University College London

University College London
University College London logo.svg
Official logo since 2005
Latin: Collegium Universitatis Londinensis[1]
Other name
Former names
London University (1826–1836)
University College, London (1836–1907)
University of London, University College (1907–1976)
University College London (1977–2005; remains legal name)
MottoLatin: Cuncti adsint meritaeque expectent praemia palmae
Motto in English
Let all come who by merit deserve the most reward
TypePublic research university
Established1826; 197 years ago (1826)
Endowment£158.8 million (2022)[2]
Budget£1.656 billion (2021/22)[2]
ChancellorAnne, Princess Royal
(as Chancellor of the University of London)
ProvostMichael Spence
Chair of the councilVictor L. L. Chu[3]
Academic staff
9,100 (2020/21)[4]
Administrative staff
5,855 (2020/21)[4]
Students41,095 (2019/20)[5]
Undergraduates19,715 (2019/20)[5]
Postgraduates21,380 (2019/20)[5]
London, England

51°31′29″N 00°08′01″W / 51.52472°N 0.13361°W / 51.52472; -0.13361Coordinates: 51°31′29″N 00°08′01″W / 51.52472°N 0.13361°W / 51.52472; -0.13361
VisitorSir Geoffrey Vos
(as Master of the Rolls ex officio)[6]
ColoursPurple and blue celeste[7]

University College London, which operates as UCL,[8][9][10] is a public research university in London, United Kingdom. It is a member institution of the federal University of London, and is the second-largest university in the United Kingdom by total enrolment[5] and the largest by postgraduate enrolment.

Established in 1826, as London University, by founders inspired by the radical ideas of Jeremy Bentham, UCL was the first university institution to be established in London, and the first in England to be entirely secular and to admit students regardless of their religion.[11][12] UCL has made the contested claim to being the third-oldest university in England[13][note 1] and was among the first university colleges to admit women in 1878, two years after University College, Bristol.[14] In 1836, UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London, and was granted a royal charter in the same year, incorporating the college. It has grown through mergers, including with the Institute of Ophthalmology (in 1995), the Institute of Neurology (in 1997), the Royal Free Hospital Medical School (in 1998), the Eastman Dental Institute (in 1999), the School of Slavonic and East European Studies (in 1999), the School of Pharmacy (in 2012) and the Institute of Education (in 2014).

UCL has its main campus in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals elsewhere in central London and satellite campuses at Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in Stratford, East London and in Doha, Qatar. UCL is organised into 11 constituent faculties, within which there are over 100 departments, institutes and research centres. UCL operates several museums and collections in a wide range of fields, including the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology and the Grant Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, and administers the annual Orwell Prize in political writing. In 2021/22, UCL had a total income of £1.75 billion, of which £525 million was from research grants and contracts.[2] The university generates around £10 billion annually for the UK economy, primarily through the spread of its research and knowledge (£4 billion) and the impact of its own spending (£3 billion).[15]

UCL is a member of numerous academic organisations, including the Russell Group and the League of European Research Universities, and is part of UCL Partners, the world's largest academic health science centre.[16] It is considered part of the "golden triangle" of research-intensive universities in southeast England.[17] UCL has publishing and commercial activities including UCL Press, UCL Business and UCL Consultants.

UCL has many notable alumni, including the founder of Mauritius, the first Prime Minister of Japan, and one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. UCL academics discovered five of the naturally occurring noble gases, discovered hormones, invented the vacuum tube, and made several foundational advances in modern statistics. As of 2022, 30 Nobel Prize winners[18] and three Fields medallists[19] have been affiliated with UCL as alumni, faculty or researchers.


1826 to 1836 – London University

The London University as drawn by Thomas Hosmer Shepherd and published in 1827–1828 (now the UCL Main Building)

UCL was founded on 11 February 1826 as an alternative to the Anglican universities of Oxford and Cambridge. It took the form of a joint stock company, with shares sold for £100 to proprietors, under the name of London University, although without legal recognition as a university and the associated right to award degrees.[20][21][22] London University's first warden was Leonard Horner, who was the first scientist to head a British university.[23]

Henry Tonks' 1923 mural The Four Founders of UCL

Despite the commonly held belief that the philosopher Jeremy Bentham was the founder of UCL, his direct involvement was limited to the purchase of share No. 633, at a cost of £100 paid in nine instalments between December 1826 and January 1830. In 1828, he did nominate a friend to sit on the council, and in 1827, attempted to have his disciple John Bowring appointed as the first professor of English or History, but on both occasions his candidates were unsuccessful.[24] However, Bentham is commonly regarded as the "spiritual father" of UCL, as his ideas on education and society were influential with the institution's founders, particularly James Mill (1773–1836) and Henry Brougham (1778–1868).[25]

In 1828, the chair of political economy at London University was created, with John Ramsay McCulloch as the first incumbent.[26] In 1829, the university appointed the first professor of English in England, although the course concentrated on linguistics and the modern teaching of English – studying English literature – was introduced by King's College London in 1831.[27] In 1830, London University founded the London University School, which would later become University College School.[citation needed] In 1833, the university appointed Alexander Maconochie, secretary to the Royal Geographical Society, as the first professor of geography in Britain.[28][29] Classes in medicine began at the opening of the college in 1828, and in 1834 University College Hospital (originally North London Hospital) opened as a teaching hospital for these classes, which were organised into a faculty of medicine in 1836.[30]

1836 to 1900 – University College, London

After almost a decade of attempting to win recognition as a university and the right to award degrees, including an Address to the Crown from the House of Commons, the proprietors of London University accepted the government's proposal to establish the University of London as an independent examining body, accepting the status of a college for their institution.[31] As a result, the proprietors of London University were incorporated by royal charter under the name University College, London on 28 November 1836. On the same day, the University of London was created by royal charter as a degree-awarding examining board for students from affiliated schools and colleges, with University College and King's College, London being named in the charter as the first two affiliates.[31][32] The first students from UCL and King's matriculated as undergraduates in 1838 and the first degrees were awarded to students of the two colleges in 1839.[33]

There had been an intention to establish a course in engineering at the college's opening but no professor was appointed until 1840 or 1841, after engineering courses had started at Durham University (1837) and King's College London (1838).[34][35]

The Slade School of Fine Art was founded as part of University College in 1871, following a bequest from Felix Slade.[36]

In 1878, the University of London gained a supplemental charter making it the first British university to be allowed to award degrees to women. The same year, UCL admitted women to the faculties of Arts and Law and of Science, although women remained barred from the faculties of Engineering and of Medicine (with the exception of courses on public health and hygiene).[37][38] While UCL claims to have been "1st in England to welcome women to university education",[39][40] its admission of women in 1878 came after the establishment of women's colleges such as Bedford College, London (1849) and Girton College, Cambridge (1869), as well as the admission of women alongside men at the University of Bristol from its foundation (as University College Bristol) in 1876.[41] Armstrong College (a predecessor institution of Newcastle University) also allowed women to enter from its foundation in 1871, although none actually enrolled until 1881,[42] Women were finally admitted to medical studies during the First World War in 1917, although limitations were placed on their numbers after the war ended.[43]

William Ramsay is regarded as the "father of noble gases".

In 1898, Sir William Ramsay discovered the elements krypton, neon and xenon whilst professor of chemistry at UCL.[44][45]

A new royal charter granted to the University of London in 1858 effectively removed the affiliation of colleges to the university. Dissatisfaction from the colleges and the desire for a "teaching university" in London led to royal commissions that reported in 1888 and 1892 and the reconstitution of the university under the University of London Act 1898.[31]

1900 to 1976 – University of London, University College

In 1900, the University of London was reconstituted as a federal university with new statutes drawn up under the University of London Act 1898. UCL, along with a number of other colleges in London, became a school of the University of London. While most of the constituent institutions retained their autonomy, UCL chose to be merged into the university in 1907 under the University College London (Transfer) Act 1905 and surrendered its legal independence in return for gaining a greater say in the running of the university.[46] Its formal name became University of London, University College, although for most informal and external purposes the name "University College, London" (or the initialism UCL) was still used. As of 2022, it remains listed as "University of London: University College" on US Federal Student Aid applications.[47]

1900 also saw the decision to appoint a salaried head of the college. The first incumbent was Carey Foster, who served as Principal (as the post was originally titled) from 1900 to 1904. He was succeeded by Gregory Foster (no relation), and in 1906 the title was changed to Provost to avoid confusion with the principal of the University of London. Gregory Foster remained in post until 1929.[48][49][50] In 1906, the Cruciform Building was opened as the new home for University College Hospital.[51] UCL opened the first department and chair of chemical engineering in the UK, funded by the Ramsay Memorial Fund in 1923.[52]

As it acknowledged and apologised for in 2021,[53] UCL played "a fundamental role in the development, propagation and legitimisation of eugenics"[54] during the first half of the 20th century. Among the prominent eugenicists associated with UCL were major donor Francis Galton, who coined the term "eugenics", and Karl Pearson, first Galton Professor of Eugenics at UCL.[55] An annual eugenics conference, the London Conference on Intelligence was held at UCL as an external paid event between 2014 and 2017.[56] An enquiry in 2018 found that the organiser, an honorary lecture, did not correctly follow the room booking procedure, including claiming that no controversial topics would be discussed, leaving the university unaware of the nature of the conference.[57] Due to its failure to address the situation on campus at the time, a majority of the authors of the 2020 report on eugenics at UCL that led to the university's apology refused to sign the final report.[58] The Galton Lecture Theatre, Pearson Lecture Theatre and Pearson Building were all renamed in 2020.[58]

In 1911, UCL received an anonymous donation of £30,000 for a building for its school of architecture. In 1919 the donor consented to being named as Herbert Bartlett and the school was renamed in his honour.[59]

UCL sustained considerable bomb damage during the Second World War, including the complete destruction of the Great Hall, the Carey Foster Physics Laboratory and the Ramsay Laboratory. Fires gutted the library and destroyed much of the main building, including the dome. The departments were dispersed across the country to Aberystwyth, Bangor, Gwynedd, Cambridge, Oxford, Rothamsted near Harpenden, Hertfordshire and Sheffield, with the administration at Stanstead Bury near Ware, Hertfordshire.[60] The first UCL student newspaper, Pi, was founded in 1946.[61] The Institute of Jewish Studies relocated from Manchester to UCL in 1959.[62]

The Mullard Space Science Laboratory was established in 1967.[63] In 1973, Peter Kirstein's research group at UCL became one of two international nodes on the ARPANET.[64][65] UCL's interconnection between the ARPANET and early British academic networks was the first international resource sharing network.[66] UCL adopted TCP/IP in 1982, a year ahead of ARPANET, and played a significant role in the very earliest experimental Internet work.[67][68]

The college's senior common room, the Housman Room, remained men-only until 1969. After two unsuccessful attempts, a motion was passed that ended segregation by sex at UCL. This was achieved by Brian Woledge (Fielden Professor of French at UCL from 1939 to 1971) and David Colquhoun, at that time a young lecturer in pharmacology.[69]

1976 to 2005 – University College London

In 1976, a new charter restored UCL's legal independence, although still without the power to award its own degrees.[70][71] Under this charter the college became formally known as University College London. This name abandoned the comma used in its earlier name of "University College, London".

In 1993, a reorganisation of the University of London meant that UCL and other colleges gained direct access to government funding and the right to confer University of London degrees themselves. This led to UCL being regarded as a de facto university in its own right.[72][73]

Mergers were a major feature of this period of UCL's history. In 1986, the college merged with the Institute of Archaeology.[74] In 1988, UCL merged with the Institute of Laryngology & Otology, the Institute of Orthopaedics, the Institute of Urology & Nephrology and Middlesex Hospital Medical School.[74] Middlesex and University College hospitals, together with the Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital and the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, formed the University College London Hospitals NHS Trust in 1994.[75]

Mergers continued in the 1990s, with the Institute of Child Health joining in 1995, the School of Podiatry in 1996[76] and the Institute of Neurology in 1997.[74][77] In 1998, UCL merged with the Royal Free Hospital Medical School to create the Royal Free and University College Medical School (renamed the UCL Medical School in October 2008). In 1999, UCL merged with the School of Slavonic and East European Studies[78][79] and the Eastman Dental Institute.[74]

Proposals for a merger between UCL and Imperial College London were announced in 2002.[80] The proposal provoked strong opposition from UCL teaching staff and students and the AUT union, which criticised "the indecent haste and lack of consultation", leading to its abandonment by UCL provost Sir Derek Roberts.[81] The blogs that helped to stop the merger are preserved, though some of the links are now broken: see David Colquhoun's blog[82] and the Save UCL blog,[83] which was run by David Conway, a postgraduate student in the department of Hebrew and Jewish studies.

