Toronto Pearson International Airport

Toronto Pearson International Airport

Aéroport international Pearson de Toronto
Summary
Airport typePublic
OwnerTransport Canada
OperatorGreater Toronto Airports Authority
ServesGreater Toronto
LocationMalton, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada
OpenedAugust 29, 1938; 85 years ago (1938-08-29)
Hub for
Focus city for
Operating base for
Time zoneEST (UTC−05:00)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC−04:00)
Elevation AMSL569 ft / 173 m
Coordinates43°40′36″N 079°37′50″W / 43.67667°N 79.63056°W / 43.67667; -79.63056
Public transit access Pearson station
Websitewww.torontopearson.com
Maps
FAA airport diagram from 2004, which shows the old Aeroquay 1, the then-new Terminal 1, the former Terminal 2, Terminal 3, and the Infield Terminal
FAA airport diagram from 2004, which shows the old Aeroquay 1, the then-new Terminal 1, the former Terminal 2, Terminal 3, and the Infield Terminal
Map
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
05/23 11,120 3,389 Asphalt
06L/24R 9,697 2,956 Asphalt
06R/24L 9,000 2,743 Asphalt
15L/33R 11,050 3,368 Asphalt
15R/33L 9,088 2,770 Asphalt
Statistics (2022)
Passengers35.6 million
Aircraft movements338,577
Sources: Canada Flight Supplement[3]
Environment Canada[4]
Transport Canada[5]
Movements from Statistics Canada[6]
Toronto Pearson Traffic Summary[7]

Toronto Pearson International Airport (IATA: YYZ, ICAO: CYYZ; originally Malton Airport, simply Toronto Pearson or Pearson, and officially Lester B. Pearson International Airport) is an international airport located in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. It is the main airport serving Toronto, its metropolitan area, and the surrounding region known as the Golden Horseshoe. The airport is named in honour of Lester B. Pearson, who served as the 14th Prime Minister of Canada (1963–1968) and received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 for his humanitarian work in peacekeeping.[8]

Toronto Pearson is located 22.5 kilometres (14.0 mi) northwest of Downtown Toronto with the majority of the airport situated in Mississauga and a small portion of the airfield, along Silver Dart Drive north of Renforth Drive, extending into Toronto's western district of Etobicoke.[9] It has five runways and two passenger terminals along with numerous cargo and maintenance facilities on a site that covers 1,867 hectares (4,613 acres).[10]

Pearson is the largest and busiest airport in Canada, handling 36.3 million passengers in 2022.[11][12] As of 2019, it was the second-busiest international air passenger gateway in North America and the 29th-busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic.[11]

Toronto Pearson is the primary hub for Air Canada.[13] It also serves as a hub for WestJet, cargo airline FedEx Express, and as a base of operations for Air Transat and Sunwing Airlines. Toronto Pearson is operated by the Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA) as part of Transport Canada's National Airports System.[14] The airport also maintains facilities for United States border preclearance.[15]

An extensive network of non-stop domestic flights is operated from Toronto Pearson by several airlines to all major and many secondary cities across all provinces and territories of Canada.[16] Since 2014, over 75 airlines operated around 1,250 daily departures from the airport to more than 180 destinations across five continents.[17][18][19]

History

In 1937, the Government of Canada agreed to support the building of two airports in the Toronto area. One site selected was on the Toronto Islands, which is the present-day Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport. The other site selected was an area northwest of Toronto near the town of Malton in what was then Toronto Township (which would later become Mississauga to avoid confusion with the nearby city of Toronto), which was originally intended to serve as an alternate to the downtown airport but instead would become its successor due to having a much larger space without being constrained by Lake Ontario and Toronto Inner Harbour.[20] The first scheduled passenger flight at the Malton Airport was a Trans-Canada Air Lines DC-3 that landed on August 29, 1939.[21]

During World War II, the Royal Canadian Air Force established a base at the airport as a component of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. RCAF Station Malton was home to several training schools and was in operation between 1940 and 1946.[22]

In 1958, the municipal government of Toronto sold the Malton Airport to the Government of Canada, which subsequently changed the name of the facility to Toronto International Airport, under the management of Transport Canada.[23] The airport was officially renamed Lester B. Pearson International Airport in 1984, in honour of Toronto-born Lester B. Pearson, the 14th prime minister of Canada and recipient of the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize. The Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA) assumed management, operation, and control of the airport in 1996, and has used the name Toronto Pearson International Airport for the facility since the transition.[24]

Since Toronto has more than one airport, YTO is used for the area designation, while Pearson is coded YYZ, Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport is YTZ and Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport in Markham, until its closure on November 24, 2023, was YKZ. YZ was the code for the station in Malton, Ontario, where Pearson Airport is located and hence the IATA code for Pearson Airport is YYZ. The telegraph station in Toronto itself was coded TZ, which is why Toronto's smaller Billy Bishop Airport is coded YTZ. [25]

Terminals

Toronto Pearson International Airport has two active public terminals, Terminal 1 and Terminal 3. Both terminals are designed to handle all three sectors of travel (domestic, transborder, and international), which results in terminal operations at Toronto Pearson being grouped for airlines and airline alliances, rather than for domestic and international routes.

A third public terminal, the Infield Concourse (IFC), currently acts as an extension of Terminal 3 providing additional bridged gates.

The original Terminal 1 was demolished in 2004[26]while Terminal 2 was permanently closed and demolished in 2007. Both were replaced by a larger Terminal 1. Terminal 3 retains its numbering to prevent confusion and the Terminal 2 designation is reserved for a future terminal separate from Terminal 3.[27]

Terminal 1

The current Terminal 1 opened in 2004, replacing Aeroquay One (also referred to as the original Terminal 1) and Terminal 2.[28] Measuring over 346,000 square metres (3,724,000 sq ft),[29] Terminal 1 is the largest airport terminal in Canada and the 12th largest in the world by floor space. Air Canada and all other Star Alliance airlines that serve Pearson Airport are based at Terminal 1 under the "Move Under One Roof" policy in which all member airlines under each airline alliance fly out of a single terminal. Other airlines that use this terminal include Air North, Canadian North, Emirates, and Lynx Air.[30] Sunwing Airlines previously had its base at Terminal 1 until it moved to Terminal 3 on May 1, 2016.[31]

Terminal 1 was designed by a joint venture known as Airports Architects Canada made up of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Adamson Associates Architects and Moshe Safdie and Associates.[28] It contains 58 gates, with two of them being able to accommodate the Airbus A380.[citation needed]

Along with the standard customs and immigration facilities, Terminal 1 also contains special customs "B" checkpoints along the international arrivals walkway. Passengers connecting from an international or trans-border arrival to another international (non-U.S.) departure in Terminal 1 go to one of these checkpoints for passport control and immigration checks, then are immediately directed to Pier E for departure. This alleviates the need to recheck bags, pass through security screening, and relieves congestion in the primary customs hall.[32] International-to-domestic passengers use the same corridor and a bus for one-stop security procedures, which avoids having to re-clear security if coming from another country with a mutual agreement.[33]

The terminal has a total of eight lounges, with five of the lounges being Air Canada–operated lounges (three Maple Leaf Lounges, one Maple Leaf Express Lounge and one Signature Suite) and three being Plaza Premium operated. Both Air Canada and Plaza Premium have lounges in the Domestic, International and Transborder zones, with the Signature Suite being in the International Zone.[34][35]

In addition to the eight lounges, Air Canada operates the Air Canada Cafe, in which premium passengers have the ability to enter the café to get premium coffee, tea and grab-and-go snacks.[36]

In the domestic section of the arrivals level, there are some retailers both before and after security checkpoints,[37] such as 7-Eleven (convenience goods), which was renovated and expanded in late 2022.[38]

An eight-level parking garage with 8,400 public parking spaces (including 700 rental car spaces)[29] across from Terminal 1 is connected to the terminal by several elevated and enclosed pedestrian walkways.[23]

Terminal 1 is home to the ThyssenKrupp Express Walkway, the world's fastest moving walkway.[39]

Terminal 3

Terminal 3 opened in 1991. The building is a 178,000-square-metre (1,916,000 sq ft) facility designed by B+H Architects and Scott Associates Architects Inc.[40]

Originally, Terminal 3 was major tenant for Canadian Airlines International (defunct since 2001). Today, the terminal is the Eastern Canada hub for WestJet, which is unaffiliated with any airline alliance and is also used by all SkyTeam and Oneworld airlines that serve Pearson Airport, along with Air Transat, Biman Bangladesh Airlines, Canada Jetlines, Etihad Airways, Pakistan International Airlines, Philippine Airlines, Porter Airlines, Sunwing Airlines and all other airlines that are unaffiliated with an airline alliance (Air North, Canadian North, Emirates and Lynx Air are the only airlines that are unaffiliated with an airline alliance that use Terminal 1). Terminal 3 has 46 gates.

