Northern Manitoba

Northern Manitoba
Flin Flon Wilderness and Outcrop.jpg
Island Lake First Nations Community.jpg
Churchill Seaport 1996-08-12.jpg
Hudson's Bay Company York Boats at Norway House by Walter J. Phillips, 1928.jpg
Northern Manitoba
Common definitions of Northern Manitoba
CountryCanada
ProvinceManitoba
Largest population centresThompson
Flin Flon
The Pas
Norway House
Churchill

Northern Manitoba (also known as NorMan or Nor-Man)[1][2][3] is a geographic and cultural region of the Canadian province of Manitoba. Originally encompassing a small square around the Red River Colony, the province was extended north to the 60th parallel in 1912.[4][5] The region's specific boundaries vary, as "northern" communities are considered to share certain social and geographic characteristics, regardless of latitude.

Geography

Different bodies of the Government of Manitoba provide different definitions of Northern Manitoba. The most detailed description is set out by Manitoba Indigenous and Northern Relations:

"Northern Manitoba" means all that part of Manitoba north of the northern boundary of Township 21 that is not included in

(a) a wildlife management area or refuge designated as such under The Wildlife Act;

(b) a provincial forest designated as such under The Forest Act;

(c) a provincial park designated as such under The Provincial Parks Act;

(d) a municipality or local government district; or

(e) any area prescribed by the Lieutenant Governor in Council as not being within northern Manitoba for the purposes of this Act.

— The Northern Affairs Act (2006)[6]

For marketing purposes, Travel Manitoba considers Northern Manitoba to encompass everything north of the 53rd parallel.[7] In contrast, the Look North economic development agency defines the North as consisting of Statistics Canada's Census Divisions 19, 21, 22, and 23.[8] There is also a defined territory of responsibility for the Northern Regional Health Authority, which excludes the town of Churchill.[9]

Regardless of extent, the vast majority of Northern Manitoba is undeveloped wilderness. It is situated on the Canadian Shield and includes the province's Hudson Bay coastline. Forestry, mining and hydro-electric development are significant economic drivers[10] with long-term consequences to the environment in the region.[11] The Indigenous population is significantly higher than in the rest of Manitoba.

The vast unincorporated areas of Manitoba not within any rural municipality, largely in Northern Manitoba.

Climate

Manitoba's northern region is mostly within in the subarctic climate zone (Köppen climate classification Dfc). It also has some Humid Continental (Koppen Dfb) areas in the south. This region features long and extremely cold winters and brief, warm summers with little precipitation.[12] Overnight temperatures as low as −40 °C (−40 °F) occur on several days each winter.[12]

Ecology

This region is covered by large extents of stunted Black Spruce dominant forest, with association of Tamarack. There are several mammals in the region including the Arctic fox, Beluga whale and Polar bear. The Polar bear has a significant denning area within the Wapusk National Park, from which annual bear migrations to Hudson Bay are made.[13]

Protected areas

A single national park, Wapusk National Park; a provincial forest, Cormorant Provincial Forest; several ecological reserves; and more than twenty provincial Parks are located in Northern Manitoba.