From 2005

The UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies building, which was opened in 2005

UCL was granted its own taught and research degree awarding powers in 2005,and all UCL students registered from 2007/08 qualified with UCL degrees. The same year, UCL adopted a new corporate branding under which the name University College London was replaced by the initialism UCL in all external communications.[84]

The Torrens Building in Adelaide, South Australia, which housed UCL Australia from 2008 to 2017

UCL established the UCL School of Energy & Resources in Adelaide, Australia, in 2008 as the first campus of a British university in the country.[85] The school was based in the historic Torrens Building in Victoria Square and its creation followed negotiations between UCL Vice Provost Michael Worton and South Australian Premier Mike Rann.[86] In 2011, the mining company BHP Billiton agreed to donate AU$10 million to UCL to fund the establishment of two energy institutes – the Energy Policy Institute, based in Adelaide, and the Institute for Sustainable Resources, based in London.[87] The UCL Australia satellite campus closed in December 2017, with academic staff and student transferring to the University of South Australia.[88] As of 2019 the University of South Australia and UCL are offering a joint masters qualification in Science in Data Science (international).[89]

In 2011, UCL announced plans for a £500 million investment in its main Bloomsbury campus over 10 years, as well as the establishment of a new 23-acre campus (UCL East) next to the Olympic Park in Stratford in the East End of London.[90] The plans were revised in 2014 to 11 acres with up to 125,000m2 of space on Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park.[91] UCL East was conceived as part of plans to transform the Olympic Park into a cultural and innovation hub, where UCL will open its first school of design, a centre of experimental engineering and a museum of the future, along with a living space for students.[92] In 2018, UCL opened UCL at Here East, at the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, offering courses jointly between the Bartlett Faculty of the Built Environment and the Faculty of Engineering Sciences and a variety of undergraduate and postgraduate master's degrees.[93][94] The first undergraduate students, on a new Engineering and Architectural Design MEng, started in September 2018.[95] One Pool Street, the first building on the campus, opened in November 2022, with the opening of Marshfield, completing the first phase of UCL East, expected in autumn 2023.[96]

UCL continued to grow through mergers with smaller colleges in the University of London. On 1 January 2012 the School of Pharmacy, University of London merged with UCL, becoming the UCL School of Pharmacy within the Faculty of Life Sciences.[97][98] UCL and the Institute of Education formed a strategic alliance in October 2012,[99] followed by a full merger in December 2014.[100][101][102][103]

New Student Centre on Gordon Street

In October 2017, UCL's council voted to apply for university status while remaining part of the University of London.[104] UCL's application to become a university was subject to Parliament passing a bill to amend the statutes of the University of London,[105][106] which received royal assent on 20 December 2018.[107] Following approval of UCL's application for university title from the Office for Students, the UCL Council voted to submit a petition for a supplemental charter to the Privy Council to formally implement this, along with permission to revise the statutes.[108] The supplemental charter was approved by the Privy Council on 14 December 2022 and an order made that it be prepared for the king's signature.[109]

Campus and locations


Wilkins Building and Main Quad
The Rockefeller Building on University Street, one of UCL's largest premises

UCL is primarily based in the Bloomsbury area of the London Borough of Camden, in Central London. The main campus is located around Gower Street and includes the UCL Faculty of Engineering Sciences, economics, geography, history, languages, mathematics, management, philosophy and physics departments, the preclinical facilities of the UCL Medical School, the London Centre for Nanotechnology, the Slade School of Fine Art, the UCL Union, the main UCL Library, the UCL Science Library, the Bloomsbury Theatre, the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, the Grant Museum of Zoology and the affiliated University College Hospital. Close by in Bloomsbury are the UCL Cancer Institute, the UCL Faculty of Social and Historical Sciences, the UCL Faculty of the Built Environment (The Bartlett), the UCL Faculty of Laws, the UCL Institute of Archaeology, the UCL Institute of Education, the UCL School of Pharmacy, the UCL School of Public Policy and the UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies.[110]

The area around Queen Square in Bloomsbury, close by to the main campus, is a hub for brain-related research and healthcare, with the UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and UCL Institute of Neurology located in the area along with the affiliated National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery. The UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health and the affiliated Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children are located adjacently, forming a hub for paediatric research and healthcare. The UCL Ear Institute, the UCL Eastman Dental Institute and the affiliated Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital and Eastman Dental Hospital are located nearby in east Bloomsbury along Gray's Inn Road and form a hub for research and healthcare in audiology and dentistry respectively.

Historic UCL buildings in Bloomsbury include the grade I listed UCL Main Building, including the original Wilkins building designed by William Wilkins,[111] and, directly opposite on Gower Street, the grade II listed Cruciform Building, the last major building designed by Alfred Waterhouse.[112][113] Much of the estate falls within the Bloomsbury Conservation Area, designated in 1968.[114]

UCL East

In 2014, it was announced that UCL would be building an additional campus at the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, referred to as UCL East, as part of the development of the so-called Olympicopolis site at the southern edge of the park. UCL master planners were appointed in spring 2015, and the first University building was, at that time, estimated to be completed in time for academic year 2019/20.[115]

It was revealed in June 2016 that the UCL East expansion could see the university grow to 60,000 students. The proposed rate of growth was reported to be causing concern, with calls for it to be slowed down to ensure the university could meet financial stability targets.[116]

Outline planning permission for UCL East was submitted in May 2017 by the London Legacy Development Corporation and UCL, and granted in March 2018. Construction of the first phase of buildings is (as of March 2018) expected to begin in 2019 with the first building (Pool Street West) expected (at the time) to be completed for the start of the 2021 academic year and the second building (Marshgate 1) opening in phases from September 2022. As of March 2018, phase 1 is intended to have 50,000 m2 of space, and to house 4,000 extra students and 260 extra academic staff, while the entire UCL East campus, when completed, is expected to have 180,000 m2 of space, 40% of the size of UCL's central London campus.[117] The outline planning permission is for up to 190,800 m2 of space with up to 160,060 m2 of academic development and research space (including up to 16,000 m2 of commercial research space), up to 50,880 m2 of student accommodation, and up to 4,240 m2 of retail space.[118] According to the planning documents, construction of phase 2 (Pool Street East and Marshfield 2, 3 and 4) is expected to begin in 2030 and be completed by 2034, and the whole project will support 2,337 academic staff and 11,169 students.[119] The campus will include residences for up to 1,800 students.[120] In June 2018, UCL revealed that the UK government would be providing £100 million of funding for UCL East as part of its £151 million contribution to the £1.1 billion redevelopment of the Olympic Park as a cultural and education district to be known as the East Bank.[121][122] Construction work on UCL East began on 2 July 2019 with a ground breaking ceremony by the Mayor of London, Sadiq Khan,[123] and work on Pool Street West began on 28 February 2020.[124]

In 2018, UCL opened a campus within Here East, the Olympic Park's former Media Centre.[93]

The first building at UCL East, renamed One Pool Street, was due to open in September 2022. However, this did not occur as planned, with students being relocated to other accommodation on short notice. According to the university, this was due to "supply chain challenges", leading to a delay in the building being handed over by the contractors.[125] One Pool Street was handed over to UCL by the contractors in October 2022, with the first students moving into accommodation and teaching starting in November 2022.[96]

Other sites

Elsewhere in Central London are the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology adjacent to Moorfields Eye Hospital in Clerkenwell,[126] the UCL Institute of Child Health adjacent to Great Ormond Street Hospital,[127] the Royal Free Hospital and the Whittington Hospital campuses of the UCL Medical School, and a number of other associated teaching hospitals. The UCL School of Management is on levels 38 and 50 of One Canada Square in the financial district of Canary Wharf.[128] The UCL Observatory is in Mill Hill[129] and the Mullard Space Science Laboratory is based in Holmbury St Mary, Surrey.[130] The UCL Athletics Ground is in Shenley, Hertfordshire.[131]

Organisation and administration


The two main bodies in UCL's governance structure are the council and the academic board, both of which are established by the royal charter and with powers defined by the statutes.[132] There is also a University Management Committee, which is the executive committee responsible for the day-to-day operations of the institution.

UCL's council comprises 20 members, of whom 11 are members external to UCL; seven are UCL academic staff, including the provost, three UCL professors and three non-professorial staff; and two are UCL students. The chair is appointed by council for a term not normally exceeding five years. The chair is ex officio chair of the honorary degrees and fellowships committee, nominations committee and remuneration and strategy committee.[133] The current chair of the council is international businessman and UCL alumnus Victor Chu.[3]

The academic board plays a role similar to the senate in other institutions. It is the senior academic body responsible for advising council on academic matters and also elects academic members to council.

UCL's principal academic and administrative officer is the President and Provost, who is also UCL's designated 'Accountable Officer' for reporting to the Office for Students on behalf of UCL.[134] The provost is appointed by Council after consultation with the academic board, and is ex officio a member of council and chair of the academic board.[135] The president and provost since January 2021 is Michael Spence, formerly vice chancellor of The University of Sydney, who replaced Michael Arthur.[136][137]

Vice-provosts are appointed by the provost, through the council, to assist and advise the provost as required. The vice-provosts are members of the provost's senior management team. There are presently six vice-provosts (for education, enterprise, health, international, research, and operations).[133]

The deans of UCL's faculties are appointed by the council and, together with the vice-provosts and the director of finance and business affairs, form the members of the provost's senior management team. The deans' principal duties include advising the provost and vice-provosts on academic strategy, staffing matters and resources for academic departments within their faculty; overseeing curricula and programme management at faculty level; liaising with faculty tutors on undergraduate admissions and student academic matters; overseeing examination matters at faculty level; and co-ordinating faculty views on matters relating to education and information support.[133]

List of provosts

Faculties and departments

Drayton House, which houses the Department of Economics
The UCL School of Pharmacy building
The Faculty of Engineering Sciences building
The Bedford Way building, home to the UCL Institute of Education and the Departments of Geography, Psychology and Language

UCL's research and teaching is organised into eleven faculties, each of which contains a number of schools, departments and institutes.[138] The establishment of faculties and academic departments is formally the responsibility of UCL's council, with advice from the academic board.[139]

Faculty[138] Academic and research staff
(as at 30 April 2012)[140]
Undergraduate students
Postgraduate students
Arts and Humanities 328 2,157 1,075
Bartlett (Built Environment) 355 570 1,241
Brain Sciences 1,249 722 1,457
Engineering Sciences 667 2,049 1,642
IOE (Education and Society) n/a n/a n/a
Laws 137 528 458
Life Sciences 798 1,183 486
Mathematical and Physical Sciences 754 2,187 677
Medical Sciences 1,257 1,773 1,342
Population Health Sciences 1,092 64 815
Social and Historical Sciences 621 2,539 1,894
Total 5,277 (ex. IOE) 13,772 (ex. IOE) 11,087 (ex. IOE)

There are also two academic units outside of the faculty structure:[139]

Research centres

UCL operates a number of disciplinary-specific research centres in partnership with other research institutions and private enterprises. These include:

UCL Centre for Blockchain Technologies

The UCL Centre for Blockchain Technologies (CBT) is an academic research centre involving academics from eight UCL Departments.[141] It was founded in 2015 by Paolo Tasca,[citation needed] and focuses on research into the effects of Distributed Ledger Technologies and Blockchain on the global socio-economic systems and into the promotion of safe and organic development and adoption of Blockchain-based platforms.[142][143]

Since 2018, the centre has been part of Ripple Labs' University Blockchain Research Initiative, under which Ripple is supporting research and development in blockchain and related technologies at a number of universities around the world by providing financial and technical resources and by collaborating on projects.[142][144][145]

London Centre for Nanotechnology

The London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN) is a multidisciplinary research centre in physical and biomedical nanotechnology based at UCL's campus in Bloomsbury. It is a partnership between UCL, Imperial College London and King's College London.[146] The LCN was established as a joint venture between UCL and Imperial College London in 2003,[147] and King's College London joined the LCN in 2018.[148]

Centre for the Study of the Legacies of British Slave-ownership

The Centre for the Study of the Legacies of British Slave-ownership was established at UCL with the support of the Hutchins Center for African and African American Research at Harvard University. It incorporates two earlier projects: the Legacies of British Slave-ownership project (2009–2012) and the Structure and significance of British Caribbean slave-ownership 1763–1833 project (2013–2015).[149]

Sainsbury Wellcome Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour

The Sainsbury Wellcome Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour (SWC) is a neuroscience research centre established at UCL with funding from the Gatsby Charitable Foundation and Wellcome Trust[citation needed] and opened in 2016.


In the financial year ended 31 July 2020, UCL had a total income (excluding share of joint ventures) of £1.54 billion (2018/19 – £1.49 billion) and a total expenditure of £1.34 billion (2018/19 – £1.67 billion).[2] Key sources of income included £467.7 million from research grants and contracts (2018/19 – £481.1 million), £613.7 million from tuition fees and education contracts (2018/19 – £564.9 million), £227.9 million from funding body grants (2018/19 – £213.5 million) and £26.6 million from donations and endowments (2018/19 – £40.5 million).[2] At year end UCL had endowments of £143.2 million (31 July 2019 – £138.7 million) and total net assets of £1.49 billion (31 July 2019 – £1.29 million).[2]

In 2014/15, UCL had the third-highest total income of any British university (after the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford), and the third-highest income from research grants and contracts (after the University of Oxford and Imperial College London).[150] For the 2015/16 academic year, UCL was allocated a total of £171.37 million for teaching and research from the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE), the highest amount allocated to any English university, of which £39.76 million is for teaching and £131.61 million is for research.[151] According to a survey published by the Sutton Trust, UCL had the eighth-largest endowment of any British university in 2012.[152]

UCL launched a 10-year, £300 million fundraising appeal in October 2004, at the time the largest appeal target set by a university in the United Kingdom.[153] UCL launched a new £600 million fundraising campaign in September 2016 titled "It's All Academic – The Campaign for UCL".[154][155]

In April 2016, UCL signed a £280 million 30-year loan with the European Investment Bank, the largest loan ever borrowed by a UK university and largest ever loan by the EIB to a university.[156][157] The monies are to be used to fund a £1.25 billion capital expenditure programme in Bloomsbury and Stratford.[156][157] Some UCL academics oppose the expansion plans.[158]

A report by London Economics in 2022 found that UCL generates around £10 billion annually for the UK economy. The largest contributor to this is through the spread of its research and knowledge, which is worth £4 billion, with another £3 billion being added by the impact of UCL's own spending. Other contributions come from encouraging graduates to create jobs and investment, and from nurturing company spin-offs and start-ups. The report found that in 2018–19, UCL had supported 234 graduate start-ups and 83 spinout companies, with a total turnover of £110 million and employing almost 3,000 people. The report also found that UCL's spending supported 19,000 jobs across the UK, with over 7,000 of these being outside of London.[15]


The UCL academic year is divided into three terms.[159] For most departments except the medical school, Term One runs from late September to mid December, Term Two from mid January to late March, and Term Three from late April to mid June.[159] Certain departments operate reading weeks in early November and mid February. Term 3 is widely dedicated for summer assessments only. The venue used to cope with the great numbers of students sitting exams is the ExCeL London conference centre in East London.[159][160]

Logo, arms and colours

Whereas most universities primarily use their logo on mundane documents but their coat of arms on official documents such as degree certificates, UCL exclusively uses its logo. The present logo was adopted as part of a rebranding exercise in August 2005.[84] Prior to that date, a different logo was used, in which the letters UCL were incorporated into a stylised representation of the Wilkins Building portico.