A five-level parking garage with 3,800 public parking spaces (including 600 rental car spaces) [29] is located directly across from the terminal along with the Sheraton Hotel, both of which are connected to Terminal 3 by an elevated pedestrian walkway.[23][41]

Since June 2018, the GTAA has used the Infield Terminal to act as an extension of Terminal 3 to provide additional bridged gates. Passengers on flights arriving or departing from gates at the Infield Terminal are transported by bus to/from Terminal 3.[42]

American Airlines has an Admirals Club, and Delta Air Lines has a Delta Sky Club, both in the US Pre-clearance departures area.

Infield Concourse

The Infield Concourse (IFC) was originally built to handle traffic displaced during the development and construction of the current Terminal 1.[43] Its 11 gates were opened gradually throughout 2002 and 2003,[44] and a business lounge was opened in 2005.[45][44] In 2009, the Infield Concourse was closed for regular operations in conjunction with the official opening of the newly constructed Terminal 1. However, the GTAA retained plans to reactivate the IFC for regular operations whenever necessary to accommodate seasonal or overflow demand.

The terminal was substantially renovated in late 2015 to serve as a dedicated terminal for incoming government-sponsored refugees of the Syrian civil war.[46] Further renovations were completed at the Infield Concourse in early 2018 and on June 5, 2018, the terminal was reactivated for summer operations by the GTAA to act as an extension of Terminal 3 with the purpose of providing required additional bridged gates. Passengers are transported by bus between Terminal 3 and the IFC.[42] Effective December 2019, Sunwing Airlines moved their operations from Terminal 3 to the IFC.

Due to its intermittent usage for passenger traffic, the Infield Concourse is frequently used as a location to film major motion pictures and television productions.[47]

VIP Terminal

Skyservice FBO operates an 800-square-metre (8,611 sq ft) private VIP terminal at Toronto Pearson on Midfield Road in the infield area of the airport.[48][49] The terminal handles most private aircraft arriving and departing at Toronto Pearson, providing passenger services that include a 24/7 concierge, private customs and immigration facilities, personalized catering, showers, direct handling of baggage, and VIP ground transportation services.[48][50]

Infrastructure and operations

Runways

Aerial view of the airport in 2007 after permanent closure of Terminal 2. Two of the airport's three east–west runways are visible in the left foreground, whereas its north–south runways are visible in the centre.

Toronto Pearson has five runways, three of which are aligned in the east–west direction, and two in the north–south direction. A large network of taxiways, collectively measuring over 40 km (25 mi) in length,[51] provides access between the runways and the passenger terminals, air cargo areas, and airline hangar areas.[52]

Number Length[3] Width[3] ILS Alignment
05/23 11,120 ft (3,390 m) 200 ft (61 m) Cat. IIIa (05), Cat. I (23) East–West
06L/24R 9,697 ft (2,956 m) 200 ft (61 m) Cat. IIIa (6L), Cat. I (24R) East–West
06R/24L 9,000 ft (2,700 m) 200 ft (61 m) Cat. I (both directions) East–West
15L/33R 11,050 ft (3,370 m) 200 ft (61 m) Cat. I (both directions) North–South
15R/33L 9,088 ft (2,770 m) 200 ft (61 m) Cat. I (both directions) North–South

Airfield operations

Airport apron of Pearson Airport, with the airport's infield operations and main control tower visible in the background

Toronto Pearson is home to the Toronto Area Control Centre, one of seven area control centres in Canada operated by Nav Canada. The airport uses a Traffic Management Unit (TMU), located in the apron control tower at Terminal 1, to control the movement of aircraft and other airport traffic on the ground.[53] The main air traffic control tower at Toronto Pearson is located within the infield operations area of the airport.

The airfield maintenance unit is responsible for general maintenance and repairs at Toronto Pearson.[54] During the winter months, the unit expands into a dedicated 24-hour snow removal team of more than 200 workers tasked with ensuring normal operations at the airport, as Toronto Pearson regularly experiences 110 to 130 centimetres (43 to 51 in) of total snow accumulation in a typical winter season.[55][56] The airport employs over 94 pieces of snow removal equipment, including 11 Vammas PSB series,[57] 4 Oshkosh Corporation Snow Products HT-Series[58] snowplow units, and 14 snowmelters.[59]

Pearson Airport's Central De-icing Facility is the largest in the world, servicing over 10,500 aircraft each winter.[59] The six de-icing bays, covering a total area of 24 hectares (60 acres), can handle 12 aircraft simultaneously and take between 2 and 19 minutes to de-ice each aircraft dependent on factors such as active weather and aircraft specifications.[60][55]

The Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA) Fire and Emergency Service maintains three stations at the airport, with more than 80 firefighters providing fire and rescue operations at Pearson.[61] They are equipped with six crash tenders as well as several pumpers, aerial ladders, and heavy rescue units.[61] The GTAA Fire and Emergency Service operates in conjunction with the Fire and Emergency Services Training Institute (FESTI), located at the northwest end of the airport grounds.[62]

Cargo facilities

UPS Airbus A300 unloads cargo at the airport's VISTA cargo facility

Toronto Pearson handles approximately half of all the international air cargo in Canada.[63] The airport has three main cargo facilities, known as Cargo West (Infield), Cargo East (VISTA), and Cargo North (FedEx).[64]

The Cargo West facility (also known as the Infield Cargo Area) is located between runways 15L/33R and 15R/33L. It is a multi-tenant facility including three large buildings with 52,600 square metres (566,000 sq ft) of warehouse space, a common use cargo apron, vehicle parking, and a truck maneuvering area. A four-lane vehicle tunnel connects the Infield Cargo Area to the passenger terminal area of the airport.[65]

The Cargo East facility (also known as the VISTA cargo area) is located north of Terminal 3. The VISTA cargo area is a multi-tenant facility of several buildings organized in a U-shape, with 29,500 square metres (318,000 sq ft) of warehouse space and an adjacent common use cargo apron.[65]

The Cargo North facility is the Canadian hub for FedEx Express. The site occupies an area on the north side of the airport near runway 05/23 and is home to two buildings operated exclusively by FedEx with 32,100 square metres (346,000 sq ft) of warehouse space and a dedicated cargo apron.[65]

Security

The Peel Regional Police is the primary law enforcement agency at Pearson Airport.[66] The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) also maintain a Toronto Airport Detachment at Pearson Airport, which provides federal law enforcement services.[67]

The Canadian Air Transport Security Authority (CATSA) is responsible for security screening procedures at Pearson Airport. Other government agencies with security operations at Pearson include the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA), Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC), the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS), and Transport Canada. In addition, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) from the United States also conduct operations at the airport to facilitate United States border preclearance.[68]

Other facilities

Pearson Airport has seven aircraft maintenance hangars, operated by Air Canada, Air Transat, WestJet, and the GTAA, which are used for line maintenance and routine aircraft inspections.[65] At the north end of the airfield are numerous independently operated hangars for charter aircraft and personal private aircraft based at Pearson Airport, along with passenger and maintenance facilities to service them.[69]

The Greater Toronto Airports Authority maintains administrative offices on Convair Drive, near the southeast corner of the airfield. Gate Gourmet and CLS Catering Services both operate dedicated flight kitchen facilities at Pearson Airport for airline catering services.[65] Aviation fuel is supplied by Esso Avitat (Jet A-1) and Shell Aerocentre (Jet A and A-1), both located in the infield operations area of the airport.[65]

FedEx has a large distribution centre on the north side of the airfield connected with multiple large jet parking bays and logistics handling facilities for servicing the Greater Toronto Area.

Bombardier Aviation's Bombardier Global Express business jet final assembly are completed at the factory located on the north side of Toronto Pearson since 2023.

