Muslims

Muslims
Prayer in Cairo 1865.jpg
Prayer in Cairo (1865)
Jean-Léon Gérôme
Total population
c. 1.9 billion[1]
(24.9% of the global population)Increase[2][3][4]
(Worldwide, 2020 Pew Research Center)
Founder
Muhammad
Regions with significant populations
 Indonesia231,070,000[5]
 Pakistan213,161,100[6]
 India194,810,000[7]
 Bangladesh153,700,000[8]
 Nigeria99,100,000[9]
 Egypt95,000,000[10]
 Iran82,900,000[11]
 Turkey82,800,000[12]
 Algeria42,000,000[13]
 China40,000,000[14]
Religions
80–90% Sunni Islam[15][16]
10–20% Shia Islam[17][18][19]
~1% Ahmadiyya[20]
~1% Other Islamic traditions (Ibadi Islam, Quranism, etc.)[21]
Languages
Liturgical:
Quranic Arabic
Common:
Hindi–Urdu, Arabic, Indonesian, Bengali, Turkic languages, Iranian languages, and other languages of the Muslim world[22][23][24][25][26]

Muslims (Arabic: المسلمون, al-Muslimūn, transl. "Submitters [to God]")[27] are people who adhere to Islam, a monotheistic religion belonging to the Abrahamic tradition. They consider the Quran, the foundational religious text of Islam, to be the verbatim word of the God of Abraham (or Allah) as it was revealed to Muhammad, the main Islamic prophet.[28] The majority of Muslims also follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad (sunnah) as recorded in traditional accounts (hadith).[29]

With an estimated population of almost 1.9 billion followers as of 2020 year estimation, Muslims comprise more than 24.9% of the world's total population.[1] In descending order, the percentage of people who identify as Muslims on each continental landmass stands at: 45% of Africa, 25% of Asia and Oceania (collectively),[30] 6% of Europe,[31] and 1% of the Americas.[32][33][34][35] Additionally, in subdivided geographical regions, the figure stands at: 91% of the Middle East–North Africa,[36][37][38] 90% of Central Asia,[39][40][41] 65% of the Caucasus,[42][43][44][45][46][47] 42% of Southeast Asia,[48][49] 32% of South Asia,[50][51] and 42% of sub-Saharan Africa.[52][53]

While there are several Islamic schools and branches, the two largest denominations are Sunni Islam (75–90% of all Muslims)[54] and Shia Islam (10–20% of all Muslims).[17][18][19] By sheer numbers, South Asia accounts for the largest portion (31%) of the global Muslim population, primarily across three countries: Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh.[55][56] By country, Indonesia is the largest in the Muslim world, holding around 12% of all Muslims worldwide;[57][58] outside of the Muslim-majority countries, India and China are home to the largest (11%) and second-largest (2%) Muslim populations, respectively.[59][60][61] Due to high Muslim population growth, Islam is the fastest-growing religion in the world.[62][63][64]

Etymology

The word muslim (Arabic: مسلم, IPA: [ˈmʊslɪm]; English: /ˈmʌzlɪm/, /ˈmʊzlɪm/, /ˈmʊslɪm/ or moslem /ˈmɒzləm/, /ˈmɒsləm/[65]) is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact".[66][67] A female adherent is a muslima (Arabic: مسلمة) (also transliterated as "Muslimah"[68] ). The plural form in Arabic is muslimūn (مسلمون) or muslimīn (مسلمين), and its feminine equivalent is muslimāt (مسلمات).

The ordinary word in English is "Muslim". In the 20th century the preferred spelling in English was "Moslem", but this has now fallen into disuse.[69][better source needed] The word Mosalman (Persian: مسلمان, alternatively Mussalman) is a common equivalent for Muslim used in Central and South Asia. In English it was sometimes spelled Mussulman and has become archaic in usage. Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mohammedans or Mahometans.[70] Although such terms were not necessarily intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they allegedly imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God.[71] Other obsolete terms include Muslimite[72] and Muslimist.[73] In Medieval Europe, Muslims were commonly called Saracens.

The Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said:

A Muslim is a person who has dedicated his worship exclusively to God...Islam means making one's religion and faith God's alone.[74]

Qualifier

To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God (Allah) and that Muhammad is God's messenger.[75] It is a set statement normally recited in Arabic: ašhadu ʾal-lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu wa ʾašhadu ʾanna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh (أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمداً رسول الله) "I testify that there is no god [worthy of worship] except Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."[76]

In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah (there is no god but Allah), and Muhammadun rasul Allah (Muhammad is the messenger of God),[77] which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada.[78] The first statement of the shahada is also known as the tahlīl.[79]

In Shia Islam, the shahada also has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله (wa ʿalīyyun walīyyu-llāh), which translates to "Ali is the wali of God".[80]

In Quranist Islam, the shahada is the testimony that there is no god but Allah (la ilaha illa'llah ).[citation needed]

The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith (shahadah), daily prayers (salah), almsgiving (zakat), fasting during the month of Ramadan (sawm), and the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime.[81][82]

In Islamic theology

The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judaism and Christianity, and their respective followers, as Muslim. Some of those that were mentioned are: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Jacob, Moses, and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity, fasting and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God; and you be our witness that we are Muslims (wa-shahad be anna muslimūn)." In Islamic belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Tawrat (Torah) to Moses, the Zabur (Psalms) to David and the Injil (Gospel) to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets.[83]

Demographics

World Muslim population by percentage (2010 data from Pew Research Center)
A map of Muslim populations by absolute number

The most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims,[84] followed by Pakistan (11.0%), Bangladesh (9.2%), Nigeria (5.3%) and Egypt (4.9%).[57] About 20% of the world's Muslims live in the Middle East and North Africa.[84][85]

Sizable minorities are also found in India, China, Ethiopia, the Americas, Australia and parts of Europe. The country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.[86]

Over 75–90% of Muslims are Sunni.[15][16] The second and third largest sects, Shia and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%,[17][18][19] and 1%[20] respectively.

With about 1.9 billion followers (2019), almost a quarter of earth's population,[87] Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world,[88] primarily due to the young age and high fertility rate of Muslims,[89] with Muslims having a rate of (3.1) compared to the world average of (2.5). According to the same study, religious switching has no impact on Muslim population, since the number of people who embrace Islam and those who leave Islam are roughly equal.[89]

A Pew Center study in 2016 found that Muslims have the highest number of adherents under the age of 15 (34% of the total Muslim population) of any major religion, while only 7% are aged 60+ (the smallest percentage of any major religion). According to the same study, Muslims have the highest fertility rates (3.1) of any major religious group.[90] The study also found that Muslims (tied with Hindus) have the lowest average levels of education with an average of 5.6 years of schooling, though both groups have made the largest gains in educational attainment in recent decades among major religions.[90] About 36% of all Muslims have no formal schooling,[90] and Muslims have the lowest average levels of higher education of any major religious group, with only 8% having graduate and post-graduate degrees.[90]