UCL formerly made some use of a pseudo-heraldic "coat of arms" depicting a raised bent arm dressed in armour holding a green upturned open wreath.[161] A version of this badge (not on a shield) appears to have been used by UCL Union from shortly after its foundation in 1893.[162] However, the arms have never been the subject of an official grant of arms, and depart from several of the rules and conventions of heraldry. They are no longer formally used by the college, although they are still occasionally seen in unofficial contexts, or used in modified form by sports teams and societies. The blazon of the arms might be rendered as: Purpure, on a wreath of the colours Argent and Blue Celeste, an arm in armour embowed Argent holding an upturned wreath of laurel Vert, beneath which two branches of laurel Or crossed at the nombril and bound with a bowed cord Or, beneath the nombril a motto of Blue Celeste upon which Cuncti adsint meritaeque expectent praemia palmae. The motto is a quotation from Virgil's Aeneid, and translates into English as "Let all come who by merit deserve the most reward".[163]

UCL's traditional sporting and academic colours of purple [rgb(96,40,153)] and light blue [rgb(102,204,255)] are derived from the arms.


From its foundation the college was deliberately secular; the initial justification for this was that it would enable students of different Christian traditions (specifically Roman Catholics, Anglicans and Nonconformists) to study alongside each other without conflict.[164] UCL has retained this strict secular position and, unlike most other UK universities, has no specific religious prayer rooms. There is, however, a Christian chaplain (who also serves as interfaith advisor) and there is no restriction on religious groups among students. A "quiet contemplation room" also allows prayer for staff and students of all faiths.[165][166]

Sexual harassment cases and policies

In recent years, the university has paid tens of thousands of pounds to settle sexual harassment claims but announced in 2018 that it would abandon non-disclosure settlements.[167] The university made the decision after physicist Emma Chapman sued the institution for sexual harassment through the law firm of Ann Olivarius and then won the legal right to speak freely about her abuse at the university. Chapman settled the case for £70,000.[168] In 2020, UCL became the first Russell Group university to ban romantic and sexual relationships between lecturers and their students.[169]

Memberships, affiliations and partnerships

The main building of University College Hospital

UCL is a constituent college of the federal University of London, of which it was one of the two founding members in 1836 (the other being King's College London).[170]

UCL is a founding member of the Russell Group, an association of 24 British research universities established in 1994,[171] and of the G5 lobbying group, which it established in early 2004 with the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, Imperial College London and the London School of Economics.[172][173] UCL is regarded as forming part of the ‘golden triangle’, an unofficial term for a set of leading universities located in the southern English cities of Cambridge, London and Oxford[174][175][176] including the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, Imperial College London, King's College London and the London School of Economics.

UCL has been a member of the League of European Research Universities since January 2006 and it is currently one of five British members (the others being the universities of Cambridge, Edinburgh and Oxford and Imperial College London).[177][178] Other international groupings that UCL is a member of include the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association and the Universities Research Association.[179] UCL has hundreds of research and teaching partnerships, including around 150 research links and 130 student-exchange partnerships,[180] and has a major collaboration with Yale University, the Yale UCL Collaborative, and strategic partnerships with Peking University[181] and the University of Toronto.[182]

UCL has been a member of the SES engineering and physical sciences research alliance since May 2013, which it formed with the universities of Cambridge, Oxford and Southampton and Imperial College London (King's College London subsequently joined in 2016).[183] UCL is a member of the Thomas Young Centre, an alliance of London research groups working on the theory and simulation of materials; the other members are Imperial College London, King's College London and Queen Mary University of London.[184] UCL is one of the five founding members of the Alan Turing Institute, the UK's national institute for data sciences (together with the universities of Cambridge, Edinburgh, Oxford and Warwick).[185] UCL operates the London Centre for Nanotechnology, a multidisciplinary research centre in physical and biomedical nanotechnology, in partnership with Imperial College London.[186] UCL is also a member of the Screen Studies Group together with Goldsmiths, Birkbeck, King's College London, Royal Holloway, SOAS, Queen Mary, and the London School of Economics.

In the field of Mathematics, University College London has a joint venture with Imperial College London and King's College London running the London School of Geometry and Number Theory, an EPSRC-funded Centre for Doctoral Training. This offers a wide range of 4-year PhD research projects in different aspects of number theory, geometry and topology.[187]

UCL has a close partnership with University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust; the trust's hospitals are teaching sites for the UCL Medical School, UCL and the trust are joint partners in the UCLH/UCL Biomedical Research Centre and the Institute of Sport, Exercise and Health,[188] and both are members of the UCL Partners academic health science centre.[16][189][190] UCL is a founding member of the Francis Crick Institute, a major biomedical research centre in London which is a partnership between Cancer Research UK, Imperial College London, King's College London, the Medical Research Council, the Wellcome Trust and UCL.[191] UCL also operates the Bloomsbury Research Institute, a research institute focused on basic to clinical and population studies in bacteriology, parasitology and virology, in partnership with the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.[192]

UCL offers joint degrees with numerous other universities and institutions, including The Anna Freud National Centre for Children and Families,[193] Columbia University,[194] Facebook AI Research (FAIR),[195] the University of Hong Kong,[196] Imperial College London,[197] New York University,[198] Peking University,[199] the University of Toronto[182] and Yale University.[200]

UCL is the sponsor of the UCL Academy, a secondary school in the London Borough of Camden. The school opened in September 2012 and was the first in the UK to have a university as sole sponsor.[201] UCL also has a strategic partnership with Newham Collegiate Sixth Form Centre.[202] UCL founded University College School in 1830 and the school inherited many of UCL's progressive and secular views, although there is now no formal link between the two institutions.

UCL is a founding member of Knowledge Quarter, a partnership of academic, cultural, research, scientific and media organisations based in the knowledge cluster in the Bloomsbury and King's Cross area of London.[203] Other members of the partnership include the British Library, the British Museum, Google and the Wellcome Trust.[203]

Academic profile

Academic staff

In the 2018/19 academic year, UCL had an average of 7,700 academic staff, the highest number of any UK university, of whom 5,845 were full-time and 1,855 part-time.[4] UCL has 840 professors, the largest number of any British university.[204] As of August 2016, there were 56 Fellows of the Royal Society, 51 Fellows of the British Academy, 15 Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering and 121 Fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences amongst UCL academic staff.[204]


John O'Keefe, neuroscientist and the latest (2014) UCL faculty member to win a Nobel Prize (in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of place cells)

UCL has made cross-disciplinary research a priority and orientates its research around four "Grand Challenges", Global Health, Sustainable Cities, Intercultural Interaction and Human Wellbeing.[205]

In 2014/15, UCL had a total research income of £427.5 million, the third-highest of any British university (after the University of Oxford and Imperial College London).[150] Key sources of research income in that year were BIS research councils (£148.3 million), UK-based charities (£106.5 million), UK central government, local/health authorities and hospitals (£61.5 million), EU government bodies (£45.5 million), and UK industry, commerce and public corporations (£16.2 million).[2] In 2015/16, UCL was awarded a total of £85.8 million in grants by UK research councils, the second-largest amount of any British university (after the University of Oxford), having achieved a 28% success rate.[206] For the period to June 2015, UCL was the fifth-largest recipient of Horizon 2020 EU research funding, and the largest recipient of any university, with €49.93 million of grants received.[207] UCL also had the fifth-largest number of projects funded of any organisation, with 94.[207]

UCL submitted a total of 2,566 staff across 36 units of assessment to the 2014 Research Excellence Framework (REF) assessment, in each case the highest number of any UK university (compared with 1,793 UCL staff submitted to the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise (RAE 2008)).[208][209] In the REF results 43% of UCL's submitted research was classified as 4* (world-leading), 39% as 3* (internationally excellent), 15% as 2* (recognised internationally) and 2% as 1* (recognised nationally), giving an overall GPA of 3.22 (RAE 2008: 4* – 27%, 3* – 39%, 2* – 27% and 1* – 6%).[209][210][211] In rankings produced by Times Higher Education based upon the REF results, UCL was ranked 1st overall for "research power" and joint 8th for GPA (compared to 4th and 7th respectively in equivalent rankings for the RAE 2008).[211]


The Cruciform Building on Gower Street houses the preclinical facilities of the UCL Medical School

UCL has offered courses in medicine since 1834, but the current UCL Medical School developed from mergers with the medical schools of the Middlesex Hospital (founded in 1746) and the Royal Free Hospital (founded as the London School of Medicine for Women in 1874).[212] Clinical medicine is primarily taught at the Royal Free Hospital, University College Hospital and the Whittington Hospital, with other associated teaching hospitals including the Eastman Dental Hospital, Great Ormond Street Hospital, Moorfields Eye Hospital, the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery and the Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital.

UCL is a major centre for biomedical research. In a bibliometric analysis of biomedical and health research in England for the period 2004–13, UCL was found to have produced by far the highest number of highly cited publications of any institution, with 12,672 (compared to second-placed Oxford University with 9,952).[213] UCL is part of three of the 20 biomedical research centres established by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) in England – the UCLH/UCL Biomedical Research Centre, the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, and the NIHR Great Ormond Street Biomedical Research Centre.[214] In the latest round of Department of Health funding for the 5 years from April 2017, the three UCL-affiliated biomedical research centres secured £168.6 million of the £811 million total funding nationwide, the largest amount awarded to any university and significantly higher than second-placed Oxford University (with £126.5 million).[215]

UCL is a founding member of UCL Partners, the largest academic health science centre in Europe with a turnover of approximately £2 billion.[216] UCL is also a member of the Francis Crick Institute based next to St Pancras railway station.[217] It is one of the world's largest medical research centres, housing 1,250 scientists, and the largest of its kind in Europe.[218]


UCAS Admission Statistics
2021 2020 2019 2018 2017
Applications[219] 68,085 58,690 54,890 50,090 43,930
Offer Rate (%)[220] 42.8 56.6 52.3 53.3 55.7
Accepted applicants[219] 8,140 9,145 6,110 5,885 6,140
Yield (%) (calculated from[220]) 33.8 19.0 19.8 21.3 24.8
Applications/accepted ratio 8.36 6.42 8.98 8.51 7.15
Average Entry Tariff[221] n/a n/a 185 175 187
Bentham House, the main building of the UCL Faculty of Laws

Admission to UCL is highly selective with an average entry tariff for 2019–20 of 185 UCAS points (approximately equivalent to AAAB at A-level), the 4th highest in the country.[221] According to a Freedom of Information request response, UCL's offer rate for 2021 admission was 36.1% at undergraduate level and 23.5% at postgraduate level across all applicants.[222][note 2] UCL was one of the first universities in the UK to make use of the A* grade at A-Level (introduced in 2010) for admissions to courses including Economics, European Social and Political Studies, Law, Mathematics, Medicine, Theoretical Physics and Psychology.[223] The university gave offers of admission to 56.6% of its UK domiciled applicants in 2017, and had the 6th lowest offer rate in the Russell Group in 2015.[224]

Of UCL's young UK domiciled undergraduates, 32.7% were privately educated in 2019–20, the eighth highest proportion amongst mainstream British universities.[225] In the 2016–17 academic year, the university had a domicile breakdown of 59:12:30 of UK:EU:non-EU students respectively with a female to male ratio of 58:42.[226]

Undergraduate law applicants are required to take the National Admissions Test for Law[227] and undergraduate medical applicants are required to take the BioMedical Admissions Test.[228] Applicants for European Social and Political Studies are required to take the Thinking Skills Assessment (TSA) should they be selected for an assessment day.[229] Some UCL departments interview undergraduate applicants prior to making an offer of admission.[230]

Undergraduate subjects with the highest applicants to places ratio at UCL in 2015 included Architecture BSc (14:1 ratio),[231] Economics BSc (Econ) (11:1 ratio),[232] Engineering (Mechanical with Business Finance) MEng (10:1 ratio),[233] English BA (10:1 ratio),[234] Fine Art BA (23:1 ratio),[235] Law LL.B (16:1 ratio)[236] and Philosophy, Politics and Economics BSc (30:1 ratio).[237]