Airlines and destinations

Passenger

AirlinesDestinationsRefs
Aer Lingus Dublin [70]
Aeroméxico Mexico City [71]
Air Canada Amsterdam, Atlanta, Austin, Barbados, Bogotá, Boston, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Calgary, Cancún, Chicago–O'Hare, Copenhagen, Curaçao, Dallas/Fort Worth, Delhi, Denver, Dubai–International, Dublin, Edmonton, Frankfurt, Grenada, Halifax, Houston–Intercontinental, Kingston–Norman Manley, Las Vegas, Liberia (CR), Lisbon, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Madrid, Mexico City, Miami, Milan–Malpensa, Moncton, Monterrey, Montréal–Trudeau, Munich, Nashville, Nassau, New Orleans, New York–LaGuardia, Orlando, Ottawa, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Port of Spain, Providenciales, Puerto Vallarta, Rome–Fiumicino, St. John's (NL), St. Vincent–Argyle, San Diego, San Francisco, San José (CR), São Paulo–Guarulhos, Seattle/Tacoma, Seoul–Incheon, Tel Aviv (resumes April 8, 2024),[72] Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita, Vancouver, Vienna, Winnipeg, Yellowknife (begins May 1, 2024),[73] Zürich
Seasonal: Athens, Barcelona, Brussels, Edinburgh,[74] Fort-de-France, Fort Lauderdale, Fredericton, George Town, Honolulu, Kahului, Manchester (UK), Mumbai, Nanaimo, Osaka–Kansai (resumes June 17, 2024),[75] Panama City–Tocumen, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Punta Cana, Reykjavík–Keflavík, Sacramento,[76] St. Maarten, Salt Lake City, Santiago de Chile, Stockholm–Arlanda (begins June 12, 2024),[77] Venice, West Palm Beach
[78]
Air Canada Express Atlanta, Baltimore (ends March 31, 2024),[79] Charleston (SC) (begins March 28, 2024),[80] Charlotte, Chicago–O'Hare, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus–Glenn, Detroit, Indianapolis, London (ON), Minneapolis/St. Paul, Montréal–Trudeau, Newark, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, North Bay, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Raleigh/Durham, St. Louis, Saint John (NB), Sault Ste. Marie (ON), Sudbury, Sydney (NS), Thunder Bay, Timmins, Washington–Dulles, Washington–National, Windsor
Seasonal: Gander, Hartford, Kansas City, Mont Tremblant
[78]
Air Canada Rouge Antigua, Bermuda, Cayo Coco, Charlottetown, Deer Lake, Fort Lauderdale, Fort McMurray, Fort Myers, Grand Cayman, Kelowna, Kingston–Norman Manley, Las Vegas, Montego Bay, Orlando, Puerto Plata, Québec City, Regina, St. Lucia–Hewanorra, Saskatoon, Tampa, Tulum (begins May 3, 2024),[81] Varadero, Victoria
Seasonal: Aruba, Belize City, Cozumel, Fredericton, Holguín, Huatulco, Ixtapa/Zihuatanejo, Moncton, Nanaimo, Palm Springs, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Portland (OR), Punta Cana, St. Kitts, Saint John (NB), San Juan, Samaná, San José del Cabo, Santa Clara, Sarasota, Thunder Bay, Yellowknife
[78]
Air France Paris–Charles de Gaulle [82]
Air India Delhi [83]
Air North Seasonal: Whitehorse, Yellowknife [84]
Air Transat Cancún, Cayo Coco, Faro, Fort Lauderdale, Glasgow, Holguín, Lima,[85] Lisbon, London–Gatwick, Manchester (UK), Montego Bay, Montréal–Trudeau, Orlando, Porto, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Samaná, Santa Clara, Varadero
Seasonal: Amsterdam, Athens, Barcelona, Cartagena, Dublin, Lamezia Terme, La Romana, Liberia (CR), Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Puerto Vallarta, Río Hato, Rome–Fiumicino, St. Maarten, San José (CR), San Juan, Venice, Zagreb
[86]
Alaska Airlines Seattle/Tacoma (begins May 16, 2024)[87] [88]
American Airlines Dallas/Fort Worth, Miami [89]
American Eagle Charlotte, Chicago–O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, Philadelphia, Washington–National [89]
Arajet Santo Domingo–Las Américas [90]
Avianca Bogotá [91]
Avianca El Salvador San José (CR), San Salvador [91]
Azores Airlines Ponta Delgada, Porto (begins June 1, 2024)[92]
Seasonal: Funchal (begins June 5, 2024),[93] Terceira
[94]
Biman Bangladesh Airlines Dhaka [95]
British Airways London–Heathrow [96]
Canada Jetlines Cancún, Georgetown–Cheddi Jagan, Halifax (begins June 2, 2024),[97] Las Vegas, Montego Bay, Orlando [98]
Caribbean Airlines Georgetown–Cheddi Jagan, Kingston–Norman Manley, Port of Spain [99]
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong [100]
China Eastern Airlines Shanghai–Pudong [101]
China Southern Airlines Guangzhou [102]
Condor Frankfurt [103]
Copa Airlines Panama City–Tocumen [104]
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Salt Lake City [105]
Delta Connection Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia [105]
Egyptair Cairo [106]
Emirates Dubai–International [107]
Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa [108]
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi [109]
EVA Air Taipei–Taoyuan [110]
Flair Airlines Abbotsford, Calgary, Cancún, Charlottetown, Edmonton, Fort Lauderdale, Halifax, Kelowna, Kingston–Norman Manley, Las Vegas, Nashville, Saint John (NB), Saskatoon, Thunder Bay, Vancouver, Victoria, Winnipeg
Seasonal: Deer Lake (begins May 6, 2024),[111] New York–JFK, Orlando/Sanford, Palm Springs, Puerto Vallarta, Punta Cana, Québec City (begins May 6, 2024),[112] St. John's (begins May 6, 2024)[111]
[113]
Icelandair Reykjavík–Keflavík [114]
ITA Airways Rome–Fiumicino (begins May 10, 2024)[115] [116]
KLM Amsterdam [117]
Korean Air Seoul–Incheon [118]
LOT Polish Airlines Warsaw–Chopin [119]
Lufthansa Frankfurt
Seasonal: Munich
[120]
Lynx Air Calgary, Cancún, Edmonton, Fort Myers, Halifax, Los Angeles, Orlando, Tampa, Vancouver (all end February 26, 2024)[121]
Seasonal: Fredericton, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, St. John's (NL) (all end February 26, 2024)[121]
[122]
Neos Milan–Malpensa [123]
OWG Cayo Coco, Holguín, Santa Clara, Varadero [124]
Pakistan International Airlines Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore [125]
Philippine Airlines Manila [126]
Porter Airlines Calgary, Edmonton, Fort Lauderdale, Halifax, Las Vegas (begins March 5, 2024),[127] Los Angeles, Montréal–Trudeau, Orlando, Ottawa, St. John's (NL), San Francisco, Saskatoon (begins May 16, 2024),[128] Vancouver, Victoria, Winnipeg
Seasonal: Fort Myers, Miami, Québec City (begins May 17, 2024),[129] Tampa
[130]
Royal Jordanian Amman–Queen Alia [131]
Saudia Jeddah [132]
Scandinavian Airlines Seasonal: Copenhagen, Stockholm–Arlanda [133]
Sun Country Airlines Seasonal: Minneapolis/St. Paul (begins June 13, 2024) [134]
Sunwing Airlines Aruba, Cancún, Cayo Coco, Cayo Largo del Sur, Holguín, La Romana, Liberia (CR), Montego Bay, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, St. Maarten, San José del Cabo, Santa Clara, Varadero
Seasonal: Acapulco, Antigua, Cienfuegos, Freeport, Grenada, Manzanillo (Cuba), Mazatlán, Orlando, Puerto Vallarta, Río Hato, Roatán, St. Lucia–Hewanorra
[135]
Swiss International Air Lines Seasonal: Zürich (begins May 10, 2024)[136] [137]
TAP Air Portugal Lisbon [138]
Turkish Airlines Istanbul [139]
United Airlines Chicago–O'Hare, Denver, Houston–Intercontinental, San Francisco [140]
United Express Chicago–O'Hare, Houston–Intercontinental, Newark, Washington–Dulles [140]
WestJet Antigua, Aruba, Barbados, Calgary, Cancún, Edmonton, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Grand Cayman, Halifax, Kelowna, Kingston–Norman Manley, Las Vegas, Liberia (CR), Montego Bay, Nassau, Orlando, Providenciales, Puerto Plata, Puerto Vallarta, Punta Cana, Regina, St. John's (NL), St. Lucia–Hewanorra, St. Maarten, Saskatoon, Tampa, Vancouver, Varadero, Winnipeg
Seasonal: Belize City, Bonaire, Charlottetown (resumes May 17, 2024),[141] Comox, Cozumel, Curaçao, Deer Lake (resumes May 16, 2024),[142] Dublin (resumes March 1, 2024),[143] Edinburgh (resumes May 14, 2024),[143] Huatulco, Los Angeles, Mérida, Moncton (resumes May 17, 2024),[144] Nashville, Ottawa, Roatán, San Juan, Victoria (resumes May 17, 2024)[144]
[145]