Culture

Muslim culture or Islamic culture are terms used to describe the cultural practices common to Muslims and historically Islamic people. The early forms of Muslim culture, from the Rashidun Caliphate to early Umayyad period, were predominantly Arab, Byzantine, Persian and Levantine. With the rapid expansion of the Islamic empires, Muslim culture has influenced and assimilated much from the Persian, Egyptian, Caucasian, Turkic, Mongol, South Asian, Malay, Somali, Berber, Indonesian, and Moro cultures.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Religion Information Data Explorer | GRF". www.globalreligiousfutures.org. Retrieved 13 October 2022.
  2. ^ "Mapping the Global Muslim Population". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 7 October 2009.
  3. ^ "Muslim Population By Country 2021". World Population Review. Archived from the original on 6 December 2020. Retrieved 22 July 2021.
  4. ^ Lipka, Michael, and Conrad Hackett. [2015] 6 April 2017. "Why Muslims are the world’s fastest-growing religious group Archived 11 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine" (data analysis). Fact Tank. US: Pew Research Center.
  5. ^ "Penduduk Menurut Wilayah dan Agama yang Dianut" [Population by Region and Religion] (PDF). Sensus Penduduk 2018. Jakarta, Indonesia: Badan Pusat Statistik. 15 May 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 July 2021. Retrieved 3 September 2020. Religion is belief in Almighty God that must be possessed by every human being. Religion can be divided into Muslim, Christian (Protestant), Catholic, Hindu, Buddhist, Hu Khong Chu, and Other Religions. Muslim 231,069,932 (86.7), Christian (Protestant)20,246,267 (7.6), Catholic 8,325,339 (3.12), Hindu 4,646,357 (1.74), Buddhist 2,062,150 (0.72), Confucianism 71,999 (0.03), Other Religions/no answer 112,792 (0.04), Total 266,534,836
  6. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 August 2021. Retrieved 9 August 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "The countries with the 10 largest Christian populations and the 10 largest Muslim populations". Pew Research. 1 April 2019.
  8. ^ "The Future of the Global Muslim Population". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 15 January 2011. Archived from the original on 24 May 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  9. ^ "The World Factbook". Archived from the original on 9 January 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  10. ^ "The World Factbook". Archived from the original on 4 January 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  11. ^ "The World Factbook". Archived from the original on 8 February 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  12. ^ "The World Factbook". Archived from the original on 10 January 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  13. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld - 2010 Report on International Religious Freedom - China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, Macau)". Refworld. Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  14. ^ Hammond, Kelly (15 January 2021). "The Terrible 'Sinicization' of Islam in China". New Lines Magazine. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  15. ^ a b See:
    • Eastern Europe Russia and Central Asia Archived 4 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine "some 80% of the world's Muslims are Sunni"
    • Sue Hellett;U.S. should focus on sanctions against Iran Archived 17 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine "Sunnis make up over 75 percent of the world's Muslim population"
    • Iran, Israel and the United States Archived 4 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine "Sunni, accounts for over 75% of the Islamic population"
    • "Sunnite". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 9 August 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2010. They numbered about 900 million in the late 20th century and constituted nine-tenths of all the adherents of Islām.
    • Islamic Beliefs, Practices, and Cultures. Marshall Cavendish. 2010. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-7614-7926-0. Retrieved 19 December 2011. A common compromise figure ranks Sunnis at 90 percent.
    • "Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. 7 October 2009. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 24 August 2010. Of the total Muslim population, 10–13% are Shia Muslims and 87–90% are Sunni Muslims.
    • "Quick guide: Sunnis and Shias". BBC News. 6 December 2011. Archived from the original on 6 December 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2011. The great majority of Muslims are Sunnis – estimates suggest the figure is somewhere between 85% and 90%.
    • "Sunni and Shia Islam". Library of Congress Country Studies. Archived from the original on 16 February 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2011. Sunni constitute 85 percent of the world's Muslims.
    • "Tension between Sunnis, Shiites emerging in USA". USA Today. 24 September 2007. Archived from the original on 10 December 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2011. Among the world's estimated 1.4 billion Muslims, about 85% are Sunni and about 15% are Shiite.
    • "Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2010. Sunni Islam accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim population... Shia Islam represents 10–20% of Muslims worldwide...
    • Sunni Islam: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide Archived 4 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine "Sunni Islam is the dominant division of the global Muslim community, and throughout history it has made up a substantial majority (85 to 90 percent) of that community."