Foundation programmes

UCL runs intensive one-year foundation courses called the Undergraduate Preparatory Certificate that are aimed at international students who do not have suitable qualifications for direct admission to UCL.[238] There are two pathways – one in science and engineering called the UPCSE; and one in the humanities called UPCH.[239] In 2022, 53% of students progressed to an undergraduate programme at UCL and 38% at another British university.[240]


The Donaldson Reading Room, part of UCL's Main Library
The UCL Institute of Education's Newsam Library, the largest education library in Europe

The UCL library system comprises 17 libraries located across several sites within the main UCL campus and across Bloomsbury, linked together by a central networking catalogue and request system called Explore.[241][242][243] The libraries contain a total of over 2 million books.[244] The largest library is the UCL Main Library, which is located in the UCL Main Building and contains collections relating to the arts and humanities, economics, history, law and public policy.[241] The second largest library is the UCL Science Library, which is located in the DMS Watson Building on Malet Place and contains collections relating to anthropology, engineering, geography, life sciences, management and the mathematical and physical sciences.[241] The Cruciform Hub contains books and periodicals in the subjects of clinical medicine and medical science.[245] It holds the combined collections of the former Boldero and Clinical Sciences libraries which developed within the Middlesex Hospital, University College Hospital and Royal Free & University College Medical Schools up until their merger in 2005.[246] Other libraries include the UCL Bartlett Library (architecture and town planning), the UCL Eastman Dental Institute Library (oral health sciences), the UCL Institute of Archaeology Library (archaeology and egyptology), the UCL Institute of Education's Newsam Library (education and related areas of social science), the UCL Institute of Neurology Rockefeller Medical Library (neurosurgery and neuroscience), the Joint Moorfields Eye Hospital & the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology Library (biomedicine, medicine, nursing, ophthalmology and visual science), the UCL Language & Speech Science Library (audiology, communication disorders, linguistics & phonetics, special education, speech & language therapy and voice) and the UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies Library (the economics, geography, history, languages, literature and politics of Eastern Europe).[241]

UCL staff and students have full access to the main libraries of the University of London—the Senate House Library and the libraries of the institutes of the School of Advanced Study—which are located close to the main UCL campus in Bloomsbury.[247] These libraries contain over 3.7 million books and focus on the arts, humanities and social sciences.[244] The British Library, which contains around 14 million books, is also located close to the main UCL campus and all UCL students and staff can apply for reference access.[248]

Since 2004, UCL Library Services has been collecting the scholarly work of UCL researchers to make it freely available on the internet via an open access repository known as UCL Eprints.[249][250] The intention is that material curated by UCL Eprints will remain accessible indefinitely.[249]

Museums and collections

UCL's Special Collections contains UCL's collection of historical or culturally significant works. It is one of the foremost university collections of manuscripts, archives and rare books in the UK.[251] It includes collections of medieval manuscripts and early printed books, as well as significant holdings of 18th-century works, and highly important 19th- and 20th-century collections of personal papers, archival material, and literature, covering a vast range of subject areas. Archives include the Latin American archives, the Jewish collections, the papers of composer Mary Louisa White, and the George Orwell Archive.[252] Collections are often displayed in a series of glass cabinets in the Cloisters of the UCL Main Building.[253]

UCL's most significant works are housed in the Strong Rooms. The special collection includes first editions of Isaac Newton's Principia, Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species and James Joyce's Ulysses. The earliest book in the collection is The crafte to lyve well and to dye well, printed in 1505.[254]

The Flaxman Gallery

UCL is responsible for several museums and collections in a wide range of fields across the arts and sciences, including:[255]

  • Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology: one of the leading collections of Egyptian and Sudanese archaeology in the world. Open to the public on a regular basis.[256]
  • UCL Art Museum: the art collections date from 1847, when a collection of sculpture models and drawings by the neoclassical artist John Flaxman was presented to UCL. There are over 10,000 pieces dating from the 15th century onwards including drawings by Turner, etchings by Rembrandt, and works by many leading 20th-century British artists. The works on paper are displayed in the Strang Print Room, which has limited regular opening times. The other works may be viewed by appointment.[257]
  • Flaxman Gallery: a series of plaster casts of full-size details of sculptures by John Flaxman is located inside the Main Library under the central dome of the UCL Main Building.[258]
  • Grant Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy: a diverse Natural History collection covering the whole of the animal kingdom. Includes rare dodo and quagga skeletons. A teaching and research collection, it is named after Robert Edmund Grant, UCL's first professor of comparative anatomy and zoology from 1828, now mainly noted for having tutored the undergraduate Charles Robert Darwin at the University of Edinburgh in the 1826–1827 session.[259]
  • Geology Collections: founded around 1855. Primarily a teaching resource and may be visited by appointment.[260]
  • Institute of Archaeology Collections: items include prehistoric ceramics and stone artefacts from many parts of the world, the Petrie collection of Palestinian artefacts, and Classical Greek and Roman ceramics. Visits by appointment only.[261]
  • Ethnography Collections: this collection exemplifying Material Culture holds an enormous variety of objects, textiles and artefacts from all over the world. Visits by appointment only.[262]
  • Galton Collection: the scientific instruments, papers and personal memorabilia of Sir Francis Galton. Housed in the department of biology. Visits by appointment only.[263]
  • Science Collections: diverse collections primarily accumulated in the course of UCL's own work, including the operating table on which the first anaesthetic was administered. Items may be a viewed by appointment.[264]

Rankings and reputation

National rankings
Complete (2023)[265]8
Guardian (2023)[266]9
Times / Sunday Times (2022)[267]7
Global rankings
THE (2023)[268]22
QS (2023)[269]8
ARWU (2022)[270]16

In the 2022 QS World University Rankings, UCL is ranked 8th in the world, 2nd in London, 3rd in the United Kingdom and joint 4th in Europe.[269] In the 2019/20 Rankings by Subject, UCL has 38 subjects in the world top 100. It is ranked in the world top 10 for nine subjects: anthropology (10th), archaeology (3rd), architecture (1st), anatomy and physiology (5th), education and training (1st), geography (7th), medicine (9th), pharmacy and pharmacology (7th), and psychology (10th). In broad subject areas, it is ranked 10th for life sciences and medicine, 15th for arts and humanities, 34th for social sciences and management, 49th for engineering and technology, and 63rd equal for natural sciences. In the QS Graduate Employability Ranking, UCL is ranked 22nd.[271]

In the 2020 Academic Ranking of World Universities, UCL is ranked 16th in the world (and 4th in Europe).[270] In the 2016 subject tables it was ranked 8th in the world (and 2nd in Europe) for Clinical Medicine & Pharmacy,[272] joint 51st to 75th in the world (and joint 10th in Europe) for Engineering, Technology and Computer Sciences,[273] 9th in the world (and 2nd in Europe) for Life & Agricultural Sciences,[274] joint 51st to 75th in the world (and joint 14th in Europe) for Natural Sciences and Mathematics[275] and joint 51st to 75th in the world (and joint 12th in Europe) for Social Sciences.[276]

In the 2021 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, UCL is ranked 16th in the world (and 5th in Europe).[268] In the 2016/17 subject tables it was ranked 4th in the world (and 2nd in Europe) for Arts and Humanities,[277] 6th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for Clinical, Pre-Clinical and Health,[278] 12th in the world (and 6th in Europe) for Computer Science,[279] joint 38th in the world (and 12th in Europe) for Engineering and Technology,[280] 12th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for Life Sciences,[281] joint 23rd in the world (and 8th in Europe) for Physical Sciences[282] and 14th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) for Social Sciences.[283] In the 2017 Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings, UCL is ranked 16th in the world.[284] In the 2015 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, UCL is ranked 48th in the world.[285]

In 2020, UCL ranked 8th among the universities around the world by SCImago Institutions Rankings.[286] UCL is ranked 18th in the world (2nd in Europe) for number of publications and 18th in the world (6th in Europe) for quality of publications in the 2019 CWTS Leiden Ranking.[287] UCL is ranked 3rd in the world (1st in Europe) in the 2019/20 University Ranking by Academic Performance.[288] UCL is ranked 6th in the world (2nd in Europe) in the 2019 National Taiwan University Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities.[289] UCL is also ranked 10th in the world (4th in Europe) in the 2020 Round University Ranking.[290] In the 2018 U.S. News & World Report Best Global University Ranking, UCL is ranked 22nd in the world (4th in Europe).[291]


UCL is ranked as one of the top 10 multi-faculty universities in two of the three main UK university league tables. These place more emphasis on the undergraduate student experience than global rankings, using criteria such as teaching quality and learning resources, entry standards, employment prospects, research quality and dropout rates. In the 2019 Times Higher Education "Table of Tables", which is based on the combined results of the UK's three main domestic university rankings, UCL is ranked 10th.[292] Historically, in The Sunday Times 10-year (1998–2007) average ranking of British universities based on their league table performance, UCL was ranked 5th overall in the UK.[293] UCL was also one of only eight universities (along with the other members of the G5, Bath, St Andrews and Warwick) to have never been outside the top 15 in one of the three main domestic rankings between 2008 and 2017.[294]

In the 2021 Complete University Guide subject tables, UCL was ranked in the top 10 in 23 subjects out of 40 offered (57.5%).[295] In a 2015 Times Higher Education study UCL was chosen as the 8th best university in the UK for the quality of graduates according to recruiters from the UK's major companies.[296] According to data released by the Department for Education in 2018, UCL was rated as the 7th best university in the UK for boosting female graduate earnings with female graduates seeing a 15.5% increase in earnings compared to the average graduate, and the 10th best university for males, with male graduates seeing a 16.2% increase in earnings compared to the average graduate.[297]

Publishing and commercial activities

UCL has significant commercial activities and in 2014/15 these generated around £155 million in revenues.[2] UCL's principal commercial activities include UCL Press, UCL Business, UCL Consultants, and catering and accommodation services.[2] UCL has also participated in a number of commercial joint ventures, including EuroTempest Ltd and Imanova Ltd (now part of Invicro).[2]

UCL Business

UCL Business (UCLB) is a technology transfer company which is wholly owned by UCL. It has three main activities: licensing technologies, creating spin-out companies, and project management.[298] UCLB supports spin-out companies in areas including discovery disclosure, commercialisation, business plan development, contractual advice, incubation support, recruitment of management teams and identification of investors.[298] In the area of licensing technoloiges, UCLB provides commercial, legal and administrative advice to help companies broker licensing agreements.[298] UCLB also provides UCL departments and institutes with project management services for single or multi-party collaborative industry projects.[298]

UCLB had a turnover of £8 million in 2014/15 and as at 31 July 2015 had equity holdings in 61 companies.[299]

UCL Consultants

UCL Consultants (UCLC) is an academic consultancy services company which is wholly owned by UCL.[300] It provides four main service offerings: Academic Consultancy, Bespoke Short Courses, Testing & Analysis and Expert Witness.[301] As of 31 July 2018, UCLC had over 1,900 registered consultants.

UCLC had a turnover of £17.8 million in 2018/19.[302]

UCL Press

Launched in 2015, UCL Press is a university press wholly owned by UCL.[303] It was the first fully open access university press in the UK, and publishes monographs, textbooks and other academic books in a wide range of academic areas which are available to download for free, in addition to a number of journals.[304] As of October 2022, UCL Press had had more than 6.5 million downloads of its open access books in 247 countries and territories worldwide.[305]


Imanova was a joint venture company of UCL, Imperial College London, King's College London and the Medical Research Council that owned and manages the Clinical Imaging Centre located at Imperial College London's Hammersmith Hospital campus.[2] It was acquired by the imaging services provider Invicro in 2017.[306]

Student life

Performers at the 2014 UCL summer ball

Student body

In the 2020/21 academic year, UCL had a total of 45,715 students, of whom 21,775 were undergraduate and 23,940 were postgraduate.[226] In that year, UCL had the second-largest total number of students of any university in the United Kingdom (after the Open University) and the largest number of postgraduate students.[226]

In 2020/21, 87% of UCL's students were full-time and 13% part-time,[226] although among undergraduates only 0.3% were part-time. The student body was split 59% female and 41% male.[226] In 2020/21, 20,170 UCL students (44%) were from outside the UK, of whom 14,620 were from Asia, 4,880 from the European Union, 940 from North America, 870 from elsewhere in Europe, 740 from the Middle East, 410 from Africa, 250 from South America, and 120 from Australasia. Over half of overseas students at UCL – 10,820 – came from China.[307]

Students' union

Students' union building on Gordon Street

Founded in 1893, Students' Union UCL, formerly the UCL Union, is one of the oldest students' unions in England, although postdating the Liverpool Guild of Students which formed a student representative council in 1892.[70][308] UCL Union operates both as the representative voice for UCL students, and as a provider of a wide range of services. It is democratically controlled through General Meetings and referendums, and is run by elected student officers. The union also supports a range of services, including numerous clubs and societies, sports facilities, an advice service, and a number of bars, cafes and shops.[309]

As of 2021, there are over 250 clubs and societies under the umbrella of the UCL Union.[310] These include: UCL Snowsports (one of the largest sports society at UCL, responsible for organising the annual UCL ski trip),[311] Pi Media (responsible for Pi Magazine and Pi Newspaper, UCL's official student publications),[312] the UCL Union Debating Society, UCL's second oldest society (established 1829),[313] The UCL M&A Group (The UK's largest society dedicated towards enhancing access into careers in investment banking), and the UCL Union Film Society, one of the country's oldest film societies with past members including Christopher Nolan.[314]


The union runs over 70 sports clubs,[315] including the UCL Cricket Club (Men's and Women's), UCL Boat Club (Men's and Women's clubs), UCL Running, Athletics and Cross Country Club (RAX), and UCL Rugby Club (Men's and Women's), as well as RUMS sports clubs, open for Medical students.