Cargo

AirlinesDestinationsCargo Centre
Air Canada Cargo Basel/Mulhouse, Cologne/Bonn, Dallas/Fort Worth, Frankfurt, Guadalajara, Halifax, Istanbul, Liège, Lima, Madrid, Mexico City–AIFA, Miami, Quito, San Juan, St. John's Cargo West
Cathay Cargo Anchorage, Hong Kong, New York–JFK Cargo West
China Southern Cargo Qingdao, Vancouver Cargo West
EVA Air Cargo Taipei–Taoyuan Cargo West
FedEx Express Calgary, Edmonton, Indianapolis, Memphis, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Montréal–Mirabel, North Bay, Sault Ste. Marie (ON), Sudbury, Timmins, Vancouver, Winnipeg FedEx
Korean Air Cargo Anchorage, New York–JFK, Seoul–Incheon Cargo West
Lufthansa Cargo Frankfurt Cargo West
TAP Air Portugal Lisbon, Zaragoza VISTA
Turkish Cargo Chicago–O'Hare, Istanbul, New York–JFK Cargo West
UPS Airlines Anchorage, Louisville VISTA
WestJet Cargo Calgary, Halifax, Miami, Vancouver

Ground transportation

Train

Two train services have stops at the airport. The Union Pearson Express is an airport rail link that runs to Union Station in downtown Toronto, whereas the Terminal Link is a localized people mover (within airport property) formerly known as the Link Train.

Union Pearson Express

The Union Pearson Express (UP Express) is an airport rail link running between Pearson Airport and Union Station in Downtown Toronto, with intermediate stops at Weston and Bloor GO Stations.[146] Trains depart every 15 minutes from Toronto Pearson Terminal 1 station and provide a 25-minute travel time to Union Station, the busiest intermodal transportation facility in Canada.[147] Union Station offers connections to numerous GO Transit regional rail and bus services as well as inter-city rail links on Via Rail's Quebec City–Windsor Corridor. Combined UP Express and inter-city tickets may be purchased from VIA Rail.[148][149] The UP Express operates daily between 5:27 am and 12:57 am of the next calendar day.[150]

Terminal Link

The Terminal Link (formerly the Link Train) is an automated people mover that facilitates inter-terminal transportation at Pearson Airport. It runs between Terminal 1, Terminal 3, and Toronto Pearson Viscount station located at the Viscount Value Park Lot, connecting directly to the airport terminals at Toronto Pearson Terminal 1 station and Toronto Pearson Terminal 3 station.[151] The Terminal Link train operates daily, 24-hour service with trains departing all stations every 4 to 8 minutes.[152]

Bus

Public transit

TTC bus at Terminal 1

Several public transit bus services operate bus routes to Toronto Pearson International Airport. Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) operates daily, 24-hour public transit bus service from Pearson Airport to various subway stations in Toronto, with route 900 Airport Express being the main express bus service to the airport from Kipling station on Line 2 Bloor–Danforth of the Toronto subway,[153] and route 52 Lawrence West / 352 Lawrence West Night / 952 Lawrence West Express operate service along Lawrence Avenue to Lawrence and Lawrence West stations on the subway's Line 1 Yonge–University.[154][155] Additionally, route 900 Airport Express buses have a unique airport-themed livery and luggage racks. The TTC Blue Night Network operates local night bus routes to Warden Avenue in Toronto's east end via Bloor Street and Danforth Avenue,[156] Eglinton station via Eglinton Avenue[157] and Sunnybrook Hospital.[158] Although the airport terminals are situated outside of the Toronto city limits, TTC bus services at Pearson Airport do not require a supplementary fare.[159] TTC buses serve both Terminal 1 and Terminal 3.

Two public transit operators based in Peel Region also operate routes to the airport: Brampton Transit and MiWay. Brampton Transit operates all-day public transit bus service from Pearson Airport to the city of Brampton, with express service operating to Bramalea Terminal.[160] Brampton Transit buses arrive and depart from Terminal 1. MiWay operates all-day public transit bus service from Pearson Airport to the city of Mississauga, with express service to City Centre Transit Terminal, Humber College,[161] and Winston Churchill Transitway Station,[162] and local routes to Westwood Square Terminal,[163] Renforth station,[164] and Meadowvale Town Centre Terminal.[165] MiWay buses arrive and depart from Terminal 1, Terminal 3, Toronto Pearson Viscount station, and the infield operations area of the airport.

GO Transit bus outside Terminal 1, providing coach service to areas across the Greater Toronto Area

GO Transit operates two 24-hour bus routes from the airport to cities across the Greater Toronto Area: route 40 to Richmond Hill Terminal and Hamilton GO Centre[166] and route 94 to Pickering GO Station and Square One Bus Terminal.[167] GO Transit coaches arrive and depart from Terminal 1.

Private

The airport is served by several long-distance coach, van and minibus shuttle operators, which provide transportation from the airport to various municipalities and regional airports throughout Southern Ontario and to select cities and towns in the U.S. states of New York and Michigan.[168]

Coach Canada's Megabus service provides bus service between Pearson Airport and Hamilton International Airport to the west as well as between Pearson Airport and destinations east of Toronto, such as Port Hope, Trenton, Belleville, Napanee, Kingston, and Cornwall.[169]

Car

The roadway exiting the airport provides access to several 400-series freeways at a spaghetti junction.

Toronto Pearson is directly accessible from Highway 427 and Highway 409 with Airport Road and Dixon Road providing local access to the airport. There are 12,200 parking spaces available in parking garages adjacent to Terminal 1 and Terminal 3,[29] in addition to several other parking lots located in the immediate area.[170]

Car rentals are available from various major car rental agencies located in the parking garages adjacent to both terminals.[171] Car rentals are also available from off-airport car rental agencies located near Toronto Pearson Viscount station, accessible from both terminals via the Link Train.[171]

Taxi

Taxis and limousines can be accessed at designated taxi stands located outside of both Terminal 1 and Terminal 3. Only official airport-licensed taxis and limousines can legally pick up passengers at Toronto Pearson,[172] and all airport-licensed taxi and limo companies use GTAA-authorized flat rate fares for travel from the airport.[173][174][175]

Rideshare

Ridesharing services Uber and Lyft are available at Pearson Airport. Designated rideshare pickup zones are located at both Terminal 1 and Terminal 3. Terminal 1 pickup is from the ground level, while Terminal 3 pickup is from the arrivals level.[176]

Future

In February 2017, the GTAA announced a proposed transit hub to be located across from Terminal 3 that would connect with Union Pearson Express and may connect with other transit lines extended to the airport like Line 5 Eglinton LRT of the Toronto subway and GO Expansion (formerly known as GO Transit Regional Express Rail).[177] This proposal would eliminate the Terminal Link connecting Terminals 1 and 3 with a bridge from the transit hub to Terminal 3 and another bridge connecting Terminal 3 to Terminal 1.[177]

Since 2020, Metrolinx is planning the second phase of the Eglinton Crosstown West Extension, which is a western extension of the under-construction Line 5 Eglinton to a proposed transit hub at Pearson Airport across the terminals at the site of Viscount Station. The extension is scheduled to open in 2030–31. As of 2020, the segment to Pearson Airport is under study by Metrolinx and the GTAA. The line will connect the airport to Midtown Toronto and Scarborough with additional transfers to Downtown Toronto.[178] Metrolinx is also studying a potential connection with Line 6 Finch West to the transit hub with additional transfers to York University and Vaughan Metropolitan Centre. Other connections like the Mississauga Transitway are being studied.[179]

