Two-state solution

A peace movement poster: Israeli and Palestinian flags and the words peace in Arabic and Hebrew. Similar images have been used by several groups supporting a two-state solution to the conflict.
Map of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, 2011. Agreeing on acceptable borders is a major difficulty with the two-state solution.
Area C of the West Bank, controlled by Israel, in blue and red, December 2011

The two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict envisions an independent State of Palestine alongside the State of Israel, west of the Jordan River. The boundary between the two states is still subject to dispute and negotiation, with Palestinian and Arab leadership insisting on the "1967 borders", which is not accepted by Israel. The territory of the former Mandate Palestine (including West Jerusalem) which did not form part of the Palestinian State would continue to be part of Israel.

In 1947, the United Nations General Assembly adopted United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, which was rejected by Arab leaders.[1] In 1974, a UN resolution on the "Peaceful settlement of the question of Palestine" called for "two States, Israel and Palestine … side by side within secure and recognized borders" together with "a just resolution of the refugee question in conformity with UN resolution 194".[2][3][4] The borders of the state of Palestine would be "based on the pre-1967 borders". The latest resolution, in November 2013, was passed 165 to 6, with 6 abstentions;[5] with Israel and the United States voting against.[6]

The Palestinian leadership has embraced the concept since the 1982 Arab Summit in Fez.[7] Israel views moves by Palestinian leaders to obtain international recognition of a State of Palestine as being unilateral action by the Palestinians and inconsistent with a negotiated two-state solution.

It was reported in 2009 that although polls had consistently shown Israeli and Palestinian majorities in favor of a negotiated two-state settlement, there was "growing disillusionment" with a two-state solution.[8] In 2014, 60% of Palestinians said the final goal of their national movement should be "to work toward reclaiming all of historic Palestine from the river to the sea".[9] A poll published in 2021 by the Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research revealed that only 39% of Palestinians support the two-state solution.[10] Another report published in 2021 by the RAND Corporation found that Israelis across the political spectrum opposed a two-state solution.[11]

There have been many diplomatic efforts to realize a two-state solution, starting from the 1991 Madrid Conference. There followed the 1993 Oslo Accords and the failed 2000 Camp David Summit followed by the Taba negotiations in early 2001. In 2002, the Arab League proposed the Arab Peace Initiative. The latest initiative, which also failed, was the 2013–14 peace talks. A 2021 survey of experts found that 52 percent believe that the two-state solution is no longer achievable. 77 percent believe that if not achieved, the result would be a "one-state reality akin to apartheid".[12] According to a 2021 PCPSR poll, support for a two-state solution among Palestinians and Israeli Jews, as of 2021, has declined to 43 percent and 42 percent, respectively.[13][14] According to Middle East experts David Pollock and Catherine Cleveland, as of 2021, the majority of Palestinians say they want to reclaim all of historic Palestine, including pre-1967 Israel. A one-state solution with equal rights for Arabs and Jews is ranked second.[13]

History of the two-state solution

The first proposal for the creation of Jewish and Arab states in the British Mandate of Palestine was made in the Peel Commission report of 1937, with the Mandate continuing to cover only a small area containing Jerusalem. The recommended partition proposal was rejected by the Arab community of Palestine,[15][16] and was accepted by most of the Jewish leadership.

Partition was again proposed by the 1947 UN Partition plan for the division of Palestine. It proposed a three-way division, again with Jerusalem held separately, under international control. The partition plan was accepted by the Jewish leadership. However, the plan was rejected by the leadership of Arab nations and the Palestinian leadership, which opposed any partition of Palestine and any independent Jewish presence in the area. The 1948 Arab–Israeli War for control of the disputed land broke out on the end of the British Mandate, which came to an end with the 1949 Armistice Agreements. The war resulted in the fleeing or expulsion of 711,000 Palestinians, which the Palestinians call Nakba, from the territories which became the state of Israel.[17] Rather than establishing a Palestinian state on land that Israel did not control, the Arab nations chose instead to support the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East and the Palestinian refugees remained stateless.[18]

UN resolution 242 and the recognition of Palestinian rights

After the 1967 Arab–Israeli war, the United Nations Security Council unanimously passed resolution 242 calling for Israeli withdrawal from the territories occupied during the war, in exchange for "termination of all claims or states of belligerency" and "acknowledgement of sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every state in the area". The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), which had been formed in 1964, strongly criticized the resolution, saying that it reduced the question of Palestine to a refugee problem.[19]: 18 