    • Inside Muslim minds Archived 4 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine "around 80% are Sunni"
    • Who Gets To Narrate the World Archived 4 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine "The Sunnis (approximately 80%)"
    • A world theology Archived 4 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine N. Ross Reat "80% being the Sunni"
    • Islam and the Ahmadiyya jama'at Archived 4 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine "The Sunni segment, accounting for at least 80% of the world's Muslim population"
    • A dictionary of modern politics Archived 4 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine "probably 80% of the world's Muslims are Sunni"
  16. ^ a b From Sunni Islam: See:
    • Eastern Europe Russia and Central Asia Archived 4 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine "some 80% of the world's Muslims are Sunni"
    • "Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2011. Sunni Islam accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim population
    • Sue Hellett;U.S. should focus on sanctions against Iran Archived 17 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine "Sunnis make up over 75 percent of the world's Muslim population"
    • Iran, Israel and the United States Archived 4 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine "Sunni, accounts for over 75% of the Islamic population"
    • A dictionary of modern politics Archived 4 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine "probably 80% of the world's Muslims are Sunni"
    • "Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. 7 October 2009. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 24 August 2010. Of the total Muslim population, 10–13% are Shia Muslims and 87–90% are Sunni Muslims.
    • "Quick guide: Sunnis and Shias". BBC News. 6 December 2011. Archived from the original on 24 November 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2011. The great majority of Muslims are Sunnis – estimates suggest the figure is somewhere between 85% and 90%.
    • "Tension between Sunnis, Shiites emerging in USA". USA Today. 24 September 2007. Archived from the original on 10 December 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2011. Among the world's estimated 1.4 billion Muslims, about 85% are Sunni and about 15% are Shiite.
    • Sunni Islam: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide Archived 4 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine "Sunni Islam is the dominant division of the global Muslim community, and throughout history it has made up a substantial majority (85 to 90 percent) of that community."
  17. ^ a b c "Shiʿi, Islam". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 17 January 2022. In the early 21st century some 10–13 percent of the world’s 1.6 billion Muslims were Shiʿi.
  18. ^ a b c "Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 27 March 2010. Retrieved 25 August 2010. Sunni Islam accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim population... Shia Islam represents 10–20% of Muslims worldwide...
  19. ^ a b c Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population (PDF). Pew Research Center (Report). October 2009. p. 1. Retrieved 17 January 2022. Of the total Muslim population, 10-13% are Shia Muslims and 87-90% are Sunni Muslims. Most Shias (between 68% and 80%) live in just four countries: Iran, Pakistan, India and Iraq.
  20. ^ a b See:
    • Breach of Faith. Human Rights Watch. June 2005. p. 8. Archived from the original on 14 March 2017. Retrieved 29 March 2014. Estimates of around 20 million would be appropriate
    • DeVries, Larry; Baker, Don & Overmyer, Dan (1 January 2011). Asian Religions in British Columbia. University of Columbia Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-1662-5. Archived from the original on 14 March 2017. Retrieved 29 March 2014. The community currently numbers around 15 million spread around the world
    • Juan Eduardo Campo (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-8160-5454-1. Archived from the original on 14 March 2017. Retrieved 29 March 2014. The total size of the Ahmadiyya community in 2001 was estimated to be more than 10 million
    • "Ahmadiyya Muslims". pbs.org. 20 January 2012. Archived from the original on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
    • A figure of 10–20 million represents approximately 1% of the Muslim population. See also Ahmadiyya by country.
  21. ^ "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World’s Muslims: Unity and Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 9 August 2012. Archived from the original on 26 December 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  22. ^ Khan, Muhammad Mojlum (2013). The Muslim Heritage of Bengal: The Lives, Thoughts and Achievements of Great Muslim Scholars, Writers and Reformers of Bangladesh and West Bengal. England: Kube Publishing. p. 2. Bengali-speaking Muslims... one of the largest linguistic groups... second only to the Arabs
  23. ^ Talbot & Singh 2009, p. 27, footnote 3.
  24. ^ Grim, Brian J.; Johnson, Todd M. (2013). Chapter 1: Global Religious Populations, 1910–2010 (PDF) (Report). Wiley. p. 22. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  25. ^ "What are the top 200 most spoken languages?". Ethnologue. 3 October 2018. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  26. ^ Al-Jallad, Ahmad (30 May 2011). "Polygenesis in the Arabic Dialects". Archived from the original on 15 August 2016.
  27. ^ "Muslim". etymonline.com. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015.
