Beruniy

Beruniy
Beruniy/Беруний
City
Beruniy is located in Uzbekistan
Beruniy
Beruniy
Location in Uzbekistan
Beruniy is located in West and Central Asia
Beruniy
Beruniy
Beruniy (West and Central Asia)
Coordinates: 41°41′N 60°45′E / 41.683°N 60.750°E / 41.683; 60.750Coordinates: 41°41′N 60°45′E / 41.683°N 60.750°E / 41.683; 60.750
Country Uzbekistan
Autonomous RepublicKarakalpakstan
DistrictBeruniy District
City status1962
Population
 (2016)
 • Total55,900
Time zoneUTC+5 (UZT)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+5 (not observed)
Postal code
230200[1]
Area code+998 6157[1]

Beruniy (Uzbek: Beruniy/Беруний; Karakalpak: Biruniy/Бируний; Russian: Беруни) is a city in the autonomous republic of Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan. It is located on the northern bank of the Amu Darya near Uzbekistan's border with Turkmenistan. The city is the seat of Beruniy District.[2] Historically, Beruniy was known as Kath (Arabic/Persian: کاث; modern Uzbek: Kos) and served as the capital of Khwarazm during the Afrighid dynasty. In 1957, it was renamed "Beruniy" in honor of the medieval scholar and polymath Al-Biruni who was born here. Beruniy received city status in 1962.

Beruniy is an important industrial city in Karakalpakstan. It is home to an asphalt plant, a brick factory, a cotton plant, and a shoe factory. There are also many textile factories.

History

Beruniy was the capital of Khwarezm from the time of the Afrighid dynasty around 305 CE, replacing the old capital of Toprak-Kala.[3][4] At that time it was known as Kath (modern Uzbek: Kos). The city underwent many name changes, including Fil and Shobboz. In 1957, it was renamed Beruniy in honor of the scholar and polymath Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī who was born and raised in the town.[3][4]

Beruniy received the status of a city in 1962.[3][5] In 1969, Amu Darya River overflew its banks.[6][7] As a result, several buildings in Beruniy were badly damaged. However, they were quickly repaired.

Geography

Beruniy is located on the northern bank of the Amu Darya near Uzbekistan's border with Turkmenistan. By road it is 936 kilometres (582 mi) west of Tashkent and 55.6 kilometres (34.5 mi) northeast of Khiva.[8]

Climate

Beruniy has a cold desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWk) with sharp continental influences. It has cold winters and hot summers.[4] The average July temperature is 38 °C (100 °F). The mean temperature in January is −15 – −20 °C (5 – −4 °F).

Climate data for Beruniy
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C 2 6 13 22 29 35 36 35 28 21 11 4 20
Average low °C −7 −4 1 9 15 20 22 19 13 6 0 −5 7
Average precipitation mm 8.3 7.8 15.2 15.1 10.1 3.1 0.9 1.8 1.9 12.9 13 19.6 109.7
Average high °F 36 43 55 72 84 95 97 95 82 70 52 39 68
Average low °F 19 25 34 48 59 68 72 66 55 43 32 23 45
Average precipitation inches 0.33 0.31 0.60 0.59 0.40 0.12 0.04 0.07 0.07 0.51 0.5 0.77 4.31
Source: [9]

Demographics

In 2016, Beruniy had a population of 55,900.[10]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
196818,000—    
197023,000+13.04%
200047,300+2.43%
200450,700+1.75%
201655,900+0.82%
Source: [11][3][4][12][10]

Economy

Beruniy is an important industrial city in Karakalpakstan.[4] It is home to an asphalt plant, a brick factory, a cotton plant, and a shoe factory. There are also many textile factories.

Education

Beruniy is home to 14 secondary schools,[4] a music school and an athletic school.

References

  1. ^ a b "Beruni". SPR (in Russian). Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  2. ^ "Classification system of territorial units of the Republic of Uzbekistan" (in Uzbek and Russian). The State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on statistics. July 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d Moʻminov, Ibrohim, ed. (1972). "Beruniy". Oʻzbek sovet ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Vol. 2. Toshkent. p. 188.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Beruniy". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 2000–2005.
  5. ^ "Beruniy". Ensiklopedik lugʻat (in Uzbek). Vol. 1. Toshkent: Oʻzbek sovet ensiklopediyasi. 1988. p. 96. 5-89890-002-0.
  6. ^ Moʻminov, Ibrohim, ed. (1971). "Amudaryo". Oʻzbek sovet ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Vol. 1. Toshkent. p. 328.
  7. ^ Iskandar, Abdulla (9 February 2008). "Fears over Amu Darya's rage" (in Uzbek). RFE/RL's Uzbek Service. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  8. ^ "Beruni". Google Maps. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  9. ^ "Average high/low temperature for Beruni, Uzbekistan". World Weather Online. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  10. ^ a b Soliyev, A.S. Shaharlar geografiyasi [Geography of cities] (PDF) (in Uzbek). p. 143.
  11. ^ "Beruni (City in Karakalpak ASSR)" (in Russian). Akademik. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  12. ^ "Beruniy City" (in Russian). Goroda.uz. Archived from the original on 20 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
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