In September 1974, 56 Member States proposed that "the question of Palestine" be included as an item in the General Assembly's agenda. In a resolution adopted on 22 November 1974, the General Assembly affirmed Palestinian rights, which included the "right to self-determination without external interference", "the right to national independence and sovereignty", and the "right to return to their homes and property". These rights have been affirmed every year since.[3]: 24 

PLO acceptance of a two-state solution

The first indication that the PLO would be willing to accept a two-state solution, on at least an interim basis, was articulated by Said Hammami in the mid-1970s.[20][21]

Security Council resolutions dating back to June 1976 supporting the two-state solution based on the pre-1967 lines were vetoed by the United States,[22] which supports a two-state solution but argued that the borders must be negotiated directly by the parties. The idea has had overwhelming support in the UN General Assembly since the mid-1970s.[23]

The Palestinian Declaration of Independence of 15 November 1988, which referenced the UN Partition Plan of 1947 and "UN resolutions since 1947" in general, was interpreted as an indirect recognition of the State of Israel, and support for a two-state solution. The Partition Plan was invoked to provide legitimacy to Palestinian statehood. Subsequent clarifications were taken to amount to the first explicit Palestinian recognition of Israel.[24][25]

Diplomatic efforts

In 1975, the General Assembly established the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People. In 1976, the Committee presented two sets of recommendations, one concerned with the Palestinians' right of return to their homes and property, and the other with their rights to self-determination, national independence and sovereignty. The Security Council discussed the recommendations but failed to reach a decision due to the negative vote of the United States.[19]: 25 

After the First Intifada began in 1987, considerable diplomatic work went into negotiating a two-state solution between the parties, beginning with the Madrid Conference in 1991. The most significant of these negotiations was the Oslo Accords, which officially divided Palestinian land into three administrative divisions and created the framework for how much of Israel's political borders with the Palestinian territories function today. The Accords culminated in the Camp David 2000 Summit, and follow-up negotiations at Taba in January 2001, but no final agreement was ever reached. The violent outbreak of the Second Intifada in 2000 had demonstrated the Palestinian public's disillusionment with the Oslo Accords and convinced many Israelis that the negotiations were in vain.

  Recognition of Israel only
  Recognition of both Israel and Palestinian State
  Recognition of Palestinian State only

Possible two-state solutions have been discussed by Saudi and US leaders.[26] In 2002, Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia (who would go on to be King from 2005 to 2015) proposed the Arab Peace Initiative, which garnered the unanimous support of the Arab League while Israeli leaders continually refuse to discuss the initiative. President Bush announced his support for a Palestinian state, opening the way for United Nations Security Council Resolution 1397, supporting a two-state solution.[27][page needed][28]

At the Annapolis Conference in November 2007, three major parties—The PLO, Israel, and the US—agreed on a two-state solution as the outline for negotiations. However, the summit failed to achieve an agreement.

Following the conflict that erupted between the two main Palestinian parties, Fatah and Hamas, Hamas took control of the Gaza Strip, splintering the Palestinian Authority into two polities, each claiming to be the true representatives of the Palestinian people. Fatah controlled the Palestinian National Authority in the West Bank and Hamas Governed in Gaza.

The latest initiatives were the 2013–14 Israeli–Palestinian peace talks under the guidance of John Kerry, the United States Secretary of State. These talks also failed to reach an agreement.


By 2010, when direct talks were scheduled to be restarted, continued growth of settlements on the West Bank and continued strong support of settlements by the Israeli government had greatly reduced the land and resources that would be available to a Palestinian state creating doubt among Palestinians and left-wing Israelis that a two-state solution continued to be viable.[29] In January 2012 the European Union Heads of Mission report on East Jerusalem found that Israel's continuing settlement activities and the fragile situation of the Palestinian population in East Jerusalem, as well in area C, was making a two-state solution less likely.[30] The Israeli Foreign Ministry rejected this EU report, claiming it was "based on a partial, biased and one sided depiction of realities on the ground."[31] In May 2012, the EU council stressed its "deep concern about developments on the ground which threaten to make a two-state solution impossible'.[32]

