the seat in Gansu
Coordinates: 34°35′N 103°30′E / 34.583°N 103.500°E / 34.583; 103.500Coordinates: 34°35′N 103°30′E / 34.583°N 103.500°E / 34.583; 103.500
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceGansu
Autonomous prefectureGannan
SeatLiulin
Area
 • Total5,419.68 km2 (2,092.55 sq mi)
Population
 (2018)
 • Total110,700
 • Density20/km2 (53/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
747600

Jonê County (also Cone, Chone, Choni; Tibetan: ཅོ་ནེ་རྫོང་།, Wylie: co-ne rdzong, ZYPY: Jonê Zong; local pronunciation: /tɕɔLnɛ/[4]; Chinese: 卓尼县; pinyin: Zhuōní Xiàn) is an administrative district in the Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province, China. It is one of 58 counties of Gansu. It is part of the Gannan Prefecture. Its postal code is 747600. Its area is 4,954 km2 (1,913 sq mi), and its population is over 100,000 people. It is administered from Liulin.[1]

Description

The county covers both banks of the middle section of the Lu-chu. The country town and adjacent Jonê Monastery are on the north bank. The side valleys on the southern side used to be branches of the ancient kingdom of Jonê.[1]

Historical Tibetan Yang Surname Zhouni Tusi

Among Tibetan at Amdo, Jonê exist The Zhouni Tusi (Chinese: 卓尼土司), ruled by the Tibetan Ga clan or Mandarin Chinese Yang () clan, was a Tusi chiefdom kingdom called Zhouni Kingdom, Choni Kingdom, or Jonê Kingdom ruled by the Gatsang (dga' tshang) family at Tibet. In 1404, whereupon they informed the Ming Emperor Yongle of this fact and were recognized as local rulers, and were given a seal of authority and the surname Yang (). The Yangs ruled Zhouni from 1404 until 1949.[2][3]

List of Kings of Jonê

There are list kings of Jonê Kingdom:[4][5][6]

  1. ཅོ་ནེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཤིས་བསྡུས།
  2. ཅོ་ནེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་བཙན་པོ།
  3. ཅོ་ནེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་བཀྲ་ཤིས།
  4. ཅོ་ནེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་དགའ་སྐྱེད།
  5. ཅོ་ནེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་དབང་ཕྱུག named 杨洪; Yáng Hóng
  6. ཅོ་ནེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཡང་དྲིན། named 杨臻; Yáng Zhēn
  7. ཅོ་ནེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཡང་ཚེ་མེས། named 杨葵明; Yáng Kuímíng
  8. ཅོ་ནེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཡང་གོ་ལུང་། named 杨国龙; Yáng Guólóng
  9. ཅོ་ནེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཚེ་དབང་དོན་གྲུབ། named 杨朝梁; Yáng Cháoliáng
  10. ཅོ་ནེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་བློ་བཟང་དོན་གྲུབ། named 杨威; Yáng Wēi
  11. ཅོ་ནེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་མང་སྲོལ་མགོན་པོ། named 杨汝松; Yáng Rǔsōng
  12. ཅོ་ནེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་འཇམ་དབྱངས་ནོར་བུ། named 杨冲霄; Yáng Chōngxiāo
  13. ཅོ་ནེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་བསོད་ནམས་ཆོས་འཕེལ། named 杨昭; Yáng Zhāo
  14. ཅོ་ནེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་བསྟན་སྲུང་ཚེ་རིང་། named 杨声; Yáng Shēng
  15. ཅོ་ནེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་བསྟན་འཛིན་རིན་ཆེན་ཆོས་སྐྱབས། named 杨宗业; Yáng Zōngyè
  16. ཅོ་ནེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཆོས་སྐྱབས་འགྱུར་མེད་རྡོ་རྗེ། named 杨宗基; Yáng Zōngjī
  17. ཅོ་ནེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་རིན་ཆེན་བསྟན་འཛིན་འཕྲིན་ལས་རྡོ་རྗེ། named 杨元; Yáng Yuán
  18. ཅོ་ནེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཚེ་དབང་བསོད་ནམས་རྡོ་རྗེ། named 杨作霖; Yáng Zuòlín
  19. ཅོ་ནེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་བློ་བཟང་བསྟན་འཛིན་རྣམ་རྒྱལ་རྡོ་རྗེ། named 杨积庆; Yáng Jīqìng
  20. ཅོ་ནེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་པད་མ་དབང་ཕྱུག named 杨复兴; Yáng Fùxīng

History

"There are traditions of Tibetan soldiers left behind [after the late 10th century] at several border outposts, such as Jonê, where they established viable settlements, and of the remaining Tibetan conscript troops, called the Wun Mo, carving out considerable territory for themselves until they were perhaps absorbed into that amalgam of people of Tibetan stock, which came to form the Hsi Hsia Kingdom (982—1224)."[7]

Jonê was part of a separate kingdom formed, according to legend, after its invasion by warriors who migrated across the mountains from Szechuan conquering the local tribes in 1404. The contemporary descendants of the Jonê royal line claim that their line is Tibetan, and that their ancestors migrated from central Tibet through Sichuan.

