Umar Shaikh Mirza II

Umar Shaikh Mirza II
عمر شیخ میرزا
Mirza
Padshah
Umar Shaykh Mirza, 1875-1900.jpg
Ruler of Ferghana
Reign1469 – 1494 CE.
PredecessorAbu Sa'id Mirza
SuccessorBabur
Bornc. 1456
Samarkand
Timurid Empire (Present day Uzbekistan)
Died10 June 1494(1494-06-10) (aged 37–38)
Ferghana
Timurid Empire (Present day Uzbekistan)
Burial10–11 June 1494
Ferghana
(Present day Uzbekistan)
SpouseQutlugh Nigar Khanum (m.1475)
Ulus Agha
Fatma Sultan Agha
Makhdum Sultan Begum
Umid Aghacha
Yun Sultan Aghacha
Agha Sultan Aghacha
IssueKhanzada Begum
Babur
Jahangir Mirza
Nasir Mirza
Mihr Banu Begum
Shahr Banu Begum
Yadgar Sultan Begum
Rukaiya Sultan Begum
Names
Umar Shaikh Mirza bin Abu Sa'id Mirza
HouseTimurid dynasty
FatherAbu Sa'id Mirza
MotherShah Sultan Begum
ReligionSunni Islam

Umar Shaikh Mirza II (Persian: عمر شیخ میرزا, b. 1456 – d. 1494) was the ruler of the Fergana Valley. He was the fourth son of Abu Sa'id Mirza, the emperor of the Timurid Empire in what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan and eastern Iran.

His first wife and chief consort was Qutlugh Nigar Khanum, a princess of the Chagatai Khanate and daughter of Yunus Khan of Moghulistan. Umar Shaikh had two other wives and had three sons and five daughters from his wives. His eldest son was Babur Mirza from his wife Qutlugh Nigar Khanum. His sons from this other two wives were Jahangir Mirza II and Nasir Mirza. His eldest son Babur Mirza founded the Mughal Empire in 1526 and was the first Mughal Emperor of India.

Umar Shaikh died in a freak accident in Aksi fort, North Fergana, on 10 June 1494. It occurred when he was in his dovecote, which was built at the edge of the building, collapsed, thus making eleven-year-old Babur the ruler of Fergana.[1]

His son Babur describes him as a devout Muslim who never neglected the 5 daily prayers.[2]

Family

His mother

Umar Shaikh's mother was not explicitly named in any historical sources, including the Baburnama, his son Babur's autobiography. This was somewhat unusual, as Babur provided the maternal ancestry for many of his prominent relatives. However, Babur did refer multiple times to a certain Shah Sultan Begum (d. 1501) in a way that suggested she was Umar Shaikh's mother.[3] This identification is one that is used by historians.[4]

Shah Sultan Begum's own background was never stated. However, Khwand Amir, the vizier of Babur's uncle Sultan Mahmud, referred to Umar Shaikh as "the own younger brother" of Mahmud and Sultan Ahmed. If this wording were interpreted to say that they were full brothers, this would mean that Shah Sultan Begum was mother to all three rulers, and thus the daughter of Aurdu-Bugha Tarkhan Arghun, who is known to have been Ahmad and Mahmud's maternal grandfather.[5]

Consorts

He had a total of seven consorts:

  • Qutlugh Nigar Khanum (m.1475), daughter of Yunus Khan of Moghulistan and Aisan Daulat Begum;
  • Ulus Agha (div.), daughter of Khwaja Hussein Beg;
  • Fatima Sultan Agha, daughter of one of the begs of Mogul Tumans;
  • Makhdum Sultan Begum, known as Karaguz Begum;
  • Umid Aghacha, a concubine who died before Mirza;
  • Yun Sultan Aghacha, a Moghul concubine;
  • Agha Sultan Aghacha, another concubine;

Children

Sons

He had three sons:

  • Babur - with Qutlugh Nigar Khanum;
  • Jahangir Mirza (1485 - 1508) - with Fatima Sultan Agha;
  • Nasir Mirza (1487 - 1515) - with Umid Aghacha;
Daughters

He had six daughters:

  • A stillborn daughter - with Ulus Agha;
  • Khanzada Begum (1478 - 1545) - with Qutlugh Nigar Khanum;
  • Mihr Banu Begum (born 1481) - with Umid Aghacha;
  • Shahr Banu Begum (1491 - 1542) - with Umid Aghacha, married to Junaid Barlas;
  • Yadgar Sultan Begum (born 1494) - with Agha Sultan Aghacha, married to Abdul Latif Sultan, son of Hamza Sultan;
  • Rukaiya Sultan Begum (1494 - 1528) - with Makhdum Sultan Begum, married to Jani Beg Sultan;

Death

Umar died on 10 June 1494 at age 37 after the building which he was in collapsed; He was succeeded by his son, Babur.

Notes

  1. ^ Abraham Eraly (17 September 2007). Emperors Of The Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Moghuls. Penguin Books Limited. p. 18. ISBN 978-93-5118-093-7.
  2. ^ F. Dale, Stephen (2004). THE GARDEN OF THE EIGHT PARADISES: Babur and the Culture of Empire in Central Asia, Afghanistan and India (1483-1530). Brill. p. 174.
  3. ^ Babur (1922). The Babur-nama In English (Memoirs of Babur). Vol. I. Translated by Annette Beveridge. London: Luzac & Co. p. 13.
  4. ^ B. S. Chandrababu, L. Thilagavathi, Woman, Her History and Her Struggle for Emancipation (2009), p. 201
  5. ^ Babur (1922, pp. 13, 33)

References

  • "Mirza Muhammad Haidar". Silk Road Seattle. University of Washington. Retrieved 2006-11-07. On the occasion of the birth of Babar Padishah (the son of Omar Shaikh)
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