On 29 November 2012, the UN General Assembly voted by 138 to 9, with 46 abstentions to recognize Palestine as a "non-member observer state". On the following day, Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu announced the building of 3,000 new homes on land to the east of East Jerusalem, in an area referred to as "E-1".[33] The move was immediately criticized by several countries, including the United States, with Israeli ambassadors being personally called for meetings with government representatives in the UK, France and Germany, among others. Israel's decision to build the homes was described by the Obama administration as "counterproductive", while Australia said that the building plans "threaten the viability of a two-state solution". This is because they claim the proposed E-1 settlement would physically split the lands under the control of the Palestinian National Authority in two, as the extent of the PNA's authority does not extend all the way to the River Jordan and the Dead Sea.[34][35][36][37] Israel's Labor party has voiced support for the two-state solution, with Isaac Herzog stating it would be "in Israel's interests".[38]

in March 2015, Netanyahu declared that a Palestinian state would not be established during his administration,[39] while he also stated that he disapproved the one-state solution for the ongoing conflict between two people.[40]

After controversial Jerusalem recognition by Trump administration in favor of Israel in December 2017, Palestinian officials said the policy change "destroys the peace process" and the decision indirectly meant the United States was "abdicating its role as a peace mediator"[41] that could no longer act as a mediator in the peace process because the United States had become a party to the dispute instead of neutral intercessor for negotiations.[42]

A 2021 survey of experts found that 52 percent of respondents believed the two-state solution is no longer possible. If a two-state solution is not achieved, 77 percent predict "a one-state reality akin to apartheid" and 17 percent "one-state reality with increasing inequality, but not akin to apartheid"; just 1 percent think a binational state with equal rights for all inhabitants is likely.[12]

Settlements in the West Bank

The UN resolutions affirm the illegality of settlements in West Bank, including East Jerusalem.[43] Proposals have been offered for over 50 post-evacuation compensation of settlers for abandoned property, as occurred following Israel's withdrawal of settlements from Gaza in 2005 and from the Sinai Peninsula in 1982.[44] Some settlers in those previous withdrawals were forcibly removed by the IDF.

In December 2016, United Nations Security Council Resolution 2334 was formally passed as the condemnation against Israeli settlement in West Bank.

Public opinion in Israel and Palestine

Demonstration against Israeli annexation of the West Bank, Rabin Square, Tel Aviv-Yafo, June 6, 2020

Many Palestinians and Israelis, as well as the Arab League,[45] have stated that they would accept a two-state solution based on 1949 Armistice Agreements, more commonly referred to as the "1967 borders". In a 2002 poll conducted by PIPA, 72% of both Palestinians and Israelis supported at that time a peace settlement based on the 1967 borders so long as each group could be reassured that the other side would be cooperative in making the necessary concessions for such a settlement.[46] A 2013 Gallup poll found 70% of Palestinians in the West Bank and 48% of Palestinians in Gaza Strip, together with 52% of Israelis supporting "an independent Palestinian state together with the state of Israel".[47]

Support for a two-state solution varies according to the way the question is phrased. Some Israeli journalists suggest that the Palestinians are unprepared to accept a Jewish State on any terms.[48][49] According to one poll, "fewer than 2 in 10 Arabs, both Palestinian and all others, believe in Israel's right to exist as a nation with a Jewish majority."[50] Another poll, however, cited by the US State Department, suggests that "78 percent of Palestinians and 74 percent of Israelis believe a peace agreement that leads to both states living side by side as good neighbors" is "essential or desirable".[51][52]

As of 2021, most Palestinians are against the two-state solution. In 2021, a poll by the Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research revealed that 39% of Palestinians accept a two-state solution, while 59% said they rejected it.[10] Support is even lower among younger Palestinians; U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice noted: "Increasingly, the Palestinians who talk about a two-state solution are my age."[53] A survey taken before the outbreak of fighting in 2014 by the Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) found that 60 percent of Palestinians say the goal of their national movement should be "to work toward reclaiming all of historic Palestine from the river to the sea" compared to just 27 percent who endorse the idea that they should work "to end the occupation of the West Bank and Gaza and achieve a two-state solution." WINEP says that "this is a new finding compared to similar (but not identical) questions asked in the past, when support for a two-state solution typically ranged between 40–55 percent".[9][54] By 2020, 40% in Gaza and 26% in the West Bank believe that a negotiated two-state solution should solve the conflict.[13]

The two-state solution enjoys majority support in Israeli polls although there has been some erosion to its prospects over time.[55] A 2014 Haaretz poll asking "Consider that in the framework of an agreement, most settlers are annexed to Israel, Jerusalem will be divided, refugees won't return to Israel and there will be a strict security arrangement, would you support this agreement?", only 35% of Israelis said yes.[9]

Other solutions

Trump's peace plan for the creation of the State of Palestine.