The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360 – August 12, 1424) named one of these invading warriors hereditary chief (tusi) called Zhouni Tusi (卓尼土司), bestowing the family name of "Yang" ("") and an imperial seal upon his line. The Jonê king (co-ne rgyal-po) established a palace on the north bank of the Tao River. The family holding the Yang seal continued to rule over 48 Tibetan clans in Jonê as an autonomous kingdom from the early 15th century for 23 generations, until 1928, when it was placed under the control of the Lanchow government.[8] In the late Qing Dynasty and Republican Period, many nomadic regions had considerable de facto independence,[9] despite the claims and perspective of the Chinese rulers.[2]

Among the six monasteries in the county, all of them Tibetan Geluk establishments, is the great Jonê Monastery.[1]

The American botanist Joseph Rock spent almost 2 years in Jonê ("Choni", in his spelling) in 1925–26. He resided in the compound of the local chief (the 19th-generation tusi Yang Jiqing (杨积庆)[10][11]), making it the base for his exploration of southern Gansu and eastern Qinghai. His account of the culture of this "almost unknown Tibetan principality", as he described it, illustrated with color photographs, was published in the National Geographic.[12][13][14]

As of 2012, Jonê was apparently closed to foreign visitors.[12]

Administrative divisions

Zhuoni County (卓尼县) is divided to 11 towns 3 townships and 1 ethic townships.[15]

Towns
  • Liulin (柳林镇)
  • Mu'er (木耳镇)
  • Zhagulu (扎古录镇)
  • Ka'erqin (喀尔钦镇)
  • Zangbawa (藏巴哇镇)
  • Nalang (纳浪镇)
  • Taoyan (洮砚镇)
  • Azitan (阿子滩镇)
  • Shenzang (申藏镇)
  • Wanmao (完冒镇)
  • Niba (尼巴镇)
Townships
  • Daogao Township (刀告乡)
  • Qia'gai Township (恰盖乡)
  • Kangduo Township (康多乡)
Ethic Townships
  • Shaowa Tu Township (勺哇土族乡)

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c Dorje (2009), p. 812.
  2. ^ a b Tibetan Historical Polities: [1], retrieved 19 Aug 2017
  3. ^ Tibetan, Jone in China: [2], retrieved 19 Aug 2017
  4. ^ Buddhist Digital Resource Center: [3], retrieved 19 Aug 2017
  5. ^ http://www.zhuoni.gov.cn/info/1149/4595.htm, retrieved 21 Ju;y 2022
  6. ^ http://places.kmaps.virginia.edu/features/24353/descriptions/81, retrieved 21 Ju;y 2022
  7. ^ Snellgrove & Richardson (1995), p. 111.
  8. ^ Cabot (2003, pp. 157-158.
  9. ^ Ekvall (1939).
  10. ^ www.tibetcul.com https://www.tibetcul.com/people/mrzf/35671.html. Retrieved 21 July 2022. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. ^ https://www.sohu.com/a/428503229_120068472, retrieved 21 July 2022 ("Following the footsteps of the Austrian explorer of 80 years' ago in Jonê and Tewo; entering the mysterious Shambala world recorded by the botanist Rock"), 2012-12-17
  12. ^ a b Michael Woodhead, In the footsteps of Joseph Rock. Chapter 10, "Seeking the Mountains of Mystery: Travels to Choni and Amnye Machen".
  13. ^ Joseph Rock, "Life among the Lamas of Choni: Describing the Mystery Plays and Butter Festival in the Monastery of an Almost Unknown Tibetan Principality in Kansu Province, China". National Geographic, (1928): 569-619
  14. ^ "A Righteous and Enlightened Chief". charmingbeijing.com. 9 November 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  15. ^ "统计用区划代码 www.stats.gov.cn" (in Chinese). XZQH. Retrieved 2012-05-26.

References

  • Cabot, Mabel H. (2003). Vanished Kingdoms: A Woman Explorer in Tibet, China & Mongolia, 1921-1925, pp. 148–157. Aperture Publishers in association with the Peabody Museum, Harvard. ISBN 978-1-931788-18-2.
  • Dorje, Gyurme (2009). Footprint Tibet Handbook. Footprint Publications, Bath, England. ISBN 978-1-906098-32-2.
  • Ekvall, Robert B. (1939). "Cultural Relations on the Kansu-Tibetan Border", University of Chicago.
  • China County & City Population 1999 FAQ
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