UCL clubs compete in inter-university fixtures in the British Universities and Colleges Sport (BUCS) competition in a range of sports, including athletics, basketball, cricket, fencing, football, hockey, netball, rugby union and tennis. In the 2021/22 season, UCL finished in 16th position in the final BUCS rankings.[316]

UCL sports facilities include a fitness centre at the main UCL campus in Bloomsbury, a sports centre in Somers Town and a 90-acre (36 ha) athletics ground in Shenley, Hertfordshire.[317]


The UCL mascot is Phineas MacLino, or Phineas, a wooden tobacconist's sign of a kilted Jacobite Highlander stolen from outside a shop in Tottenham Court Road during the celebrations of the relief of Ladysmith, part of the Second Boer War, in March 1900.[318] In 1922, Phineas was stolen by students from King's, marking the start of 'mascotry', leading to an hour-long battle and the eventual return of Phineas.[319] In 1993, the students' union's centenary year, Phineas was placed in the third floor bar of 25 Gordon Street and the bar named after him.[320]

Rivalry with King's College London

A UCL player attacks in his team's 2014 Varsity victory. UCL's traditional rivalry with King's College is nowadays most noticeable at the annual varsity rugby game

UCL has a long-running, mostly friendly rivalry with King's College London, which has historically been known as "Rags".[321] UCL students have been referred to by students from King's as the "Godless Scum of Gower Street", in reference to a comment made at the founding of King's, which was based on Christian principles. UCL students in turn referred to King's as "Strand Polytechnic".

Shortly after the 1922 kidnapping of Phineas, King's adopted their own mascot – initially a large papier mâché beer bottle, soon replaced by Reggie the Lion.[319] During the 1927 rag, Reggie was captured by UCL students and his body filled with rotten apples. During the same year, an attempt by King's students to capture Phineas led to the impressive "Battle of Gower Street," caught on camera by British Pathe.[322] On another occasion, Reggie was castrated by UCL students.[323]

King's students stole the embalmed head of Jeremy Bentham in October 1975, only returning it after UCL paid a ransom to charity. The head is now kept in the UCL vaults.[324]

Student campaigns

In 2010, protests by students and staff led UCL to promise to pay a living wage to all UCL staff.[325]

As part of the protests against the UK government's plans to increase student fees, around 200 students occupied the Jeremy Bentham Room and part of the Slade School of Fine Art for over two weeks during November and December 2010.[326][327] The university successfully obtained a court order to evict the students but stated that it did not intend to enforce the order if possible.[327]

The late 2010s saw student campaigns around the cost of university-run accommodation. In 2016, over 1000 students took part in a rent strike in protest against high rents and poor conditions. Organisers claimed to have won over £1 million in rent cuts, freezes and grants from UCL in the settlement that ended the strike.[328] Another rent strike in 2017 lead to UCL pledging around £1.4 million in bursaries and rent freezes, mostly in the form of accommodation bursaries for less well-off students totalling £600,000 per year for the 2017/18 and 2018/19 academic years.[329] Another rent strike was held at two halls of residence in the third term of the 2017/18 academic year due to complaints over conditions at those halls.[330]

Student housing

Frances Gardner House

UCL owns 26 halls of residence with around 7,000 student beds.[331] The university guarantees accommodation to single full-time first-year undergraduate students who have not previously lived in London while studying at a university, and who make a firm acceptance of a place and apply for accommodation by 10 June each year, and to single overseas first-year postgraduates at UCL who have not previously lived in London while studying at a university, and who make a firm acceptance of a place and apply for accommodation by 30 June each year. Accommodation is also guaranteed for students who are under 18 at the start of the academic year and for students who are care-leavers.[332] There is only limited accommodation available in university halls for returning students and others who do not meet the criteria for a guaranteed place.[333] UCL students are also eligible, as students of a member institution of the University of London, to apply for places in the University of London intercollegiate halls of residence.[334]

In 2013, a new student accommodation building on Caledonian Road was awarded the Carbuncle Cup and named the country's worst new building by Building Design magazine, with the comment "this is a building that the jury struggled to see as remotely fit for human occupation". Islington Council had originally turned down planning permission for the building, but this had been overturned on appeal.[335]

Notable people

UCL alumni include Francis Crick (co-discoverer of the structure of DNA), William Stanley Jevons (an early pioneer of modern economics) and Charles K. Kao ("Godfather of broadband"). Notable former staff include Peter Higgs (proposer of the Higgs mechanism which predicted the existence of the Higgs boson), Lucian Freud (artist) and Sir William Ramsay (discoverer of all of the naturally occurring noble gases).

Nobel Prizes have been awarded to 30 UCL academics (including visiting academics) and alumni (16 in Physiology or Medicine, seven in Chemistry, five in Physics and one each in Literature and Economic Sciences) as well as three Fields Medals in Mathematics.[18][19]

Notable alumni

In the 19th century UCL operated as a college, with many students taking individual lecture courses rather than studying for degrees.[336] These included well-known alumni such as Mahatma Gandhi[note 3][337] and John Stuart Mill.[note 4][338]

Notable UCL alumni include:

Notable academics

William Bayliss, co-discoverer of secretin, the first identified hormone

Notable former UCL academics include John Austin (legal philosopher),[394] A.J. Ayer (philosopher), William Bayliss and Ernest Starling (discoverers of hormones at UCL),[395] William Henry Bragg (Nobel Prize winner), Jocelyn Bell Burnell (co-discoverer of radio pulsars), A. S. Byatt (writer), Jack Drummond (noted for his work on nutrition as applied to the British diet under rationing during the Second World War), Ronald Dworkin (legal philosopher and scholar of constitutional law),[396] Tom Dyckhoff (writer, broadcaster and historian on architecture),[397] Sir Ambrose Fleming (inventor of the first thermionic valve, the fundamental building block of electronics),[398] Lucian Freud (painter),[399] Hannah Fry (data scientist, mathematician and BBC presenter), Carl Gombrich (opera singer and co-founder of the London Interdisciplinary School), Andrew Goldberg (chairman of Medical Futures),[400] Otto Hahn (Nobel prize winner),[18] Peter Higgs[401] (Nobel prize winner and the proposer of the Higgs mechanism, which predicted the existence of the Higgs boson), A. E. Housman (classical scholar, and poet), Andrew Huxley (physiologist and biophysicist), William Stanley Jevons (economist), David Kemp (the first scientist to demonstrate the existence of the otoacoustic emissions),[402] Frank Kermode (literary critic), Peter T. Kirstein (computer scientist, significant role in the creation of the Internet),[403] Dadabhai Naoroji (Indian Parsi leader, the second Asian to be elected to UK House of Commons),[404] Karl Pearson (eugenicist and founder of the world's first university statistics department at UCL),[405] George R. Price (population geneticist),[406] Sir William Ramsay (discoverer of the naturally occurring noble gases),[407] and Edward Teller ("Father of the Hydrogen Bomb").[408]

Heads of state, government and international organisations

State/government Individual Office
 Barbados Sir Elliott Belgrave Governor-General (2012–2017)
 Barbados Sir Bernard St. John Prime Minister (1985–1986)
Commonwealth of Nations Baroness Patricia Scotland Secretary General (2016–)
 Council of Europe Terry Davis Secretary General (2004–2009)
 Cyprus Nicos Anastasiades (Νίκος Αναστασιάδης) President (2013–)
 Czechoslovakia Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk First President (1918–1935)
 Ghana Kwame Nkrumah First Prime Minister of the Gold Coast, first Prime Minister, first President (1952–1966)
 Israel Chaim Herzog (חיים הרצוג) President (1983–1993)
 Japan Itō Hirobumi (伊藤博文) First Prime Minister (1885–1888, 1892–1896, 1898, 1900–1901)
 Japan Junichiro Koizumi (小泉純一郎) Prime Minister (2001–2006)
 Kenya Jomo Kenyatta First Prime Minister, first President (1963–1978)
 Mauritius Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam Chief Minister of British Mauritius, first Prime Minister (1961–1982), Governor-General (1983–1985)
 Nigeria Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa First Prime Minister (1960–1966)
Queensland Sir Charles Lilley Premier (1868–1870)
Republic of China Wu Tingfang (伍廷芳) Premier (1917)
 Romania Mihai Răzvan Ungureanu Prime Minister (2012)
 Saint Lucia Sir Vincent Floissac Governor-General (1987–1988)
 Slovakia Robert Fico Prime Minister (2006-2010, 2012-2018)
 Trinidad and Tobago Sir Ellis Clarke Governor-General, first President (1972–1987)
 Turks and Caicos Islands Martin Bourke Governor (1993–1996)
 Uganda Benedicto Kiwanuka Chief Minister of the Uganda Protectorate (1961–1962), first Prime Minister (1962)
 United Nations Angie Brooks President of the United Nations General Assembly (1969–1970)

See also


  1. ^ The title of third-oldest university in England is claimed by three institutions: Durham University as the third-oldest officially recognised university (1832) and the third to confer degrees (1837), the University of London as the third university to be granted a Royal Charter (1836), and University College London as it was founded as London University (1826) and was the third-oldest university institution to start teaching (1828). A fourth institution, King's College London, officially claims to be the fourth-oldest university in England; it was the third university institution to receive a Royal Charter (1829) and some claim it as third oldest on that basis. Deciding which is the "third oldest university" depends largely on the definition of university status.
  2. ^ The UCAS offer statistics given in the table above cover only UK domiciled applicants
  3. ^ a b took English classes with Henry Morley in 1888–89
  4. ^ Attended lectures on jurisprudence by John Austin
  5. ^ Dropped out without completing course
  6. ^ studied law 1878–1879, did not graduate
  7. ^ 1868–1870; dropped out without completing studies
  8. ^ took classes in Sanskrit in 1909
  9. ^ executed before completing studies