Another option is the binational solution, which could either be a twin regime federalist arrangement or a unitary state,[56] and the Allon Plan, also known as the "no-state solution".

Three-state solution

The three-state solution has been proposed as another alternative. The New York Times[57] reported that Egypt and Jordan were concerned about having to retake responsibility for Gaza and the West Bank. In effect, the result would be Gaza returning to Egyptian rule, and the West Bank to Jordan.[58]

Proposal of dual citizenship

A number of proposals for the granting of Palestinian citizenship or residential permits to Jewish settlers in return for the removal of Israeli military installations from the West Bank have been fielded by such individuals[59] as Arafat,[60] Ibrahim Sarsur[61] and Ahmed Qurei.

Israeli Minister Moshe Ya'alon said in April 2010 that "just as Arabs live in Israel, so, too, should Jews be able to live in Palestine." ... "If we are talking about coexistence and peace, why the [Palestinian] insistence that the territory they receive be ethnically cleansed of Jews?"[62]

The idea has been expressed by both advocates of the two-state solution[63] and supporters of the settlers and conservative or fundamentalist currents in Israeli Judaism[64] that, while objecting to any withdrawal, claim stronger links to the land than to the state of Israel.

See also


  1. ^ Benny Morris (2008). 1948: a history of the first Arab-Israeli war. Yale University Press. pp. 66, 67, 72. ISBN 9780300126969. Retrieved 24 July 2013. p.66, at 1946 "The League demanded independence for Palestine as a "unitary" state, with an Arab majority and minority rights for the Jews." ; p.67, at 1947 "The League's Political Committee met in Sofar, Lebanon, on 16–19 September, and urged the Palestine Arabs to fight partition, which it called "aggression", "without mercy". The League promised them, in line with Bludan, assistance "in manpower, money and equipment" should the United Nations endorse partition." ; p. 72, at December 1947 "The League vowed, in very general language, "to try to stymie the partition plan and prevent the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine
  2. ^ "Question of Palestine – General Assembly". The United Nations – Question of Palestine. Archived from the original on 17 July 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  3. ^ a b "A/RES/3236 (XXIX) Question of Palestine". The United Nations – General Assembly. 22 November 1974. Archived from the original on 1 January 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  4. ^ "A/PV.2296 Question of Palestine (concluded)". The United Nations – General Assembly. 22 November 1974. Archived from the original on 3 January 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  5. ^ "A/RES/65/16. Peaceful settlement of the question of Palestine, United Nations General Assembly". The United Nations – General Assembly. 25 January 2011. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  6. ^ "Wrapping up annual consideration of Question of Palestine, situation in Middle East, adopts six resolutions by recorded vote". The United Nations – General Assembly (GA/11460). 26 November 2013. Archived from the original on 28 July 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  7. ^ Mark A. Tessler. A History of the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict. 1994, p. 718
  8. ^ "How Not to Make Peace in the Middle East", Hussein Agha and Robert Malley, The New York Review of Books. Retrieved Jan. 9, 2009
  9. ^ a b c Yglesias, Matthew (16 July 2014). "One thing Israelis and Palestinians agree on: they don't like the two-state solution". Vox. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  10. ^ a b "Public Opinion Poll No (82)". Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research. 2021-12-27. Retrieved 2022-01-20.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  11. ^ "Israelis unwilling to risk two-state solution, says new report". 2021-02-10. Retrieved 2021-03-13.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  12. ^ a b Telhami, Marc Lynch and Shibley (19 February 2021). "Biden says he will listen to experts. Here is what scholars of the Middle East think". Brookings. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  13. ^ a b c "What Do Palestinians Want?". The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved 2022-08-01.