  28. ^ Welch, Alford T, Moussalli, Ahmad S, Newby, Gordon D (2009). "Muḥammad". In Esposito JL (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2017. The Prophet of Islam was a religious, political, and social reformer who gave rise to one of the great civilizations of the world. From a modern, historical perspective, Muḥammad was the founder of Islam. From the perspective of the Islamic faith, he was God's Messenger (rasūl Allāh), called to be a "warner," first to the Arabs and then to all humankind.
  29. ^ The Qurʼan and Sayings of Prophet Muhammad: Selections Annotated & Explained. SkyLight Paths Publishing. 2007. pp. 21–. ISBN 978-1-59473-222-5. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  30. ^ "Region: Asia-Pacific". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 9 March 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2012.
  31. ^ "Region: Europe". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 7 April 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2012.
  32. ^ "Region: Americas". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 7 April 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2012.
  33. ^ Kington, Tom (31 March 2008). "Number of Muslims ahead of Catholics, says Vatican". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 September 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  34. ^ "Muslim Population". IslamicPopulation.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  35. ^ "Field Listing Religions". Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  36. ^ "Region: Middle East-North Africa". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 9 March 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2012.
  37. ^ "Region: Middle East-North Africa". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 25 July 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  38. ^ "Middle East-North Africa Overview". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 7 October 2009. Archived from the original on 28 January 2017. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  39. ^ "The Global Religious Landscape" (PDF). Pew. December 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015.
  40. ^ Rowland, Richard H. "CENTRAL ASIA ii. Demography". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Vol. 2. pp. 161–164. Archived from the original on 16 September 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
  41. ^ Rowland, Richard H. "CENTRAL ASIA ii. Demography". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Vol. 2. pp. 161–164. Archived from the original on 16 September 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
  42. ^ "Middle East :: Azerbaijan — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 27 January 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  43. ^ "The Many Languages of Islam in the Caucasus". Eurasianet. Archived from the original on 21 July 2020. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  44. ^ "Statistical Service of Armenia" (PDF). Armstat. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  45. ^ "Armenia Population". countrymeters.info. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
  46. ^ humans.txt. "Azərbaycan əhalisinin sayı 10 milyon nəfərə çatıb". /. Archived from the original on 1 June 2019. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  47. ^ "Middle East :: Georgia — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  48. ^ "Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Archived from the original on 20 March 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  49. ^ Yusuf, Imtiyaz. "The Middle East and Muslim Southeast Asia: Implications of the Arab Spring". Oxford Islamic Studies. Archived from the original on 20 March 2017.
  50. ^ "Region: Asia-Pacific". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
  51. ^ Burke, Daniel Burke, ed. (29 July 2016). "The moment American Muslims were waiting for". CNN Religion. Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
  52. ^ "Region: Sub-Saharan Africa". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 9 March 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2012.
  53. ^ "Region: Sub-Saharan Africa". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 28 July 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  54. ^ * "Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. 7 October 2009. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2013. Of the total Muslim population, 10–13% are Shia Muslims and 87–90% are Sunni Muslims.
    • Sunni Islam: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide Archived 16 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine "Sunni Islam is the dominant division of the global Muslim community, and throughout history it has made up a substantial majority (85 to 90 percent) of that community."
    • "Sunni". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2012. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam, comprising about 85% of the world's over 1.5 billion Muslims.
    • "Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 27 March 2010. Retrieved 25 August 2010. Sunni Islam accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim population...
  55. ^ Pechilis, Karen; Raj, Selva J. (2013). South Asian Religions: Tradition and Today. Routledge. p. 193. ISBN 9780415448512.
  56. ^ Diplomat, Akhilesh Pillalamarri, The. "How South Asia Will Save Global Islam". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  57. ^ a b "Number of Muslim by country". nationmaster.com. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  58. ^ "10 Countries With the Largest Muslim Populations, 2010 and 2050date=2015-04-02". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. Archived from the original on 4 May 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  59. ^ "Book review: Russia's Muslim Heartlands reveals diverse population", The National, 21 April 2018, archived from the original on 14 January 2019, retrieved 13 January 2019