Statistics

Annual traffic

Annual passenger traffic at Toronto Pearson International Airport
2003 to present
Year Total passengers % change Domesticc % change Transborderc % change Internationalc % change
2022 35,600,000 Increase 180.0% 14,300,000 Increase 111.5% d d 21,300,000 Increase 260.1%
2021 12,700,000 Decrease -4.5% 6,800,000 Increase 24.4% d d 5,900,000 Increase 25.66%
2020[180] 13,307,077 Decrease 73.65% 5,449,924 Decrease 70.39% 3,032,582 Decrease 78.09% 4,824,571 Decrease 73.56%
2019[181] 50,499,431 Increase 2.0% 18,108,953 Increase 1.2% 13,847,414 Increase 1.9% 18,543,064 Increase 2.9%
2018[182] 49,507,418 Increase 5.0% 17,860,337 Increase 2.2% 13,570,570 Increase 5.6% 18,076,511 Increase 7.6%
2017[183] 47,130,358 Increase 6.3% 17,475,217 Increase 3.4% 12,855,891 Increase 6.6% 16,799,250 Increase 9.3%
2016[184] 44,335,198 Increase 8.0% 16,906,560 Increase 6.6% 12,054,296 Increase 8.1% 15,374,342 Increase 9.6%
2015[185] 41,036,847 Increase 6.4% 15,859,289 Increase 4.4% 11,154,435 Increase 6.2% 14,023,123 Increase 8.9%
2014[185] 38,571,961 Increase 6.8% 15,192,126 Increase 5.6% 10,506,070 Increase 6.8% 12,874,220 Increase 8.3%
2013[185] 36,107,306 Increase 3.4% 14,385,001 Increase 5.4% 9,838,121 Increase 3.9% 11,884,184 Increase 0.7%
2012[185] 34,911,850 Increase 4.4% 13,646,163 Increase 4.3% 9,464,858 Increase 5.4% 11,800,829 Increase 3.7%
2011[185] 33,435,277 Increase 4.7% 13,078,513 Increase 2.7% 8,979,103 Increase 4.1% 11,377,661 Increase 7.6%
2010[186] 31,936,098 Increase 5.2% 12,730,680 Increase 0.1% 8,628,851 Increase 6.9% 10,576,567 Increase 10.6%
2009[186] 30,368,339 Decrease −6.0% 12,730,047 Decrease −7.8% 8,074,027 Decrease −8.3% 9,564,265 Decrease −1.5%
2008[186] 32,334,831 Increase 2.8% 13,812,866 Increase 0.5% 8,805,898 Decrease −0.8% 9,716,067 Increase 10.1%
2007[186] 31,446,199 Increase 2.1% 13,744,155 Increase 3.3% 8,879,180 Decrease −0.3% 8,822,864 Increase 2.8%
2006[186] 30,794,581 Increase 2.9% 13,309,531 Increase 3.1% 8,906,324 Increase 1.2% 8,578,726 Increase 4.6%
2005[186] 29,914,750 Increase 4.5% 12,906,457 Increase 2.1% 8,803,505 Increase 4.5% 8,204,788 Increase 8.6%
2004[186] 28,615,981 Increase 15.7% 12,636,748 Increase 14.6% 8,422,537 Increase 15.1% 7,556,696 Increase 18%
2003[186] 24,739,312  –––– 11,021,760  –––– 7,316,287  –––– 6,401,265  ––––
Notes
  • ^c : Prior to 2021, a distinction was made for operational and statistical purposes between "transborder" and "international" flights at Toronto Pearson, and at any other airport in Canada with United States border preclearance. A "transborder" flight was a flight between Canada and a destination in the United States, while an "international" flight was a flight between Canada and a destination that is not within the United States or Canada. A "domestic" flight is defined as a flight within Canada's borders only.
  • ^d : As of 2021, "transborder" and "international" passenger statistics have been combined by the GTAA as "international".

Incidents and accidents

  • The airport's deadliest accident occurred on July 5, 1970, when Air Canada Flight 621, a DC-8 jet, flew on a Montreal–Toronto–Los Angeles route. The pilots inadvertently deployed spoilers before the plane attempted landing, forcing the pilots to abort landing and takeoff. Damage to the aircraft that was caused during the failed landing attempt caused the plane to break up in the air during the go-around, killing all 100 passengers and nine crew members on board when it crashed into a field southeast of Brampton. Controversy remains over the cleanup effort following the crash, as both plane wreckage debris and human remains from the crash are still[when?] found on the site.[187]
  • On June 26, 1978, Air Canada Flight 189 to Winnipeg overran the runway during an aborted takeoff, and crashed into the Etobicoke Creek ravine. Two of the 107 occupants on board the DC-9 were killed.
  • On July 9, 1981, a KF Cargo Howard 500, pitched nose up after takeoff, stalled and crashed due to improper loading of parcels, exceeding the center of gravity. All three crew were killed.[188]
  • On January 11, 1983, a Sun Oil Co. North American Sabreliner crashed approximately 8 miles from runway 24R on an ILS approach to YYZ after descending steeply from the clouds and losing control, before crashing to the ground. All two crew and three passengers died. Cause unknown.[189]
  • On June 22, 1983, Douglas C-47A C-GUBT of Skycraft Air Transport crashed on takeoff roll at Toronto International Airport while on an international cargo flight from Cleveland Hopkins International Airport in northeastern Ohio. Both of the crew members were killed.[190]
  • On September 2, 1995, a Royal Air Force Hawker Siddeley Nimrod performing in an airshow originating in and out of YYZ crashed 1/2 mile south of Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport after a maneuver caused the aircraft to stall and crash into Lake Ontario. All seven occupants perished.[191]
  • On August 2, 2005, Air France Flight 358, an Airbus A340-300 (registration F-GLZQ) inbound from Paris, landed on runway 24L during a severe thunderstorm, failed to stop, and ran off of the runway into the Etobicoke Creek ravine. It came to a stop next to busy Highway 401. In the ensuing fire, there were 12 serious injuries, but no fatalities. The investigation predominantly blamed pilot error when faced with the severe weather conditions.[192]
  • On July 25, 2014, Sunwing Airlines Flight 772, which had taken off from Toronto bound for Scarlett Martínez International Airport, was forced to return to Toronto after a passenger made a bomb threat; the plane was escorted back to Toronto by US Air Force planes. After it landed safely, the passenger was arrested and underwent a mental examination.[193]
  • On May 10, 2019, Air Canada Flight 8615, a Bombardier DHC-8-300 (registration C-FJXZ), was struck by a fuel truck while taxiing on the tarmac. Five persons were injured and the plane was deemed a write-off.[194]
  • On March 7, 2020, Two Air Canada aircraft were involved in a Runway Incursion. Air Canada Flight 1037, an Embraer E-190 (registration C-FMZW) was taking off from Runway 06L at Toronto when the pilots rejected due to a bird strike. An improper transponder showed the Tower Controller that the E190 was airborne after 50kts, and therefore, sent an Air Canada Boeing 777-300 (registration C-FJZS), operating as Air Canada Flight 606, to depart. The pilots of the E-190 were transmitting on frequency that they had rejected due to a birdstrike, but at the same time, the pilots of the 777 were reading back their takeoff clearance. As the 777 was accelerating, the pilots observed the Embraer-190 was still on the runway, and initiated a rejected takeoff. A NAV Canada report stated that the use of this data by NAV CANADA's runway incursion monitoring and conflict alert sub-system (RIMCAS) led to the inaccurate identification of the Embraer 190 and the Boeing 777 as in air while these two aircraft were still on the ground. This resulted in late and inaccurate RIMCAS alerts and delayed the air traffic controller's response to the risk of collision.[195]
  • On April 17, 2023, a robbery occurred, with over $20 million worth of gold and other high-value items being stolen. A container was offloaded from a reported Air Canada aircraft during the evening hours and was unloaded under normal procedures. The cargo was taken to a holding facility before it was stolen. The goods were being handled by American private security company and protection company Brink's.
  • On January 8, 2024, a man having a mental crisis boarded a Boeing 777 operated by Air Canada, and during the boarding procces, tried to open the door of the plane, resulting in him falling down on to the tarmac. He was injured and arrested. [196]
  • On January 21, 2024, Air France Fight 356, an Airbus A350-900 (registration F-HTYH) initiated a go-around after touching down on runway 24L, suffering a tailstrike in the process. After circling round for a second attempt, the aircraft landed on the same runway without further incident. No injuries were reported but the aircraft received significant damage. This was due to a “LANDING RATE WARNING,” meaning too much speed and not enough runway left to safely stop the aircraft.[197][198][199]

In popular culture

The music video for the song "The Good in Everyone" by Canadian rock band Sloan was filmed on Convair Drive at the southwest end of runway 06L/24R at 43°39′35.2″N 79°37′31.1″W / 43.659778°N 79.625306°W / 43.659778; -79.625306).

Rush

Canadian rock trio Rush had an instrumental piece titled "YYZ," which is on their 1981 album Moving Pictures. Two of the band's members, Geddy Lee and Alex Lifeson, are natives of Toronto. The song, a favourite of fans, was frequently played by the band in concert.