  1. ^ "Address from University College London". Record of the Celebration of the Quatercentenary of the University of Aberdeen. University of Aberdeen. 1907. p. 537.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Annual Report and Financial Statements for the year ended 31 July 2022" (PDF). University College London. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  3. ^ a b "UCL Council". University College London. August 2022. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
  4. ^ a b c "Who's working in HE". Higher Education Statistics Agency. Staff numbers by HE provider. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d "Where do HE students study?". Higher Education Statistics Agency. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  6. ^ "UCL Officers". University College London. Archived from the original on 3 February 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  7. ^ "Working with our brand: Visual identity". UCL. p. 2. Retrieved 23 December 2022. Mid Purple and Blue Celeste are UCL's traditional colours
  8. ^ "Making an Impact: the UCL style guide" (PDF). UCL. 2005. p. 44. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 April 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2018. UCL should always be referred to as 'UCL'. "University College London" can only be used as part of the postal address.
  9. ^ Sutherland, John (29 July 2005). "What's in a name?". The Guardian.
  10. ^ "Working with our brand" (PDF). UCL. Retrieved 30 March 2019. UCL is the university's official name
  11. ^ Harte, Negley; North, John (2004). The World of UCL 1828–2004. London: UCL. pp. 29–32. ISBN 978-1-84472-025-5.
  12. ^ "Students defend freedom of expression at University College London". The Secular Society. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
  13. ^ Laura Potier; Sophie Inge (14 August 2020). "University league tables: a guide to the best UK institutions in 2020". The Daily Telegraph.
  14. ^ Georgia Oman (28 January 2020). "Suffrage, Arson, and the University of Bristol". Doing History in Public.
  15. ^ a b Richard Adams (27 June 2022). "University College London generates £10bn a year for UK, says report". The Guardian.
  16. ^ a b "UCL Partners to become 'biggest AHSC in the world'". Health Service Journal. 17 October 2011. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
  17. ^ "Golden opportunities". Nature. 6 July 2005. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  18. ^ a b c "History". UCL. 11 January 2018. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  19. ^ a b "History". UCL Department of Mathematics. 21 May 2018. Fields Medal winners. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  20. ^ Negley Harte; John Northe; Georgina Brewis (2018). The World of UCL. UCL Press. pp. 13–23.
  21. ^ "Americanized Encyclopedia Britannica, Revised and Amended: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and Literature; to which is Added Biographies of Livings Subjects". Americanized Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 10. 1890. p. 6100. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
  22. ^ Penman, Colin (27 February 2017). "The youth of our middling rich: how egalitarian were UCL's founders? – UCL Lunch Hour Lecture". You tube. UCL Lunch Hour Lectures. Archived from the original on 11 December 2021. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  23. ^ Morrell, Jack (2005). John Phillips and the Business of Victorian Science. Ashgate Publishing. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-84014-239-6.
  24. ^ Harte, Negley (1998). "The owner of share no. 633: Jeremy Bentham and University College London". In Fuller, Catherine (ed.). The Old Radical: representations of Jeremy Bentham. London: University College London. pp. 5–8.
  25. ^ "Bentham and UCL". University College London. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
  26. ^ Paul Monroe, ed. (1911). A Cyclopedia of Education: Volume Two. Macmillan Publishers. p. 388.
  27. ^ Barry, Peter (2002). Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. Manchester University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-7190-6268-1.
  28. ^ Robert W. Steel (8 October 1987). Robert W. Steel (ed.). The beginning and the end. British Geography 1918-1945. Cambridge University Press.
  29. ^ R. Gerard Ward (December 1960). "Captain Alexander Maconochie, R. N., K. H., 1787-1860". The Geographical Journal. 126 (4): 459–468. JSTOR 1793383.
  30. ^ Wilson, Stanley (1923). University College Hospital Medical School. The University of London and its colleges: constituting, the most wonderful aggregation of institutions to be found anywhere in the world. University Tutorial Press. p. 129.
  31. ^ a b c University of London, the Historical Record: (1836-1912). University of London. 1912. pp. 7–23.
  32. ^ Huber, Victor Aimé (1843). "The English Universities: From the German". William Pickering – via Google Books.
  33. ^ J S Cockburn; H P F King; K G T McDonnell, eds. (1969). The University of London: The University. A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 1, Physique, Archaeology, Domesday, Ecclesiastical Organization, the Jews, Religious Houses, Education of Working Classes To 1870, Private Education From Sixteenth Century. Victoria County History. pp. 315–344 – via British History Online.
  34. ^ Anna Guagnini (15 July 1993). Robert Fox; Anna Guagnini (eds.). Worlds apart: academic instruction and professional qualifications in the training of mechanical engineers in England, 1850–1915. Education, Technology and Industrial Performance in Europe, 1850-1939. Cambridge University Press. pp. 17–21.
  35. ^ Matthew Andrews (June 2018). Universities in the Age of Reform, 1800–1870: Durham, London and King’s College. Springer International. pp. 167–173.
  36. ^ Chilvers, Ian (2004). The Oxford Dictionary of Art. Oxford University Press. p. 655. ISBN 978-0-19-860476-1.
  37. ^ Harte, N. B. (1986). The University of London, 1836–1986: An Illustrated History. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-485-12052-3.
  38. ^ Sidgwick, Eleanor Mildred (15 August 1897). "The Place of University Education in the Life of Women. An address delivered at the Women's Institute on November 23rd, 1897". Transactions of the Women's Institute. London. 1. hdl:2027/uc2.ark:/13960/t4xg9hw0c.
  39. ^ "Why UCL?". UCL. Retrieved 27 January 2023.
  40. ^ "Disruptive thinking since 1826". UCL. Retrieved 26 January 2023. UCL was the first university in England to welcome students of any religion, and to welcome women to university education
  41. ^ "History of the University". University of Bristol. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  42. ^ P. Phillips Bedson (December 1921). "The Jubilee of Armstrong College". Durham University Journal. 22: 347–354.
  43. ^ Zweiniger-Bargielowska, Ina (30 July 2014). Women in Twentieth-Century Britain: Social, Cultural and Political Change. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-87692-2 – via Google Books.
  44. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904: Sir William Ramsay". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  45. ^ "Sir William Ramsay: The noble chemist". BBC News. 9 February 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  46. ^ University of London, the Historical Record: (1836–1912). University of London. 1912. pp. 7–24.
  47. ^ "US Student Financial Aid at UCL". UCL. Retrieved 27 January 2023.
  48. ^ Harte and North 2004, pp. 160–61.
  49. ^ "Foster, Sir Gregory: Papers". UCL.
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Former Provosts". University College London. Archived from the original on 29 February 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
  51. ^ Merrington, W (1976). University College Hospital and its Medical School: A History. Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-434-46500-2.
  52. ^ " History. UCL Chemical Engineering has a long and distinguished history as a world-leading research department – the first of its kind in the UK. Find out more about some key figures and dates in our history". University College London. 19 July 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  53. ^ "University College London apologises for role in promoting eugenics". The Guardian. 7 January 2021. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  54. ^ UCL (7 January 2021). "UCL makes formal public apology for its history and legacy of eugenics". UCL News. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  55. ^ Inquiry into the History of Eugenics at UCL Report (PDF) (Report). February 2020.
  56. ^ "UCL to investigate eugenics conference secretly held on campus". The Guardian. 11 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  57. ^ "UCL INVESTIGATION INTO LONDON CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENCE" (PDF). UCL. January 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2023.
  58. ^ a b Andrew Anthony (2 August 2020). "UCL has a racist legacy, but can it move on?". The Observer.
  59. ^ "The life of Henry Bartlett". Bartlett 100. UCL The Bartlett. 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2023.
  60. ^ Negley Harte; John Northe; Georgina Brewis (2018). The World of UCL. UCL Press. pp. 201–210.
  61. ^ "What is Pi Media". Pi Media. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  62. ^ "About". UCL Institute of Jewish Studies. Archived from the original on 28 November 2022. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  63. ^ Massie, Harrie; Robins, M. (2009). History of British Space Science. Cambridge University Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-521-12338-9.
  64. ^ "30 years of the international internet". BBC News. 19 November 2003. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
  65. ^ "UCL marks 30 years of e-networking". Times Higher Education. 21 November 2003. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
  66. ^ Kirstein, P.T. (1999). "Early experiences with the Arpanet and Internet in the United Kingdom" (PDF). IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. 21 (1): 38–44. doi:10.1109/85.759368. ISSN 1934-1547. S2CID 1558618. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February 2020.
  67. ^ M. Ziewitz & I. Brown (2013). Research Handbook on Governance of the Internet. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 978-1849805049. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  68. ^ by Vinton Cerf, as told to Bernard Aboba (1993). "How the Internet Came to Be". Archived from the original on 26 September 2017. Retrieved 25 September 2017. We began doing concurrent implementations at Stanford, BBN, and University College London. So effort at developing the Internet protocols was international from the beginning.
  69. ^ David Colquhoun. "UCL's senior common room and the Boston marathon: emancipation in the 1960s, and now". DC's Improbable Science. 2002.
  70. ^ a b "Landmarks". University College London. Archived from the original on 30 January 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  71. ^ "Royal Charter granted 17 November 1976". Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  72. ^ Rebecca Smithers; Donald MacLeod (10 December 2005). "College vote brings break-up of university a step nearer". The Guardian. Over the past 10 years the university has become an increasingly loose federation of independent institutions that are universities in their own right and receive their grants directly from the Higher Education Funding Council for England, although they still hand out degrees on behalf of the central university.
  73. ^ Grant, Malcolm (March 2005). "The future of the University of London: a discussion paper from the Provost of UCL" (PDF). UCL. pp. 3–6. Retrieved 27 January 2023.
  74. ^ a b c d MacLeod, Donald (22 October 2002). "The merger and the man". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  75. ^ Healthcare, Kable (25 March 2011). "University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust – NHS hospital trust profile". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  76. ^ "UCL steps up to world class". Times Higher Education. 6 September 1996. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
  77. ^ "Medicine in the capital". Times Higher Education. 14 February 1997. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  78. ^ "Slavonic school to stay put after UCL merger". Times Higher Education. 5 March 1999. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  79. ^ "Language school keeps name in UCL merger". Times Higher Education. 30 July 1999. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  80. ^ Richard Alleyne (15 October 2002). "Imperial and UCL discuss merger to be world player". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022.
  81. ^ Donald Macleod (18 November 2002). "UCL merger halted to stop "damaging" rows". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
  82. ^ David Colquhoun. "Committee for UCL". DC's Improbable Science. 2002.
  83. ^ David Conway. "Save UCL". 2002.
  84. ^ a b Baty, Phil (22 July 2005). "Staff fury at '£600K' rebrand". Times Higher Education Supplement. London.
  85. ^ "UCL School of Energy & Resources, Australia, to be established'". University College London. 29 May 2008. Retrieved 1 August 2008.
  86. ^ "Brave new territory: University College London to open a branch in". 29 May 2008.
  87. ^ Edwards, Verity (11 June 2011). "BHP signs $10m deal to set up energy research facilities". The Australian. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
  88. ^ "Move of UCL Engineering in Australia to UniSA Mawson Lakes campus". UCL. 17 January 2018. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  89. ^ "New UniSA and UCL postgraduate partnership". University of South Australia. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  90. ^ "UCL has sights set on new East End home". Times Higher Education. 24 November 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
  91. ^ "UCL to open huge tech and engineering campus". Wired. Archived from the original on 9 July 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  92. ^ "London Olympicopolis culture hub plan gets £141m funding". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  93. ^ a b "High-tech campus at Here East marks new chapter for The Bartlett and Engineering Sciences at UCL". UCL. 28 February 2018. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  94. ^ "Programmes and short courses". UCL at Here East. UCL. 21 August 2017. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  95. ^ "Engineering and Architectural Design MEng". UCL Undergraduate Prospectus. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  96. ^ a b "UCL East campus will make 'extraordinary contribution' to London and the world". UCL. 6 December 2022. Retrieved 23 December 2022.
  97. ^ "School of Pharmacy to merge with UCL". Times Higher Education. 13 May 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  98. ^ School of Pharmacy merges with UCL. University College London (1 January 2012). Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  99. ^ "Bloomsbury institutions enter 'strategic partnership'". Times Higher Education. 2 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  100. ^ "UCL set to merge with Institute of Education". Times Higher Education. 5 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  101. ^ "Institute of Education will bring 'healthy dowry' to UCL marriage". Times Higher Education. 13 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  102. ^ "UCL and IoE confirm merger date". Times Higher Education. 25 November 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
  103. ^ "UCL and IoE merger: a marriage of like minds?". Times Higher Education. 4 December 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
  104. ^ "Town hall consultations on UCL's Charter and Statutes". UCL. 15 November 2017. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  105. ^ John Morgan (18 April 2018). "Bill paves way for London colleges to gain university status". Times Higher Education.
  106. ^ David Kernohan (26 July 2018). "The strange tale of the University of London Bill". WONKHE. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  107. ^ "Bill stages — University of London Act 2018". Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  108. ^ "Council minutes" (PDF). UCL. 10 June 2022. p. 4. Retrieved 23 December 2022.
  109. ^ "Orders approved and business transacted at the Privy Council held by the King at Buckingham Palace on 14th December 2022" (PDF). Council minutes. Privy Council. 14 December 2022. p. 47. Retrieved 23 December 2022.
  110. ^ "Campus location maps, University College London". University College London. Archived from the original on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  111. ^ "University College (University of London) and attached railings to north and south wings". National Heritage List for England. Historic England. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  112. ^ "Cruciform tiles". UCL. 8 January 2018. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  113. ^ "University College Hospital general block only and attached railings". National Heritage List for England. Historic England. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  114. ^ "Bloomsbury Conservation Area". Bloomsbury Conservation Area. Retrieved 28 January 2023.
  115. ^ "Olympicopolis | Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park". Archived from the original on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
  116. ^ David Matthews (23 June 2016). "UCL floats plan to expand to 60,000 students". Times Higher Education.
  117. ^ "Mayor of London grants outline planning permission for UCL East". UCL. 28 March 2018. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  118. ^ "Web APAS – Planning Application – Details". London Legacy Development Corporation. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  119. ^ "UCL East Site- Non-Technical Summary". London Legacy Development Corporation. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  120. ^ "UCL East Site- Planning Statement". London Legacy Development Corporation. p. 15. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  121. ^ "£100m secured for UCL East as part of East Bank". UCL. 5 June 2018. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  122. ^ "London Olympic Park £1.1bn plan unveiled". BBC News. 5 June 2018. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  123. ^ "Mayor breaks ground as UCL East construction begins" (Press release). UCL. 2 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  124. ^ "Pool Street West construction officially begins as Provost breaks ground" (Press release). UCL. 5 March 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  125. ^ Meriel Wehner (24 October 2022). "Delayed Opening for UCL East Accommodation". PI Media.
  126. ^ "Why study at IoO?". UCL. August 2017. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  127. ^ Henry T Lancashire (14 June 2018). "Satellite Sites at UCL – A Different Distance Learning Experience". UCL.