  • Zed Lake Provincial Park and Burge Lake Provincial Park are located near the town of Lynn Lake.[14]
  • Caribou River Provincial Park 59.5636°N 96.6611°W
  • Clearwater Lake Provincial Park 54.08305°N 101.078333°W
  • Grass River Provincial Park 54.6664°N 100.831°W
  • Little Limestone Lake Provincial Park 53°46′0″N 99°20′1″W / 53.76667°N 99.33361°W / 53.76667; -99.33361 (Little Limestone Lake Provincial Park)[15]
  • North Steeprock Lake Provincial Park 52°35′58″N 101°20′59″W / 52.59944°N 101.34972°W / 52.59944; -101.34972 (North Steeprock Lake Provincial Park)[16]
  • Nueltin Lake Provincial Park 59°37′57″N 99°34′42″W / 59.63250°N 99.57833°W / 59.63250; -99.57833 (Nueltin Lake Provincial Park)[17]
  • Numaykoos Lake Provincial Park 57.865277777778°N 95.963333333333°W
  • Sand Lakes Provincial Park 57.84222°N 98.53°W
  • Colvin Lake Provincial Park 59°41′2″N 101°33′40″W / 59.68389°N 101.56111°W / 59.68389; -101.56111 (Colvin Lake Provincial Park)[18]
  • Paint Lake Provincial Park The park is 22,740 ha (56,200 acres)[14] in size. It is located at 55°29′45″N 97°59′20″W / 55.49583°N 97.98889°W / 55.49583; -97.98889 (Paint Lake Provincial Park)[19]
  • Bakers Narrows Provincial Park The park is 145.12 ha (358.6 acres)[14] in size. It is located at 54°40′16″N 101°40′30″W / 54.67111°N 101.67500°W / 54.67111; -101.67500 (Bakers Narrows Provincial Park)[20]
  • Bell Lake Provincial Park The park is 3.96 ha (9.8 acres)[14] in size. It is located at 52°32′30″N 101°14′29″W / 52.54167°N 101.24139°W / 52.54167; -101.24139 (Bell Lake Provincial Park)[21]
  • Grand Rapids Provincial Park is located at 53°8′31″N 99°17′6″W / 53.14194°N 99.28500°W / 53.14194; -99.28500 (Grand Rapids Provincial Park)[22]
  • Neso Lake Provincial Park The park is 1.33 ha (3.3 acres)[14] in size. It is located at 54°39′26″N 101°32′49″W / 54.65722°N 101.54694°W / 54.65722; -101.54694 (Neso Lake Provincial Park)[23]
  • Overflowing River Provincial Park The park is 13.11 ha (32.4 acres)[14] in size. It is located at 53°8′23″N 101°5′15″W / 53.13972°N 101.08750°W / 53.13972; -101.08750 (Overflowing River Provincial Park)[24]
  • Pisew Falls Provincial Park The park is 92.86 ha (229.5 acres)[14] in size. It is located at 55°11′52″N 98°23′48″W / 55.19778°N 98.39667°W / 55.19778; -98.39667 (Pisew Falls Provincial Park)[25]
  • Red Deer River Provincial Park The park is 1 ha (2.5 acres)[14] in size. It is located at 52°53′28″N 101°1′32″W / 52.89111°N 101.02556°W / 52.89111; -101.02556 (Red Deer River Provincial Park)[26]
  • Rocky Lake Provincial Park The park is 23.94 ha (59.2 acres)[14] in size. It is located at 54°10′31″N 101°23′30″W / 54.17528°N 101.39167°W / 54.17528; -101.39167 (Rocky Lake Provincial Park)[27]
  • Sasagiu Rapids Provincial Park The park is 99.6 ha (246 acres)[14] in size. It is located at 55°8′55″N 98°27′9″W / 55.14861°N 98.45250°W / 55.14861; -98.45250 (Sasagiu Rapids Provincial Park)[28]
  • Twin Lakes Provincial Park The park is 1.02 ha (2.5 acres)[14] in size. It is located at 54°39′26″N 101°28′38″W / 54.65722°N 101.47722°W / 54.65722; -101.47722 (Twin Lakes Provincial Park)[29]
  • Wekusko Falls Provincial Park The park is 88.23 ha (218.0 acres)[14] in size. It is located at 54°57′35″N 99°58′19″W / 54.95972°N 99.97194°W / 54.95972; -99.97194 (Wekusko Falls Provincial Park)[30]

Economy

The major economic activities are mining and tourism.

Demographics

The region is composed of four census divisions: 19 and 21–23.[31] Its total population according to the 2016 Census of population was 89,637, 7.0% of Manitoba's total population.[32] The largest municipality is the city of Thompson. Other major population centres include the city of Flin Flon and the town of The Pas. Indian reserves comprise more than 49% of the region's population. There are 54 reserves with a total population of 40,572. The largest of these are Norway House 17 and Peguis 1B.

Communities

The following communities are within the northern Manitoba:[33]

Infrastructure

Northern Manitoba is accessed by two Provincial Trunk Highways: PTH 10 to Flin Flon and PTH 6 to Thompson, as well as a network of smaller roads.[34] These are extended in the winter by an additional network of winter roads.[35]

Northern Manitoba is served by a single rail line running north from Winnipeg, via eastern Saskatchewan. The Canadian National Railway operates the line as far as The Pas.[36] At The Pas, the line splits into branches. The Keewatin Railway Company owns the branch connecting The Pas to Pukatawagan, while the Hudson Bay Railway operates a cargo-only branch to Flin Flon and a mixed-use branch connecting to Churchill. All rail service between The Pas and Churchill was suspended from 2017 to 2018 due to a washout of tracks north of Amery. Via Rail passenger service operates on these lines as part of its Winnipeg–Churchill service.