  60. ^ "Muslim Population by Country". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  61. ^ "Islam in Russia". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 11 January 2019. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  62. ^ "Main Factors Driving Population Growth". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 2 April 2015. Archived from the original on 1 December 2020. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  63. ^ Burke, Daniel (4 April 2015). "The world's fastest-growing religion is ..." CNN. Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
  64. ^ Lippman, Thomas W. (7 April 2008). "No God But God". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on 16 November 2020. Retrieved 24 September 2013. Islam is the youngest, the fastest growing, and in many ways the least complicated of the world's great monotheistic faiths. It is based on its own holy book, but it is also a direct descendant of Judaism and Christianity, incorporating some of the teachings of those religions—modifying some and rejecting others.
  65. ^ "Muslim" Archived 20 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary: /ˈmʌzlɪm/, /ˈmʊzlɪm/, /ˈmʊslɪm/; moslem Archived 15 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine /ˈmɒzləm/, /ˈmɒsləm/
  66. ^ Burns & Ralph, World Civilizations, 5th ed., p. 371.
  67. ^ Entry for šlm, p. 2067, Appendix B: Semitic Roots, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed., Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000, ISBN 0-618-08230-1.
  68. ^ Muslimah Archived 17 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. 2016
  69. ^ "Moslem or Muslim". Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 12 December 2021.
  70. ^ See for instance the second edition of A Dictionary of Modern English Usage by H. W. Fowler, revised by Ernest Gowers (Oxford, 1965).
  71. ^ Gibb, Sir Hamilton (1969). Mohammedanism: an historical survey. Oxford University Press. p. 1. Modern Muslims dislike the terms Mohammedan and Mohammedanism, which seem to them to carry the implication of worship of Mohammed, as Christian and Christianity imply the worship of Christ.
  72. ^ "Muslimite". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  73. ^ Abbas, Tahir (2005). Muslim Britain: Communities Under Pressure. pp. 50.
  74. ^ Commentary on the Qur'an, Razi, I, p. 432, Cairo, 1318/1900
  75. ^ From the article on the Pillars of Islam in Oxford Islamic Studies Online Archived 26 April 2017 at Wikiwix
  76. ^ Gordon, Matthew; Gordon, Professor of Middle East Islamic History Matthew S (2009). Matthew S. Gordon and Martin Palmer, Islam, Info base Publishing, 2009. p. 87. ISBN 9781438117782. Archived from the original on 20 March 2021. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  77. ^ Lindsay, p. 140–141
  78. ^ Cornell, p. 9
  79. ^ Michael Anthony Sells (1999). Approaching the Qur'an: The Early Revelations. White Cloud Press. p. 151. ISBN 9781883991265. Archived from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  80. ^ The Later Mughals by William Irvine p. 130
  81. ^ Hooker, Richard (14 July 1999). "arkan ad-din the five pillars of religion". United States: Washington State University. Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
  82. ^ "Religions". The World Factbook. United States: Central Intelligence Agency. 2010. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
  83. ^ "The Books of Islam". Yusuf / Cat Stevens. Archived from the original on 11 November 2021. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  84. ^ a b "Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population" (PDF). Pew Research Center. October 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 February 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017. Of the total Muslim population, 30%-40% are Shia Muslims and 60-70% are Sunni Muslims.
  85. ^ Esposito, John L. (15 October 2002). What everyone needs to know about Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0. and Esposito, John (2005). Islam : the straight path (Rev. 3rd ed., updated with new epilogue. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 2, 43. ISBN 978-0-19-518266-8.
  86. ^ "The Future of World Religions: Population Growth Projections, 2010–2050". Pew Research Center. 1 January 2020. Archived from the original on 22 February 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  87. ^ "The Changing Global Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center. 5 April 2017. Archived from the original on 6 April 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  88. ^ Burke, Daniel. "The fastest growing religion in the world is ..." CNN. Archived from the original on 11 May 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  89. ^ a b The Future of the Global Muslim Population (PDF) (Report). Pew Research Center. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  90. ^ a b c d "Religion and Education Around the World" (PDF). Pew Research Center. 13 December 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 19 December 2016.

External links

  • Ritual Prayer: Its Meaning and Manner – The Islamic Supreme Council of America.
  • Muhammad and the First Muslim Ummah – University of Chicago
  • Islamophobia Today Newspaper – An Islamophobia news clearing house
  • Sammy Aziz Rahmatti, Understanding and Countering Islamophobia
  • WikiSaurus:Muslim
  • "Understanding Islam". Susan Headden. 7 April 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
  • "Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents". Adherents.com. Archived from the original on 16 August 2000. Retrieved 3 July 2007.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Muslims&oldid=1122870162"