  128. ^ "UCL School of Management expands and acquires level 50 at Canary Wharf". UCL. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  129. ^ "UCL Observatory (UCLO)". UCL. 23 October 2018. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  130. ^ "Mullard Space Science Laboratory". UCL. 7 August 2018. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  131. ^ "Facilities". Students' Union UCL. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  132. ^ "Charter and Statutes" (PDF). UCL. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  133. ^ a b c "Governance overview". University College London. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  134. ^ "Office for Students (OfS)". UCL. 18 January 2021. Retrieved 21 August 2022.
  135. ^ "Charter and Statutes" (PDF). UCL. Retrieved 21 August 2022.
  136. ^ "About the President & Provost". UCL. 28 January 2022. Retrieved 21 August 2022.
  137. ^ "UCL welcomes new President & Provost Dr Michael Spence". UCL. 11 January 2021. Retrieved 21 August 2022.
  138. ^ a b "UCL faculties". UCL. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  139. ^ a b "Academic Units". UCL. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  140. ^ a b c "UCL Annual Review 2012". UCL. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  141. ^ "UCL Centre for Blockchain Technologies". UCL. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  142. ^ a b "University College London tells us how it developed its blockchain program". Hard Fork. 10 December 2018.
  143. ^ "The UCL Centre for Blockchain Technologies". Open Access Government. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  144. ^ "University Blockchain Research Initiative". Ripple. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  145. ^ "11 More Universities Join $50 Million Blockchain Research Program". Fortune. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  146. ^ "Nanotech under the microscope". 12 June 2003. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  147. ^ "London's little idea". 27 January 2003. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  148. ^ "King's College London joins powerhouse of nanotechnology research". Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  149. ^ "Home". Legacies of British Slave-ownership. University College London. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  150. ^ a b "Times Higher Education university financial health check 2016" (PDF). Times Higher Education. 2 June 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  151. ^ "Winners and losers in Hefce funding allocations". Times Higher Education. 26 March 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  152. ^ "Oxbridge uplift disguises a drop in the size of average UK endowment". Times Higher Education. 26 June 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  153. ^ "University launches £300m appeal". BBC News. 5 October 2004. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
  154. ^ "University College London bids to raise £600 million in largest ever fundraising drive". Evening Standard. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  155. ^ "UCL launches £600m philanthropy campaign". University College London. 15 September 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  156. ^ a b "UCL to borrow record £280m to expand". Financial Times. 28 April 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  157. ^ a b "UCL agrees £280m European Investment Bank loan for campus developments". University College London. 28 April 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  158. ^ "UCL governors kept in dark over £280m loan for expansion plan". Financial Times. 23 June 2016. Archived from the original on 10 December 2022. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
  159. ^ a b c "Term Dates: 2013–2014". University College London. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
  160. ^ "ExCel Centre".
  161. ^ "logobig on Flickr – Photo Sharing!". 30 July 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  162. ^ Harte, Negley; North, John (2004). The World of UCL 1828–2004 (3rd ed.). London: UCL Press. p. 154. ISBN 978-1-84472-068-2.
  163. ^ Virgil (1888), Storr, Francis (ed.), The Aeneid (in Latin)
  164. ^ London University Calendar. UCL. 1832. pp. iii–v.
  165. ^ "Religion and faith". UCL. 6 July 2017. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  166. ^ "University College London welcomes new chaplain and Inter Faith Adviser". Diocese of London. 8 November 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  167. ^ "Sex harassment victims force University College London to end gagging orders," The Times, 28 July 2018.
  168. ^ "University College London tried to gag me over two-year 'harassment' fight, scientist claims," Evening Standard, 3 July 2018; "UK universities face 'gagging order' criticism," BBC, 17 April 2019.
  169. ^ "UCL to ban intimate relationships between staff and their students," The Guardian, 20 February 2020.
  170. ^ "A brief history". University of London. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
  171. ^ "Queen's gets key to Russell club door". Times Higher Education. 9 November 2006. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
  172. ^ "Super elite in secret bid for cash boost". Times Higher Education. 6 February 2004. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
  173. ^ "Universities warned they may face price-fixing fines on fees". The Times. 9 February 2004. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
  174. ^ "Golden opportunities". Nature. 6 July 2005.: "No longer rivals, Oxford, Cambridge and London are now working towards a common goal – ensuring the 'golden triangle' becomes a global science hub."
  175. ^ "Oxbridge windfall". Times Higher Education. 4 August 1995.: "A large amount of the cash awarded to humanities postgraduates still goes to the "Golden Triangle" of Oxford, Cambridge and London, British Academy figures reveal."
  176. ^ Kershaw, Alison. "UK universities slip in rankings", The Independent, 4 October 2012: "Rankings editor Phil Baty said: "Outside the golden triangle of London, Oxford and Cambridge, England's world-class universities face a collapse into global mediocrity."
  177. ^ "UCL joins League of European Research Universities". University College London. Archived from the original on 5 August 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
  178. ^ "LERU Members". League of European Research Universities. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
  179. ^ Malcolm Grant, President & Provost, UCL (March 2005). "The future of the University of London: a discussion paper from the Provost of UCL" (PDF). p. 23. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
  180. ^ "University College London (UCL)". Fulbright Commission. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
  181. ^ "Emerging strategic partnership with Peking University". University College London. 18 April 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  182. ^ a b "UCL and University of Toronto strengthen their partnership". University College London. 8 April 2019. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  183. ^ "Research heavyweights deny 'ganging up'". Times Higher Education. 9 May 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
  184. ^ "About the Thomas Young Centre". Thomas Young Centre. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  185. ^ "Partners". Alan Turing Institute. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
  186. ^ "About". London Centre for Nanotechnology. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  187. ^ "Home - LSGNT".
  188. ^ "Sports injury institute costing £10m opens in boost to the Olympic legacy". London Evening Standard. 24 June 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  189. ^ "What we do". University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  190. ^ "About Us". UCL Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  191. ^ "University partners". Francis Crick Institute. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  192. ^ "University partners". Bloomsbury Research Institute. Archived from the original on 28 October 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  193. ^ "UCL Postgraduate Programmes". The Anna Freud National Centre for Children and Families. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  194. ^ "Joint LLB/Juris Doctor (JD) with Columbia University, New York". University College London. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  195. ^ Sebastian Klovig Skelton (24 February 2021). "Facebook's AI doctoral research programme makes inroads into UK". Computer Weekly.
  196. ^ "UCL Laws launches double degree with The University of Hong Kong". University College London. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  197. ^ "Centre for Transport Studies". Imperial College London. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  198. ^ "Global EMPA with University College London". New York University. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  199. ^ "Peking University and UCL agree joint MBA programme". University College London. 4 November 2016. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  200. ^ "Developmental Neuroscience and Psychopathology MRes". University College London. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  201. ^ "Academia and the academy: what makes a university open a school?". The Guardian. 19 March 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
  202. ^ "UCL announces partnership with Newham Collegiate Sixth Form Centre". University College London. 10 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  203. ^ a b "Alan Turing Institute for Data Science to be based at British Library". The Guardian. 4 December 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  204. ^ a b "Key facts and figures". University College London. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  205. ^ "The Grand Challenges". University College London. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  206. ^ "University of Oxford tops grant funding list". Times Higher Education. 6 October 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  207. ^ a b "Horizon 2020 champions" (PDF). Nikolaos Floratos. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  208. ^ "REF 2014 winners: who performed best?". Times Higher Education. 18 December 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  209. ^ a b "RAE 2008: The results". Times Higher Education. 18 December 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  210. ^ "RAE 2008: results for UK universities". The Guardian. 18 December 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  211. ^ a b "Overall ranking of institutions including power market share". Times Higher Education. 18 December 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  212. ^ "UCL Medical School". University College London. 17 February 2010. Archived from the original on 13 January 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  213. ^ Gunashekar, Salil; Parks, Sarah; Calero-Medina, Clara; Visser, Martijn; Van Honk, Jeroen; Wooding, Steven (2015). Bibliometric analysis of highly cited publications of biomedical and health research in England, 2004–2013 (Report). RAND Corporate. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  214. ^ "Biomedical Research Centres". National Institute for Health Research. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
  215. ^ "New £816 million investment in health research". Department of Health. 14 September 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  216. ^ Carvel, John (7 August 2008). "NHS hospitals to forge £2bn research link-up with university". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
  217. ^ Jha, Alok (19 June 2010). "Plans for largest biomedical research facility in Europe unveiled". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
  218. ^ "Project Press Release". UK Centre for Medical Research and Innovation web site. 21 June 2010. Archived from the original on 11 September 2010. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
  219. ^ a b "2021 entry provider-level end of cycle data resources". UCAS. 2022. U80 UCL (University College London). Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  220. ^ a b "2021 entry UCAS undergraduate reports by sex, area background, and ethnic group". UCAS. 2022. U80 UCL (University College London). Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  221. ^ a b "Top UK University League Table and Rankings". Complete University Guide. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  222. ^ "Application Statistics for the 2021 entry - a Freedom of Information request to University College London". 22 April 2021.
  223. ^ "Undergraduate Prospectus (2015 entry)". University College London. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  224. ^ "Which elite universities have the highest offer rates". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  225. ^ "Widening participation: UK Performance Indicators 2019/20". Higher Education Statistics Authority. Table T1 – Participation of under-represented groups in higher education. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  226. ^ a b c d e "Where do HE students study?". HESA. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  227. ^ "Law test gains support". Times Higher Education. 10 June 2005. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  228. ^ "New test for medics". Times Higher Education. 16 December 2005. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  229. ^ "About TSA UCl". Admissions Testing Service. 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  230. ^ "University College London (University of London) (U80)". UCAS. Archived from the original on 17 June 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  231. ^ "Architecture BSc". University College London. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  232. ^ "Economics BSc (Econ)". University College London. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  233. ^ "Engineering (Mechanical with Business Finance) MEng". University College London. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  234. ^ "English BA". University College London. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  235. ^ "Fine Art BA". University College London. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  236. ^ "Law LL.B". University College London. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  237. ^ "Philosophy, Politics and Economics BSc". University College London. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  238. ^ "Undergraduate Preparatory Certificates - UCL's International Foundation Year". UCL. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  239. ^ "Course information". UCL. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  240. ^ "Meet our previous students". UCL. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  241. ^ a b c d "UCL Library Services". University College London. 13 August 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  242. ^ "UCL Library Services Explore". Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  243. ^ "eUCLid library catalogue". University College London. Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 29 September 2010."Explore library catalogue". University College London. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
  244. ^ a b "Review of HEFCE funding for research libraries". Higher Education Funding Council for England. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  245. ^ "UCL Cruciform Hub". University College London. 8 August 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  246. ^ Campbell, P.; Cheney, C. R. (2006). "Reading medicine: A history of the libraries of The Middlesex and University College Hospitals Medical Schools" (PDF). UCL Library Services. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  247. ^ "Libraries". University of London Research Library Services. Archived from the original on 5 November 2010. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
  248. ^ "Libraries with special UCL arrangements". University College London. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  249. ^ a b "About UCL Eprints". University College London. Archived from the original on 16 January 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
  250. ^ "UCL Eprints repository rankings". University College London. 13 March 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
  251. ^ "UCL Library Services – Special Collections Library". University College London. 22 January 2010. Archived from the original on 25 January 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  252. ^ "UCL Library Services – Special Collections A-Z Directory". University College London. 8 September 2008. Archived from the original on 9 January 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  253. ^ "UCL Library Services – Special Collections Library". University College London. 22 January 2010. Archived from the original on 25 January 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  254. ^ "UCL Library Services – Special Collections Library". University College London. 10 February 2005. Archived from the original on 12 December 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  255. ^ "UCL Museums & Collections | Home". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  256. ^ "Welcome to The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  257. ^ "UCL Museums & Collections". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  258. ^ "The John Flaxman Collection". University College London. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
  259. ^ "UCL Museums & Collections". College London. 19 August 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  260. ^ "UCL Museums & Collections". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  261. ^ "UCL Museums & Collections". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  262. ^ "UCL Museums & Collections". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  263. ^ "UCL Museums & Collections | Home". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  264. ^ "UCL Museums & Collections". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  265. ^ "Complete University Guide 2023". The Complete University Guide. 5 July 2022.
  266. ^ "Guardian University Guide 2023". The Guardian. 24 September 2022.
  267. ^ "Good University Guide 2023". The Times. 17 September 2022.
  268. ^ a b "THE World University Rankings 203". Times Higher Education. 12 October 2023.
  269. ^ a b "QS World University Rankings 2023". Quacquarelli Symonds Ltd. 8 June 2022.
  270. ^ a b "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2022". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 15 August 2022.