Air transport provides access to many northern communities with 58 airfields in the region.[37] Calm Air and Perimeter Aviation provide scheduled passenger service into larger northern communities.[38][39] Chartered bush planes land on lakes when airfields are not available.[40]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Regions". Mood Disorders Association of Manitoba. Retrieved 2021-06-03.
  2. ^ https://www.brandonu.ca/rdi/files/2016/01/NORMAN.Regional.Health.Authority.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  3. ^ "Norman Region | Special Olympics Manitoba". www.specialolympics.mb.ca. Retrieved 2021-06-03.
  4. ^ "Historical boundaries of Canada". canada.ca. Government of Canada. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  5. ^ Kemp, Douglas (April 1956). "From Postage Stamp to Keystone". Manitoba Pageant. Manitoba Historical Society.
  6. ^ "The Northern Affairs Act". Government of Manitoba. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  7. ^ "Manitoba North". Travel Manitoba. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  8. ^ "Northern Manitoba Interactive Map". Look North. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  9. ^ Manitoba, Manitoba Health, Seniors and Active Living | Province of. "Regional Health Authorities in Manitoba". Province of Manitoba - Health, Seniors and Active Living. Retrieved 2021-04-12.
  10. ^ Chuchman, George (1992). "People and Land in Northern Manitoba:The Economics of Large-Scale Resource Development in Northern Manitoba". University of Manitoba Anthropology Papers. 32. ISSN 0227-0072. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  11. ^ Lithman, Yngve Georg (1992). "People and Land in Northern Manitoba:Introduction". University of Manitoba Anthropology Papers. 32. ISSN 0227-0072. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  12. ^ a b Ritter, Michael E (2006). "Subarctic Climate". The Physical Environment. Archived from the original on 25 May 2008. Retrieved 7 August 2007.
  13. ^ C. Michael Hogan (2008). "Polar Bear: Ursus maritimus". Globaltwitcher.com. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l A System Plan for Manitoba's Provincial Parks (PDF) (March 1998 ed.). Winnipeg: Manitoba Conservation, Parks and Natural Areas Branch. 1997. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 July 2017. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  15. ^ "Little Limestone Lake Provincial Park". Geographical Place Names. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  16. ^ "North Steeprock Lake Provincial Park". Geographical Place Names. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  17. ^ "Nueltin Lake Provincial Park". Geographical Place Names. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  18. ^ "Colvin Lake Provincial Park". Geographical Place Names. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  19. ^ "Paint Lake Provincial Park". Geographical Place Names. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  20. ^ "Bakers Narrows Provincial Park". Geographical Place Names. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  21. ^ "Bell Lake Provincial Park". Geographical Place Names. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  22. ^ "Grand Rapids Provincial Park". Geographical Place Names. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  23. ^ "Neso Lake Provincial Park". Geographical Place Names. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  24. ^ "Overflowing River Provincial Park". Geographical Place Names. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  25. ^ "Pisew Falls Provincial Park". Geographical Place Names. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  26. ^ "Red Deer River Provincial Park". Geographical Place Names. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  27. ^ "Rocky Lake Provincial Park". Geographical Place Names. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  28. ^ "Sasagiu Rapids Provincial Park". Geographical Place Names. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  29. ^ "Twin Lakes Provincial Park". Geographical Place Names. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  30. ^ "Wekusko Falls Provincial Park". Geographical Place Names. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  31. ^ Northern Manitoba: A Benchmark Report. Thompson: Northern Manitoba Economic Development Commission. 1993. The four census divisions numbered 19, 21, 22 and 23 are generally considered to make up northern Manitoba.
  32. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census divisions, 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data (Manitoba)". Statistics Canada. 2016.
  33. ^ "Manitoba Regional Profiles: Northern Region". Government of Manitoba. 2009.
  34. ^ "Official Highway Map". Province of Manitoba. Manitoba Infrastructure. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  35. ^ "Winter Roads in Manitoba". Province of Manitoba. Manitoba Infrastructure. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  36. ^ "Canadian Rail Atlas: Manitoba" (PDF). Proximity. Railway Association of Canada. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  37. ^ "Investing in Northern Manitoba:Transportation". Province of Manitoba. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  38. ^ "History". Calm Air. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  39. ^ "Destinations Map". www.perimeter.ca. Perimeter Aviation.
  40. ^ Weir, T.R. "Manitoba". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 29 October 2017.

External links

  • Lithman, Yngve Georg; Riewe, Rick R.; Wiest, Raymond E.; Wrigley, Robert E. (1992). "People and Land in Northern Manitoba". University of Manitoba Anthropology Papers. 32. ISSN 0227-0072. Retrieved 21 October 2017.

Coordinates: 55°10′N 95°30′W / 55.167°N 95.500°W / 55.167; -95.500

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