  14. ^ azza (2020-10-26). "The Palestine/Israel Pulse, a Joint Poll Summary Report". Retrieved 2022-08-01.
  15. ^ Swedenburg, Ted (1988) "The Role of the Palestinian Peasantry in the Great Revolt 1936–1939". in Islam, Politics, and Social Movements, edited by Edmund Burke III and Ira Lapidus. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06868-8 pp. 189–94 & Marvin E. Gettleman, Stuart Schaar (2003) The Middle East and Islamic World Reader, Grove Press, ISBN 0-8021-3936-1 pp. 177–81
  16. ^ Pappé Ilan (2004) A History of Modern Palestine: One Land, Two Peoples, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-55632-5
  17. ^ United Nations General Assembly (23 August 1951). "General Progress Report and Supplementary Report of the United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine". Archived from the original (OpenDocument) on 22 August 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2007.
  18. ^ Avnon, Dan. "BDS and Self-Righteous Moralists." Anti-Zionism on Campus: The University, Free Speech, and BDS, Ed. Andrew Pessin and Doron S. Ben-Atar. Indiana University Press, 2018. pp. 43-57. See especially Page 50.
  19. ^ a b "The Question of Palestine and the United Nations" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 2 Aug 2014.
  20. ^ Ayoob, Mohammed. The Middle East in world politics. 1981, p. 90
  21. ^ Ḥusayn Āghā, Shai Feldman, Aḥmad Khālidī, Zeev Schiff. Track-II diplomacy: lessons from the Middle East. 2003, p. 11
  22. ^ Cattan, Henry. The Palestine question. 1988, p. 307
  23. ^ "The Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People and the Division for Palestinian Rights". The United Nations – Question of Palestine. 12 December 2005. Archived from the original on 13 May 2007. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  24. ^ Rabie, Mohamed (Summer 1992). "The U.S.-PLO Dialogue: The Swedish Connection". Journal of Palestine Studies. 21 (4): 54–66. doi:10.1525/jps.1992.21.4.00p0140g. JSTOR 2537663.
  25. ^ Quandt, William B. (1993). Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli conflict since 1967. Washington: Brookings Institution. pp. 367–75, 494. ISBN 0-520-08390-3.
  26. ^ "Transcript – House of Saud – Frontline".
  27. ^ Caplan, Neil (2011). "Camp David Revisited; Intifada Redux". The Israel–Palestine Conflict: Contested Histories (PDF). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1444357868. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  28. ^ D. Jones, Bruce. "216". Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  29. ^ "In Mideast Talks, Scant Hopes From the Beginning" news analysis by Ethan Bronner in The New York Times August 20, 2010, accessed August 21, 2010
  30. ^ Hass, Amira. "EU report: Israel policy in West Bank endangers two-state solution." Haaretz, 12 January 2012.
  31. ^ Ravid, Barak. "EU: Israel's policies in the West Bank endanger two-state solution." Haaretz, 14 May 2012.
  32. ^ "Council conclusions on the Middle East Peace Process – 3166th Foreign Affairs Council meeting" (PDF). EN. Council of the European Union. May 14, 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  33. ^ Israel Plans To Expand Settlements In East Jerusalem, West Bank, NPR, 30 Nov 2012. Retrieved 5 Dec 2012.
  34. ^ Israel takes a harder line, LA Times, 4 Dec 2012. Retrieved 5 Dec 2012.
  35. ^ Australia joins countries criticizing settlements, Jerusalem Post, 4 Dec 2012. Retrieved 5 Dec 2012.
  36. ^ Israel to advance East Jerusalem building plans, USA Today, 4 Dec 2012. Retrieved 5 Dec 2012.
  37. ^ Explaining Israel's Reaction to the U.N.’s pro-Palestinian Vote, The Daily Beast/Newsweek, 3 Dec 2012. Retrieved 5 Dec 2012.
  38. ^ "Two state policy, settlements on Benjamin Netanyahu's agenda". The Australian. February 20, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  39. ^ Moran Azulay,"Netanyahu says no Palestinian state if he remains PM", Ynet 16 March 2015:'"Whoever moves to establish a Palestinian state or intends to withdraw from territory is simply yielding territory for radical Islamic terrorist attacks against Israel",'
  40. ^ "Netanyahu Backtracks on Election Pledge to Refuse a Two-State Solution After Sharp Words from the US". Vice. 19 March 2015.