A VHF omnidirectional range system at the airport broadcasts the YYZ identifier code in Morse code, which the band once heard when Lifeson was flying them into the airport. The band's drummer, Neil Peart, said in interviews that the rhythm stuck with them.[200] Peart and Lee have both said, "It's always a happy day when YYZ appears on our luggage tags."[201]

The piece's introduction repeatedly renders "Y-Y-Z" in Morse Code using various musical arrangements.[202]

In 2023, a Rush-themed specialty bar opened in Terminal 1. The bar, Henderson Brewing@YYZ, is run by Toronto-based craft brewery Henderson Brewery.[203]

See also

References

  1. ^ Liu, Jim. "Porter Airlines".
  2. ^ "Porter Airlines Outlines Embraer E195-E2 Toronto Pearson Network from Feb 2023".
  3. ^ a b c Canada Flight Supplement. Effective 0901Z 16 July 2020 to 0901Z 10 September 2020.
  4. ^ "Synoptic/Metstat Station Information". Archived from the original on June 27, 2013. Retrieved May 15, 2011.
  5. ^ "Airport Divestiture Status Report". Tc.gc.ca. January 12, 2011. Archived from the original on February 23, 2007. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
  6. ^ "Aircraft movements, by class of operation and peak hour and peak day of movements, for airports with NAV CANADA towers, monthly". Stats Canada. June 27, 2018. Archived from the original on November 30, 2020. Retrieved April 30, 2022.
  7. ^ "GTAA reports 2021 annual results". torontopearson.com. March 24, 2022. Retrieved May 1, 2022.
  8. ^ "Lester B. Pearson". www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca.
  9. ^ "Chapter 14: Land Use" (PDF). The Airport Master Plan (2000–2020). Greater Toronto Airports Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 28, 2013. Retrieved January 26, 2012. The Airport occupies some 1,867 ha (4,613 acres) and is adjacent to Highway 401, the main east/west highway route through southern Ontario and the busiest highway in North America. The bulk of the Airport (1,824 ha 4,507 acres) is within the City of Mississauga with 43 ha (106 acres) located within the City of Toronto.
  10. ^ "Chapter 6: Passenger Terminals" (PDF). Greater Toronto Airports Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2018. Retrieved July 23, 2018. Toronto Pearson now operates two main passenger terminals, Terminal 1 and Terminal 3.
  11. ^ a b "ATR 2022" (PDF). panynj.gov. Retrieved November 30, 2023.
  12. ^ "About Toronto Pearson". Greater Toronto Airports Authority. Archived from the original on June 19, 2018. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  13. ^ "About Air Canada – Corporate Profile". Aircanada.com. Archived from the original on October 28, 2016. Retrieved July 24, 2018. Air Canada's four hubs, Toronto (YYZ), the primary global hub, Montreal (YUL), the gateway to French international markets, Vancouver (YVR), the airline's premier gateway to Asia Pacific, and Calgary (YYC), offer Air Canada customers smooth connections under one roof.
  14. ^ "Airports in the national airports category (Appendix A)". Transport Canada. December 16, 2012. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
  15. ^ "Preclearance Locations – U.S. Customs and Border Protection". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  16. ^ "Airlines & Destinations: Canadian Destinations". Torontopearson.com. Archived from the original on July 1, 2014. Retrieved July 14, 2014.
  17. ^ "TORONTO PEARSON – AIRPORT 101" (PDF). Torontopearson.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 30, 2018. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
  18. ^ "Airlines and Destinations: International Destinations". Greater Toronto Airports Authority. Archived from the original on July 1, 2014. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
  19. ^ "Airlines and Destinations: US Destinations". Greater Toronto Airports Authority. Archived from the original on July 1, 2014. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
  20. ^ Cook, Dave (2010). Fading History Vol. 2. Mississauga, Ontario: David L. Cook. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-9734265-3-3.
  21. ^ Dexter, Brian (March 16, 1974). "Malton residents say they've had enough". Toronto Star. p. B09.
  22. ^ Hatch, F. J. (1983). The Aerodrome of Democracy: Canada and the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, 1939–1945. Ottawa: Directorate of History, Department of National Defence. ISBN 0660114437.
  23. ^ a b c "GTAA Master Plan" (PDF). p. 1.19. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 18, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2011.
  24. ^ "About GTAA". Torontopearson.com. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  25. ^ "The how and Y of worldwide airport codes – The Globe and Mail". Archived from the original on August 9, 2020. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
  26. ^ "Lester B Pearson International Airport | Priestly Demolition".
  27. ^ Patterson, Jamie (January 30, 2007). "Goodbye Terminal 2, Hello Pier F". Torontoist.com. Archived from the original on April 16, 2019. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  28. ^ a b Kalman, Harold D. "Airport Architecture". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Toronto: Historica Canada. Archived from the original on August 18, 2019. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  29. ^ a b c d "Toronto Pearson Master Plan 2017–2037" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 24, 2018. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
  30. ^ "Airlines and destinations". Toronto: Greater Toronto Airports Authority. Retrieved June 9, 2022.
  31. ^ "Sunwing Airlines moving to Toronto Pearson's enhanced Terminal 3". Travel week. March 28, 2016. Retrieved March 1, 2023.
  32. ^ Schwartz, Adele C. (December 1, 2005). "Bonus Design". Air Transport World. Silver Spring, Maryland. Archived from the original on June 10, 2015. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
  33. ^ Canada, Transport (February 29, 2016). "New airport security option made available to speed up connections for air travellers". gcnws. Archived from the original on January 10, 2020. Retrieved January 10, 2020.
  34. ^ "Air Canada Maple Leaf Lounge Locations". www.aircanada.com. Archived from the original on February 15, 2020. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
  35. ^ "Toronto Pearson International Airport | The World's Largest Independent Lounge Network". Plaza Premium Lounge. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
  36. ^ "Air Canada Café". www.aircanada.com. Archived from the original on February 15, 2020. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
  37. ^ "Shop".
  38. ^ "7-Eleven".
  39. ^ "ThyssenKrupp Airport Systems on growth track" (Press release). ThyssenKrupp. April 11, 2006. Archived from the original on July 12, 2012. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
  40. ^ "Toronto Pearson International Airport – Terminal 3 – B+H Architects". Bharchitects.com. Archived from the original on November 17, 2015. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
  41. ^ "Sheraton takes over Swissotel, increases Metro hotels to 4". Toronto Star. October 8, 1993. p. F7. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved September 22, 2010.
  42. ^ a b "International Departures – Toronto Pearson". GTAA. Archived from the original on June 26, 2018. Retrieved June 26, 2018. Passengers flying on Aer Lingus, Azores, Icelandair, Condor and Ukraine International will be boarding their aircraft at the Infield Terminal, accessed by bus that leaves from Terminal 3.
  43. ^ "Toronto Pearson International Airport – Infield Development Project". Bharchitects. 2013. Archived from the original on November 14, 2013. Located on a 470-acre [190 ha] site between four major runways, this $250 million development is Canada's largest design-build project and comprised of six structures totaling 1,356,360 square feet: the Air Canada Maintenance Building, three cargo buildings including the Air Canada Cargo Terminal, a 3-bay Hangar Facility, and the 11-gate Infield Holdroom Terminal.
  44. ^ a b "Toronto Pearson Master Plan – Chapter 6 : Passenger Terminals" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 25, 2014. Retrieved July 12, 2014. The Infield Terminal (IFT) was constructed to provide interim gating capacity during the phased construction of Terminal 1. The first two gates became operational in June 2002, with the remaining nine gates opening the following year. (The final three gates opened in July 2003, bringing the total available to 11.)
  45. ^ "Air Canada opens new Maple Leaf Lounge at the Infield Terminal at Toronto Pearson Airport". Express Voyage. February 10, 2005. Archived from the original on September 17, 2014. Retrieved September 17, 2014. Air Canada will officially open its newest Maple Leaf Lounge at the Infield Terminal at Toronto Pearson Airport on February 10, 2005.
  46. ^ Kalata, Natalie (December 8, 2015). "Toronto's Pearson airport unveils special terminal for Syrian refugees". Toronto: CBC News. Archived from the original on May 5, 2019. Retrieved May 5, 2019.
  47. ^ "Lights, cameras and action at Toronto Pearson International Airport". Archived from the original on September 17, 2014. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  48. ^ a b "Skyservice Toronto Airport FBO – Fixed Base Operations". Skyservice.com. Archived from the original on September 19, 2017. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
  49. ^ "Chapter 10 – Business Aviation" (PDF). GTAA. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 28, 2016. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
