Group of 77

Group of 77
AbbreviationG77
Named afterNumber of founding Member States
Formation15 June 1964; 58 years ago (1964-06-15)
Founded atGeneva, Switzerland
TypeIntergovernmental voting bloc
PurposeTo provide a forum for developing nations to promote their economic interests
HeadquartersUnited Nations Headquarters
MethodsCollective bargaining, lobbying, reports and studies
FieldsInternational politics
Membership (2019)
134 Member States
Chair of the Group of 77
 Cuba
AffiliationsUnited Nations
WebsiteG77.org

The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations (UN) is a coalition of 134 developing countries, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.[1] There were 77 founding members of the organization headquartered in Geneva, but it has since expanded to 134 member countries.[a][2] Cuba holds its chairmanship for 2023, succeeding Pakistan.

The group was founded on 15 June 1964, by 77 non-aligned nations in the "Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries" issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).[3] The first major meeting was in Algiers in 1967, where the Charter of Algiers was adopted and the basis for permanent institutional structures was begun under the leadership of Raul Prebisch who had previously worked at ECLA.[4] There are Chapters of the Group of 77 in Geneva (UN), Rome (FAO), Vienna (UNIDO), Paris (UNESCO), Nairobi (UNEP) and the Group of 24 in Washington, D.C. (International Monetary Fund and World Bank).

Policies

The group was credited with a common stance against apartheid and for supporting global disarmament.[5] It has been supportive of the New International Economic Order.[5][6] It has been subject to criticism for its lacklustre support, or outright opposition, to pro-environmental initiatives, which the group considers secondary to economic development and poverty eradication initiatives.[5][7][8]

Members

Group of 77 countries as of 2013

As of 2020, the group comprises all of the UN member states (along with the U.N. observer State of Palestine), excluding the following countries:

  1. Members of the Council of Europe, except for Azerbaijan.
  2. Members of the Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Area, except for Tajikistan.
  3. Members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, except for its three South American members.
  4. Two Pacific microstates: Palau and Tuvalu.
  5. Five Asian states: Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan.

Current founding members[9]

Other current members

Former members

  1.  New Zealand signed the original "Joint Declaration of the Developing Countries" in October 1963 but pulled out of the group before the formation of the G77 in 1964 (it joined the OECD in 1973).
  2.  Mexico was a founding member but left the Group after joining the OECD in 1994. It had presided over the group in 1973–1974, 1983–1984; however, it is still a member of G-24.
  3.  South Korea was a founding member but left the Group after joining the OECD in 1996.
  4.  Yugoslavia was a founding member; by the late 1990s, it was still listed on the membership list, but it was noted that it "cannot participate in the activities of G77." It was removed from the list in late 2003.[citation needed] It had presided over the group from 1985 to 1986. Bosnia and Herzegovina was the last former Yugoslavian state to be a member of the G77 and is no longer a member as of 2019.
  5.  Cyprus was a founding member but was no longer listed on the official membership list after it acceded to the European Union in 2004.
  6.  Malta was admitted to the Group in 1976 but was no longer listed on the official membership list after it acceded to the European Union in 2004.
  7.  Palau joined the Group in 2002 but withdrew in 2004, having decided that it could best pursue its environmental interests through the Alliance of Small Island States.
  8.  Romania was classed as a Latin American country for the purposes of the G77, having joined in 1976.[10][11] The G77 was divided into geographical regions, and because there was technically no European area, Romania was placed under the umbrella of Latin America.[12] Romania left the G77 following its accession to the European Union.[13]

China

The Group of 77 lists China as one of its members.[2] The Chinese government provides consistent political support to the G77 and has made financial contributions to the Group since 1994, but it does not consider itself to be a member.[14] As a result, official statements of the G77 are delivered in the name of The Group of 77 and China or G77+China.[15]

Presiding countries

The following is the chain of succession of the chairmanship of the G77:[16]