  41. ^ "World reacts to Trump move on Jerusalem". BBC News. December 7, 2017. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
  42. ^ "Arab League condemns US Jerusalem move". Al Jazeera. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  43. ^ "A/RES/68/15 Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 26 November 2013 – General Assembly". The United Nations. January 30, 2014. Archived from the original on 13 September 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  44. ^ Karla Vallance (January 8, 1982). "Israel OKs compensation for settlers leaving Sinai". Christian Science Monitor.
  45. ^ "What Is the Palestine Liberation Organization?".
  46. ^ "Large Israeli and Palestinian Majorities Indicate Readiness for Two-State Solution Based on 1967 Borders". Archived from the original on 2008-04-05.
  47. ^ Lydia Saad; Elizabeth Mendes (March 21, 2013). "Israelis, Palestinians Pro Peace Process, but Not Hopeful". Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  48. ^ Goldberg, Jeffrey (20 May 2009). "Book Review | 'One State, Two States: Resolving the Israel/Palestine Conflict,' by Benny Morris". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  49. ^ Stephens, Bret (14 January 2009). "The No-State Solution". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 29 November 2016. The No-State Solution ; Hamas cares more about Shariah than 'Palestine'
  50. ^ BLANKLEY: The two-state 'solution' mirage, Time for reality-based diplomacy on Israel and Palestinians, Tony Blankley | Tuesday, May 19, 2009 [1]
  51. ^ "Polls Show Vast Support for Two-State Mideast Peace Solution". Archived from the original on 2010-02-08. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
  52. ^ Hoffman, Gil (2011-07-15). "6 in 10 Palestinians reject 2-state solution, survey finds". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2016-04-12.
  53. ^ Richard Boudreaux and Ashraf Khalil (May 14, 2008). "Can 2 foes live under 1 roof?". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-06-17.
  54. ^ WINEP poll 2014
  55. ^ Is One State Enough?, Reut Institute, 12 June 2007, retrieved 2008-01-01
  56. ^ One State Threat, Reut Institute, 1 November 2004, retrieved 2008-01-01
  57. ^ Slackman, Michael (January 12, 2009). "Crisis Imperils 2-State Plan, Shifting a Balance". The New York Times. Retrieved March 28, 2010.
  58. ^ "Israel-Palestine: The return of the Jordanian option". Haaretz. 3 July 2007. Archived from the original on 18 August 2007. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  59. ^ "Let them stay in Palestine - Haaretz - Israel News". 2010-01-17. Archived from the original on 2010-01-17. Retrieved 2017-08-23.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  60. ^ "Arafat may allow Jewish settlers to stay in West Bank". 30 January 2001.
  61. ^ "Arab MK: I would agree to grant settlers Palestinian citizenship".
  62. ^ 'No need to remove any settlements' By Herb Keinon, Jerusalem Post, 16 April 2010
  63. ^ "Jewish-Arab conflict". Archived from the original on 6 October 1999.
  64. ^ El-Haddad, Laila (July 4, 2005). "Interview: Israeli settler Avi Farhan". Aljazera. Archived from the original on 1 November 2005. Retrieved 29 November 2016.

Further reading

  • Aharon Cohen, Israel and the Arab World (Funk and Wagnalls, New York, 1970).

External links

  • The Future of the TwoState Solution, Giora Eiland, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, February 2009
  • Two-state solution-discredited – without workable alternative, Beate Zilversmidt, The Other Israel, May 2006
  • "Two-State Chimera, No-State Solution". Why there won't ever be two 'states'. Cameron Hunt, Counter Currents, May 2007
  • "Banging Square Pegs into Round Holes," Dore Gold, ed. David Pollack, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, December 2008
  • "The Middle East conflict and the two-state solution," RearVision, ABC Radio National, September 23, 2009
  • Taking the two-state solution seriously[permanent dead link], Opinion by Alain Dieckhoff, March 2009, European Union Institute for Security Studies
  • A Demilitarized Palestinian State, On the meaning of that & summary of security arrangement out of previous Israeli-Palestinian accords, Reut Institution (a Think Tank)
Retrieved from ""