  50. ^ Barnard, Linda (September 6, 2017). "How to hide a celebrity at the Toronto International Film Festival". Toronto Star. Toronto. Archived from the original on September 9, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  51. ^ "Chapter 1 : Introduction" (PDF). Greater Toronto Airports Authority. Toronto: Transport Canada. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2016. Retrieved October 18, 2018.
  52. ^ "About GTAA : Strategy Master Plan" (PDF). Greater Toronto Airports Authority. Toronto: Transport Canada. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 19, 2013. Retrieved October 18, 2018.
  53. ^ Hume, Christopher (December 14, 2012). "All Eyes on the Ground". Toronto Star. Toronto: Torstar. Archived from the original on December 16, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
  54. ^ "Routine Maintenance at Toronto Pearson". GTAA. Archived from the original on January 26, 2019. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  55. ^ a b "Winter Operations". GTAA. Archived from the original on January 26, 2019. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  56. ^ "Winter Operations – Snow Removal". Archived from the original on January 27, 2019. Retrieved January 26, 2019. On average, between 110 to 130 cm of snow falls here each winter
  57. ^ Kelly, Cathal (November 29, 2019). "Clearing Pearson airport for takeoff in winter". Toronto Star. Toronto: Torstar. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
  58. ^ "Oshkosh HT-Series Chosen by Toronto International Airport | Team Eagle Ltd. ~ Your Airfield Solutions Partner". Team-eagle.ca. August 4, 2010. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved April 14, 2013.
  59. ^ a b "Winter Operations". Greater Toronto Airports Authority. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved December 10, 2013.
  60. ^ Patel, Arti (February 3, 2011). "Clearing a Plane of Snow is Deicing on the Cake". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
  61. ^ a b "About Pearson Airport Professional Firefighters Association (PAPFFA)". PAPFFA. Archived from the original on June 29, 2018. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  62. ^ "Location – FESTI". Fire and Emergency Services Training Institute (FESTI). Archived from the original on January 10, 2019. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  63. ^ "Toronto Pearson International Airport – Master Plan 2017–2037" (PDF). Greater Toronto Airports Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 31, 2018. Retrieved July 31, 2018. Toronto Pearson handles about 50 per cent of the international air cargo in Canada, making our airport a critical link in the supply chain of Canadian businesses.
  64. ^ "Advanced Cargo Facilities". GTAA. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
  65. ^ a b c d e f "GTAA Master Plan" (PDF). GTAA. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2016. Retrieved February 9, 2016.
  66. ^ "Airport Division – Peel Regional Police". Peel Regional Police. Archived from the original on February 16, 2016. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
  67. ^ ""O" Division Greater Toronto Area (GTA) – Royal Canadian Mounted Police". Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Archived from the original on February 15, 2016. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
  68. ^ "Key Agencies – Toronto Pearson International Airport". Greater Toronto Airports Authority. Archived from the original on July 22, 2018. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
  69. ^ "Inside Pearson Airport's ultra-luxe private hub for celebs, executives and well-to-dos – Toronto Life". Archived from the original on July 3, 2015. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  70. ^ "Timetables". Aer Lingus. Archived from the original on February 19, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  71. ^ "Timetables". Aeroméxico. Archived from the original on November 19, 2018. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  72. ^ "Timeline: Airlines to resume flights to Israel". Airways Magazine. January 31, 2024. Retrieved February 5, 2024.
  73. ^ "AIR CANADA NW23 DOMESTIC SERVICE CHANGES – 20AUG23". Aeroroutes.com. August 22, 2023. Retrieved August 31, 2023.
  74. ^ "Air Canada to extend seasonal Toronto-Edinburgh service". Business Traveler. March 31, 2023. Retrieved December 14, 2023.
  75. ^ "Air Canada NS24 Osaka Service Expansion". Aeroroutes. Retrieved February 11, 2024.
  76. ^ "Air Canada adds Tulum & Charleston flights, boosts capacity in key markets".
  77. ^ "Hej! Air Canada Expands Presence in Scandinavia with New Flights to Stockholm Launching Summer 2024".
  78. ^ a b c "Flight Schedules".
  79. ^ https://twitter.com/ishriona/status/1751735403680305208?s=46&t=s6nHpZ_2o2F_9OqINnkYxA&fbclid=IwAR1L7XTez0cMUAABJdejScjq5XUCAr1Z6n7Yfi0Q6aOAWdya_-oqyoghNIY
  80. ^ "Air Canada Adds Toronto – Charleston SC Service From late-March 2024". Aeroroutes. Retrieved October 2, 2023.
  81. ^ "Air Canada adds Tulum & Charleston flights, boosts capacity in key markets". Pax News. December 14, 2023. Retrieved December 14, 2023.
  82. ^ "Air France flight schedule". Air France. Archived from the original on November 16, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  83. ^ "Time Table – Air India". Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  84. ^ "Announcing Service to Toronto, Ontario". Air North. Archived from the original on November 28, 2021. Retrieved November 28, 2021.
  85. ^ "Air Transat Schedules Peru Launch in Dec 2023". Aeroroutes. Retrieved August 11, 2023.
  86. ^ "Air Transat Flight status and schedules". Flight Times. Air Transat. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  87. ^ "Alaska Airlines Schedules mid-May 2024 Toronto Launch". Aeroroutes. Retrieved January 20, 2024.
  88. ^ "Flight Schedules".
  89. ^ a b "Flight schedules and notifications". American Airlines. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  90. ^ "Destinations". Arajet.
  91. ^ a b "Check itineraries". Archived from the original on June 20, 2018. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
  92. ^ "Azores Airlines Plans Porto – North America Launch From June 2024". Aeroroutes. Retrieved August 6, 2023.
  93. ^ "Azores Airlines terá voos diretos da Madeira para Boston e Toronto no Verão de 2024". September 14, 2023.
  94. ^ "Schedules". Azores Airlines. Archived from the original on November 9, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  95. ^ "Biman Bangladesh Begins Regular Toronto Service in late-July 2022". AeroRoutes.
  96. ^ "British Airways – Timetables". Archived from the original on March 30, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  97. ^ "Canada Jetlines Adds Halifax Regular Service From June 2024". Aeroroutes. Retrieved February 12, 2024.
  98. ^ "Canada Jetlines Network". Canada Jetlines.
  99. ^ "Caribbean Airlines Route Map". Archived from the original on September 27, 2021. Retrieved September 29, 2021.
  100. ^ "Flight Timetable". Cathay Pacific. Archived from the original on July 1, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  101. ^ "Schedules and Timetable". China Eastern Airlines. Archived from the original on June 23, 2018. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  102. ^ "Timetable". China Southern Airlines. Archived from the original on July 24, 2018. Retrieved July 24, 2018.
  103. ^ "Timetable". Condor Flugdienst. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  104. ^ "Flight Schedule". Copa Airlines. Archived from the original on November 9, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  105. ^ a b "Flight Schedules". Delta Air Lines. Archived from the original on June 21, 2015. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  106. ^ "Timetable". EgyptAir. Archived from the original on March 24, 2019. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  107. ^ "Flight Schedules". Emirates. Archived from the original on June 30, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  108. ^ "Schedule". Ethiopian Airlines. Archived from the original on March 31, 2019. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  109. ^ "Flight Timetables". Etihad Airways. Archived from the original on April 21, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  110. ^ "Timetables". EVA Air. Archived from the original on May 16, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  111. ^ a b "Ultra-low-cost carrier Flair Airlines bringing Ontario flights to St. John's and Deer Lake". CBC. November 9, 2023. Retrieved November 9, 2023.
  112. ^ Parkinson, Bruce (November 1, 2023). "Flair Touts Improved Performance, Announces New YVR-GDL & YYZ-YQB Routes". TravelPulse Canada. Retrieved November 1, 2023.
  113. ^ "Schedule". Flair Airlines. Archived from the original on March 26, 2018. Retrieved July 24, 2018.
  114. ^ "Flight Schedule". Icelandair. Archived from the original on November 16, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  115. ^ "ITA AIRWAYS SCHEDULES MAY 2024 TORONTO LAUNCH". Retrieved January 3, 2024.
  116. ^ "ITA Airways network". Archived from the original on October 16, 2021. Retrieved January 3, 2024.
  117. ^ "View the Timetable". KLM. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  118. ^ "Flight Status and Schedules". Korean Air. Archived from the original on June 28, 2018. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  119. ^ "Timetables". LOT Polish Airlines. Archived from the original on May 6, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  120. ^ "Timetable – Lufthansa Canada". Lufthansa. Archived from the original on November 9, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  121. ^ a b "Lynx Air to cease operations Monday, obtains creditor protection". CBC. Retrieved February 22, 2024.