  271. ^ "UCL (University College London)". Top Universities. QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  272. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities in Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy – 2016". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Archived from the original on 13 July 2018. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  273. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities in Engineering/Technology and Computer Sciences – 2016". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Archived from the original on 16 October 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  274. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities in Life and Agriculture Sciences – 2016". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Archived from the original on 20 November 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  275. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities in Natural Sciences and Mathematics – 2016". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  276. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities in Social Science – 2016". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  277. ^ "World University Rankings 2016–2017 by subject: arts and humanities". Times Higher Education. 20 September 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  278. ^ "World University Rankings 2016–2017 by subject: clinical, pre-clinical and health". Times Higher Education. 20 September 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  279. ^ "World University Rankings 2016–2017 by subject: computer science". Times Higher Education. 20 September 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  280. ^ "World University Rankings 2016–2017 by subject: engineering and technology". Times Higher Education. 20 September 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  281. ^ "World University Rankings 2016–2017 by subject: life sciences". Times Higher Education. 20 September 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  282. ^ "World University Rankings 2016–2017 by subject: physical sciences". Times Higher Education. 20 September 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  283. ^ "World University Rankings 2016–2017 by subject: social sciences". Times Higher Education. 20 September 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  284. ^ "World Reputation Rankings 2017". Times Higher Education. 5 June 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  285. ^ "The Global Employability University Ranking 2016". Times Higher Education. 16 November 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  286. ^ "SCImago Institutions Rankings – Higher Education – All Regions and Countries – 2020 – Overall Rank".
  287. ^ "CWTS Leiden Ranking". Leiden University. Archived from the original on 23 April 2021. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  288. ^ "2019–2020 WORLD RANKING". University Ranking by Academic Performance. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
  289. ^ "2019 Overall Ranking". National Taiwan University. Archived from the original on 20 September 2020. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
  290. ^ "Round University Rankings 2020". RUR Rankings Agency. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
  291. ^ "Best Global Universities – University College London". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  292. ^ Ellie Bothwell (25 October 2018). "THE 'Table of Tables' 2019: Lincoln and Nottingham Trent in top 30". Times Higher Education.
  293. ^ "University ranking based on performance over 10 years" (PDF). The Times. London. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 April 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2008.
  294. ^ "Domestic Ranking of British Universisities over a 10-Year Period". The University Buzz. Archived from the original on 29 April 2017. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
  295. ^ "UCL (University College London)". The Complete University Guide. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
  296. ^ "The best UK universities chosen by major employers". Times Higher Education. London. 12 November 2015.
  297. ^ "Undergraduate degrees: relative labour market returns (Table 7: HEI – conditional impact on earnings five years after graduation)". Department for Education. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  298. ^ a b c d "What we do". UCL Business. Archived from the original on 28 October 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  299. ^ "Key facts". UCL Business. Archived from the original on 28 October 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  300. ^ "What we do". UCL Consultants. 31 August 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
  301. ^ "Our Services". UCL Consultants. 31 August 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
  302. ^ "Annual Report and Finances". UCL. 5 July 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
  303. ^ "UCL press". UCL Press. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
  304. ^ "UCL launches UK's first fully Open Access university press". UCL. 27 May 2015. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
  305. ^ UCL Press statistics dashboard
  306. ^ "Invicro acquires Imanova to expand global imaging capabilities". Invicro. 12 September 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2022.
  307. ^ "Where do HE students come from?". HESA. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  308. ^ "History of the Guild". Liverpool Guild of Students. Archived from the original on 21 June 2014.
  309. ^ "UCL Union". University College London Union. 13 April 2010. Archived from the original on 27 April 2004. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  310. ^ "A vibrant social life". Undergraduate Prospectus 2022. UCL. 17 February 2021. Get involved with Students' Union UCL. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  311. ^ "UCL Snowsports Club". UCL Union. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  312. ^ "University College London student publications – Home". Pi Media. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  313. ^ "University College, London: Guild of Graduates Minute Book". UCL Archives. UCL Library Services. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  314. ^ UCL Film and TV Society (12 September 2017). "Christopher Nolan Returns To UCL To Receive Honorary Degree And Visit The Film & TV Society – UCL Film & TV Society". UCL Film and TV Society. Archived from the original on 13 September 2019. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  315. ^ "Sports for all, whatever your ability". UCL. 22 June 2020. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  316. ^ "BUCS Points". British Universities and Colleges Sport. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  317. ^ Boehm, Klaus; Lees-Spalding, Jenny (2006). Student Book 2007. Crimson Publishing. p. 711. ISBN 978-1-84455-073-9.
  318. ^ "King's Collections : Online Exhibitions : The College mascots: Phineas and Reggie".
  319. ^ a b "Mascotry is Born: Reggie the Lion". King's College London. 18 October 2019. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  320. ^ "Who is Phineas? – UCLU". UCLU.
  321. ^ "Mayhem in the Metropolis: King's College versus University College in Student Rags". King's College London. Archived from the original on 10 August 2004. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  322. ^ "Battle Of Gower Street (1927)". Archived from the original on 11 December 2021 – via
  323. ^ "Mayhem in the Metropolis: King's College versus University College in Student Rags". King's College London. Archived from the original on 14 August 2004. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  324. ^ "Auto-Icon". University College London. 17 May 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  325. ^ "UCL agrees to pay 'living wage'". BBC News. 28 September 2010.
  326. ^ "Students stage day of protests over tuition fee rises". BBC News. 24 November 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
  327. ^ a b "University College London granted eviction order". BBC News. 8 December 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
  328. ^ Anonymous blogger (19 October 2016). "Why I refuse to pay my university rent". The Guardian.
  329. ^ Alfie Packham (6 July 2017). "Students win £1.5m pledge from UCL after five-month rent strike". The Guardian.
  330. ^ Joana Ramiro (8 May 2018). "Students strike on rent pay after mice and flooding complaints". Left Foot Forward.
  331. ^ "Accommodation". UCL. 31 October 2018. Retrieved 20 October 2022.
  332. ^ "Applying for UCL Accommodation". UCL. 21 November 2018. Retrieved 20 October 2022.
  333. ^ "Alternative accommodation providers". UCL. 5 February 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2022.
  334. ^ "s". University of London. Retrieved 20 October 2022.
  335. ^ "Carbuncle Cup: UCL student block crowned worst building". BBC News. 29 August 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  336. ^ T.H. Warren; G.D. Liveing (1897). University College, London. University Colleges, Great Britain – Grant in Aid. HMSO. p. 11.
  337. ^ Swapnajit Mitra (12 October 2014). "My Experiment with Truth". India Currents.
  338. ^ "UCL marks a place in British intellectual history for John Stuart Mill". UCL. 23 March 2006. Retrieved 12 January 2023.
  339. ^ Caroline Bingham (1987). The History of Royal Holloway College 1886-1986. Constable. p. 186.
  340. ^ a b c d e Davidson, Max (27 October 2009). "University College London: halls of high distinction". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  341. ^ Tempest, Matthew (24 February 2011). "I was there at the Inception of Christopher Nolan's film career". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  342. ^ "Jim Loach on the tragedy of the lost children". Evening Standard. 10 April 2012.
  343. ^ "Wyndham Lewis". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  344. ^ "Antony Gormley explores how art began". UCL. 25 January 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  345. ^ "Augustus John". BBC. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  346. ^ "Gerry Judah". artnet. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  347. ^ Wroe, Nicholas (18 December 2004). "Profile: Raymond Briggs". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  348. ^ Richard Lofthouse (15 October 2018). "Interview: Amit Chaudhuri". Oxford Alumni. University of Oxford. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  349. ^ "Clive Sansom". University of Tasmania Library. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  350. ^ "Annual Tagore Lecture Series in Comparative Literature". UCL. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  351. ^ "Lotus fleet turns out for Colin Chapman tribute". The Telegraph. 3 November 2007. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  352. ^ Morgan, Oliver (12 September 2004). "The CBI's megaphone man". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  353. ^ Ian D. Gow; Stuart Kells (28 August 2018). The Big Four: The Curious Past and Perilous Future of the Global Accounting Monopoly. Berrett-Koehler. p. 122. ISBN 9781523098033.
  354. ^ Dunn, Will (8 January 2020). "From the Treasury to the high street: can Sharon White save John Lewis?". New Statesman. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  355. ^ Hunter, Andy (28 February 2016). "Everton's new majority shareholder Farhad Moshiri likely to increase stake". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  356. ^ "Alexander Graham Bell". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  357. ^ "Obituary: Francis Crick, OM". The Telegraph. 30 July 2004. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  358. ^ Gray, Jeffrey (2009). "Obituary Hans Jurgen Eysenck (1916–97)". Nature. 389 (6653): 794. doi:10.1038/39755. PMID 9349806. S2CID 5400599.
  359. ^ "Jaroslav Heyrovsky". The Nobel Prize. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  360. ^ John Midwinter (2021). "Sir Charles Kuen Kao. 4 November 1933—23 September 2018". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. The Royal Society. 70: 211–224. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2020.0006. S2CID 226291122. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  361. ^ "Prof. Israel Dostrovsky, Renowned Israeli Scientist and an Institute Founder, Passes Away at 92". 28 September 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  362. ^ Laws, Richard M. (3 January 1995). "William Nigel Bonner". Polar Record. 31 (176): 67–70. doi:10.1017/S0032247400024888. S2CID 128891684. Archived from the original on 16 June 2018. Retrieved 8 August 2020 – via Cambridge University Press.
  363. ^ kenya-tribune (23 December 2019). "CAREER WOMAN – Meet Freda Nkirote; Director, British Institute in East Africa". Kenyan Tribune. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  364. ^ "Radio supremo, Jonathan Dimbleby talks to Palatinate..." Palatinate. 30 April 2008.
  365. ^ "TV architecture critic Tom Dyckhoff to give Cheltenham Civic Society annual lecture". Gloucestershire Echo. 18 March 2014. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  366. ^ "Played in Britain – Authors – Simon Inglis".
  367. ^ Curtis, Polly (17 June 2004). "UCL appoints Lord Woolf to ruling council". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  368. ^ Neelam M. Singh. "Remembering Justice Dr. A S Anand former Chief Justice of India". Taazakhabar News Bureau. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  369. ^ Ayisy Yusof (6 May 2021). "Former chief justice Arifin Zakaria named PNB chairman". New Straits Times.
  370. ^ "The late Lord Cozens-Hardy". The Law Society Gazette. Vol. 17. July 1920. p. 154.
  371. ^ "Lord Goldsmith: Profile". The Guardian. 23 June 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  372. ^ "Archie Cochrane: The name behind Cochrane". Cochrane Collaboration. 5 December 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
  373. ^ a b c Sutherland, John (13 September 2004). "Hours of Idleness". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  374. ^ "Jomo Kenyatta: emblematic figure of the Independence Movement". Daily Observer. 20 June 2008. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  375. ^ "Nkrumah's birthday declared a holiday". Modern Ghana. 8 September 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
  376. ^ Birmingham, David (1998). Kwame Nkrumah : the father of African nationalism (Rev. ed.). Athens: Ohio Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0-8214-1242-8.
  377. ^ "Commemorating the Saint of Mauritius and the Father of the Nation". Mauritius News. 8 September 2010. Archived from the original on 15 September 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  378. ^ Reisz, Matthew (27 June 2013). "The pioneering foreign students who rebuilt Japan". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  379. ^ "Reform leader has thoroughly traditional background". USA Today. 11 September 2005. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  380. ^ "COHEN, FRANCIS LYON -".
  381. ^ "ADLER, MICHAEL -".
  382. ^ Arthur Barnett, "The Rev. Michael Adler, D.S.O., S.C.F., B.A. (1868—1944)" – Transactions (Jewish Historical Society of England), Vol. 15 (1939–1945), pp. 191–194.
  383. ^ "Pakistani student Aliza Ayaz leads student engagement at UCL". 19 October 2019.
  384. ^ "Gen.T: A Spotlight for Bright Young People: Gen.T: Aliza Ayaz, Founder at Climate Action Society, HoL Honour #7 on Apple Podcasts".
  385. ^ "Pakistani student: Aliza Ayaz has been appointed as the United Nations Youth Envoy for Sustainable Development Goals". 26 January 2021.
  386. ^ Chandra, Bipan (1989). India's Struggle for Independence. New Delhi: Penguin Books India. pp. 144–145. ISBN 978-0-14-010781-4.
  387. ^ Nehru, Jawaharlal; Nand Lal Gupta (2006). Jawaharlal Nehru on Communalism. Hope India Publications. p. 161. ISBN 978-81-7871-117-1.
  388. ^ "Madan Lal Dhingra". The Open University. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
  389. ^ "No smarter than an ox?". Times Higher Education. 22 September 2000. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  390. ^ "Patrick Head's exit stage left another break with the past as F1 enters 2012". The Telegraph. 2 January 2012. Archived from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  391. ^ Fisher, Bob (10 May 2013). "Andrew Simpson obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  392. ^ "Passed/Failed: An education in the life of the Olympic gold medallist Christine Ohuruogu". The Independent. 25 June 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  393. ^ Guttorp, P.; Lindgren, G. (2009). "Karl Pearson and the Scandinavian school of statistics" (PDF). International Statistical Review. 77: 64. CiteSeerX doi:10.1111/j.1751-5823.2009.00069.x. S2CID 121294724.
  394. ^ "Bentham and UCL". UCL. 24 May 2016. Archived from the original on 9 June 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  395. ^ Tata, Jamshed R. (1 June 2005). "One hundred years of hormones". EMBO Reports. 6 (6): 490–496. doi:10.1038/sj.embor.7400444. ISSN 1469-221X. PMC 1369102. PMID 15940278.
  396. ^ Liptak, Adam (14 February 2013). "Ronald Dworkin, Scholar of the Law, Is Dead at 81". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  397. ^ "Tom Dyckhoff". Central Saint Martins. 25 October 2018. Retrieved 15 September 2022.
  398. ^ "History: The early years, 1885–1950". UCL Electronic and Electrical Engineering. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  399. ^ "Lucian Freud, OM". The Telegraph. 21 July 2011. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  400. ^ "UH professor given commendation for medical innovation in asthma". Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  401. ^ Butterworth, Jon (7 September 2010). "Peter Higgs, UCL and the Right Honorable William Waldegrave". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  402. ^ Kemp, D. T. (1 November 1978). "Stimulated acoustic emissions from within the human auditory system". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 64 (5): 1386–1391. Bibcode:1978ASAJ...64.1386K. doi:10.1121/1.382104. ISSN 0001-4966. PMID 744838.
  403. ^ "Official Biography: Peter Kirstein". Internet Hall of Fame. The Internet Society. Retrieved 12 January 2023.
  404. ^ "Dadabhai Naoroji". Making Britain. Open University. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  405. ^ "Department History". UCL Department of Statistical Science. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  406. ^ Dylan Matthews (6 January 2019). "The scientist who tried to be as selfless as possible, until it killed him". Vox.
  407. ^ "Sir William Ramsay: Noble Gas Pioneer—On the 100th Anniversary of His Nobel Prize". Archived from the original on 4 May 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  408. ^ "A Brief History of the Chemical & Physical Society". UCL Chemical & Physical Society. Retrieved 13 January 2023.

Further reading

  • Bellot, H. Hale (1929). University College, London 1826–1926. London: University of London Press.
  • Furlong, Gillian (2015). Treasures from UCL. London: UCL Press. ISBN 978-1-910634-36-3.
  • Harte, Negley; North, John; Brewis, Georgina (2018). The World of UCL (4th ed.). London: UCL Press. ISBN 978-1-78735-294-0.

External links

  • Official website
  • UCL military personnel, 1914–1918
  • UCL Special Collections
  • UCL Records (including College Collection)
Retrieved from ""