Presiding countries of the G77 since 1970. Colors show the number of times a country has held the position. Gray = never, Yellow = once, Orange = twice, Red = three times
Presiding country Year
 India 1970–71
 Peru 1971–72
 Egypt 1972–73
 Iran 1973–74
 Mexico 1974–75
 Madagascar 1975–76
 Pakistan 1976–77
 Jamaica 1977–78
 Tunisia 1978–79
 India 1979–80
 Venezuela 1980–81
 Algeria 1981–82
 Bangladesh 1982–83
 Mexico 1983–84
 Egypt 1984–85
 Yugoslavia 1985–86
 Guatemala 1987
 Tunisia 1988
 Malaysia 1989
 Bolivia 1990
 Ghana 1991
 Pakistan 1992
 Colombia 1993
 Algeria 1994
 Philippines 1995
 Costa Rica 1996
 Tanzania 1997
 Indonesia 1998
 Guyana 1999
 Nigeria 2000
 Iran 2001
 Venezuela 2002
 Morocco 2003
 Qatar 2004
 Jamaica 2005
 South Africa 2006
 Pakistan 2007
 Antigua and Barbuda 2008
 Sudan 2009
 Yemen 2010
 Argentina 2011
 Algeria 2012
 Fiji 2013
 Bolivia 2014
 South Africa 2015
 Thailand 2016
 Ecuador 2017
 Egypt 2018
 Palestine 2019
 Guyana 2020
 Guinea 2021
 Pakistan 2022
 Cuba 2023

Group of 24

G-24 countries.
  Member nations
  Observer nations

The Group of 24 (G-24) is a chapter of the G-77 that was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues and to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters. Every member of the G-24, except for Mexico, is also a member of the G77.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ China is officially considered as a member by the organization, yet not by China itself.
  2. ^ Joined as Dahomey.
  3. ^ Joined as Upper Volta.
  4. ^ Joined as the United Arab Republic.
  5. ^ Joined as Burma.
  6. ^ Joined as Ceylon.
  7. ^ Joined as the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.
  8. ^ Officially considered as a member by the organization, yet not by China itself
  9. ^ Joined as Swaziland.

References

  1. ^ About the Group of 77:Aims
  2. ^ a b "The Member States of the Group of 77". The Group of 77 at the United Nations.
  3. ^ About the Group of 77:Establishment
  4. ^ Prebisch, Raúl; Prebisch, Raul (October 1986). "El desarrollo económico de la América Latina y algunos de sus principales problemas". Desarrollo Económico. 26 (103): 479. doi:10.2307/3466824. hdl:11362/10183. ISSN 0046-001X. JSTOR 3466824.
  5. ^ a b c Satpathy (2005). Environment Management. Excel Books India. p. 30. ISBN 978-81-7446-458-3.
  6. ^ Fitzmaurice, Malgosia; Ong, David M.; Merkouris, Panos (2010). Research Handbook on International Environmental Law. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 567–. ISBN 978-1-84980-726-5.
  7. ^ Oosthoek, Jan; Gills, Barry K. (31 October 2013). The Globalization of Environmental Crisis. Taylor & Francis. pp. 93–. ISBN 978-1-317-96895-5.
  8. ^ Schiffman, Howard S. (3 May 2011). Green Issues and Debates: An A-to-Z Guide. SAGE Publications. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-1-4522-6626-8.
  9. ^ Signed the "JOINT DECLARATION OF THE SEVENTY-SEVEN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES".
  10. ^ James Mark, Bogdan C. Iacob, Tobias Rupprecht, Ljubica Spaskovska, Cambridge University Press, 29 aug. 2019, 1989 A Global History of Eastern Europe, p. 125
  11. ^ James Mark, Artemy M. Kalinovsky, Steffi Marung, Indiana University Press, 11 feb. 2020, Alternative Globalizations: Eastern Europe and the Postcolonial World, p. 43
  12. ^ United Nations University Press, 1995, State, Society and the UN System: Changing Perspectives on Multilateralism, p. 152
  13. ^ Bertrand Badie, Springer, Aug 21, 2012, Diplomacy of Connivance
  14. ^ "七十七国集团(Group of 77, G77)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. July 2016. 中国不是77国集团成员,但一贯支持其正义主张和合理要求,与其保持良好合作关系,在经社领域一般以"77国集团加中国"的模式表达共同立场。中国自1994年开始每年向其捐款,2014年起捐款每年5万美元。
  15. ^ "Statement on behalf of the Group of 77 and China by HE Mr. Horacio Sevilla Borja, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Ecuador to the United Nations, at the opening session of the 4th Prepcom established by General Assembly resolution 69/292: Development of an international legally binding instrument under UNCLOS on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (New York, 10 July 2017)". www.g77.org. Mr. Chair, I have the honour to deliver this statement on behalf of the Group of 77 and China.
  16. ^ "Presiding Countries of the Group of 77 in New York". The Group of 77 at the United Nations.

External links

  • Official website
  • Official website of the Group of 24
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