  122. ^ "Lynx Air Tickets Go on Sale for Flights to Five Canadian Destinations". Lynx Air (Press release). Globenewswire.com. January 19, 2022. Retrieved February 26, 2022.
  123. ^ "Italy's Neos airline to connect Toronto & New York with Amritsar". www.punjabnewsexpress.com. Punjab News Express. March 2, 2023. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  124. ^ Liu, Jim. "OWG revises service launch to mid-Dec 2020". Routesonline. Archived from the original on October 29, 2020. Retrieved October 26, 2020.
  125. ^ "PIA – Weekly Flight Schedule". Pakistan International Airlines. Archived from the original on October 7, 2015. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  126. ^ "Flights to Canada". Philippine Airlines. Retrieved December 31, 2023.
  127. ^ "Porter's new daily flights between Las Vegas and Toronto-Pearson start March 5". Travelweek. October 19, 2023. Retrieved October 19, 2023.
  128. ^ "Porter to launch daily Toronto-Saskatoon flights on May 16". pax news. February 15, 2024. Retrieved February 15, 2024.
  129. ^ "Porter Airlines Adds Toronto Pearson – Quebec City Service in mid-2Q24". Aeroroutes. Retrieved February 23, 2024.
  130. ^ "Porter Airlines Outlines Embraer E195-E2 Toronto Pearson Network From Feb 2023". Aeroroutes. Retrieved December 8, 2022.
  131. ^ "Home - Royal Jordanian". Rj.com. May 28, 2020. Retrieved March 13, 2022.
  132. ^ "Flight Status & Schedule". Retrieved September 22, 2023.
  133. ^ "Timetable - SAS". Archived from the original on March 17, 2018. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
  134. ^ "SUN COUNTRY NS24 CANADA NETWORK EXPANSION". AeroRoutes. October 18, 2023. Retrieved October 18, 2023.
  135. ^ "Our Routes" (PDF). Sunwing Airlines. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 18, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  136. ^ "SWISS Adding Flights To Washington & Toronto In 2024". One Mile at a Time. Retrieved September 12, 2023.
  137. ^ "Timetable". Retrieved August 5, 2018.
  138. ^ "All Destinations". TAP Portugal. Archived from the original on May 12, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  139. ^ "Online Flight Schedule". Istanbul: Turkish Airlines. Archived from the original on April 10, 2019. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  140. ^ a b "United Flight Schedules". Chicago: United Airlines Holdings. Archived from the original on January 28, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  141. ^ "Westjet's return brings direct flights between P.E.I. and 3 Canadian cities this summer". CBC. February 6, 2024. Retrieved February 6, 2024.
  142. ^ "WestJet to offer service to Deer Lake Regional Airport". NTV. February 6, 2024. Retrieved February 7, 2024.
  143. ^ a b "WestJet NS24 Long-Haul Network Expansion". AeroRoutes.
  144. ^ a b "WestJet's Expansive Summer 2024 Schedule". WestJet. February 6, 2024. Retrieved February 6, 2024.
  145. ^ "Direct and Non-Stop Flights". WestJet. Retrieved September 25, 2022.
  146. ^ "UP Express – Toronto Airport Train". GTAA. Archived from the original on May 4, 2019.
  147. ^ "Union Station – City of Toronto". City of Toronto. November 17, 2017. Archived from the original on August 10, 2018. Retrieved August 9, 2018.
  148. ^ "VIA Rail". Pearson Airport. Archived from the original on September 19, 2020. Retrieved September 9, 2020.
  149. ^ "Union Pearson Express". www.viarail.ca. Archived from the original on September 20, 2020. Retrieved September 9, 2020.
  150. ^ "Union Pearson Express". Metrolinx. Archived from the original on May 31, 2015. Retrieved June 5, 2015.
  151. ^ Rapoport, Irwin (July 6, 2006). "Airport opens automated people mover: New train system connects three terminals, parking area". Toronto: Daily Commercial News. Archived from the original on January 30, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013. It's a 1.5-kilometre train with three stations gliding along an elevated guideway connecting Terminals 1, 3 and a reduced rate parking area serving both passengers and employees of the Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA).
  152. ^ "Terminal Link – Train between Pearson Airport Terminals". Toronto Pearson. Archived from the original on May 4, 2019. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  153. ^ "900 Airport Express". Toronto Transit Commission (TTC). Archived from the original on November 20, 2018. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  154. ^ "52 Lawrence West". Toronto Transit Commission (TTC). Archived from the original on August 9, 2018. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  155. ^ "952 Lawrence West Express". Toronto Transit Commission (TTC). Archived from the original on October 7, 2018. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  156. ^ "300 Bloor–Danforth". Toronto Transit Commission (TTC). Archived from the original on August 11, 2018. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  157. ^ "332 Eglinton West". Toronto Transit Commission (TTC). Archived from the original on August 1, 2018. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  158. ^ "352 Lawrence West". Toronto Transit Commission (TTC). Archived from the original on August 20, 2018. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  159. ^ "TTC Toronto Pearson International Airport". Toronto Transit Commission (TTC). Archived from the original on November 16, 2018. Retrieved November 2, 2018.
  160. ^ "115 Bramalea Terminal–Bramalea Road–Pearson Airport" (PDF). Brampton Transit. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 14, 2018. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  161. ^ "MiExpress 107 Malton Express" (PDF). Mississauga.ca. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 14, 2018. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  162. ^ "MiExpress 100 Airport Express" (PDF). Mississauga.ca. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 27, 2018. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  163. ^ "MiLocal 7 Airport" (PDF). Mississauga.ca. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 14, 2018. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  164. ^ "MiLocal 24 Northwest" (PDF). Mississauga.ca. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 14, 2018. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  165. ^ "MiLocal 57 Courtneypark" (PDF). Mississauga.ca. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 27, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  166. ^ "40 Hamilton/ Richmond Hill GO Bus Schedule" (PDF). GO Transit. Retrieved April 18, 2023.
  167. ^ "94 Pickering/Mississauga GO Bus Schedule" (PDF). GO Transit. Retrieved April 18, 2023.
  168. ^ "Long-Distance Toronto Airport Shuttle and Van Service". Torontopearson.com. Archived from the original on May 4, 2019. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  169. ^ "Bus Schedules – Charters – Sightseeing". Coach Canada. Archived from the original on June 24, 2021. Retrieved November 30, 2021.
  170. ^ "Parking". Torontopearson.com. Archived from the original on August 14, 2018. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  171. ^ a b "Pearson Airport Car Rental YYZ – Toronto Airport Car Rentals". GTAA.com. Archived from the original on May 4, 2019. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  172. ^ "Pearson Airport Taxis Toronto and Airport Limousines". GTAA.com. Archived from the original on May 4, 2019. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  173. ^ "Taxi Tariffs from Toronto Pearson" (PDF). GTAA.com. March 1, 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 4, 2019. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  174. ^ "Limo Tariffs from Toronto Pearson" (PDF). GTAA.com. March 1, 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 4, 2019. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  175. ^ "Out of Town Tariffs from Toronto Pearson" (PDF). GTAA.com. March 1, 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 4, 2019. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  176. ^ "Airport Ride Share Toronto – Pearson Airport". Torontopearson.com. Archived from the original on May 4, 2019. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  177. ^ a b "GTAA Unveils Vision For Multi-Modal Transit Hub at Pearson – Urban Toronto". urbantoronto.ca. Archived from the original on September 11, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  178. ^ "Eglinton Crosstown West Extension – Projects". Metrolinx. Archived from the original on March 10, 2020. Retrieved November 30, 2021.
  179. ^ "StackPath". Masstransitmag.com. Archived from the original on May 11, 2020. Retrieved November 30, 2021.
  180. ^ "Statistics" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on August 18, 2021. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  181. ^ "Statistics". Archived from the original on February 20, 2020. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
  182. ^ "Statistics". Archived from the original on February 20, 2019. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
  183. ^ "TORONTO PEARSON PASSENGER 2014–2018" (PDF). Torontopearson.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 28, 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2020.
  184. ^ "TORONTO PEARSON AIRCRAFT MOVEMENT" (PDF). June 1, 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 29, 2018. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
  185. ^ a b c d e "TORONTO PEARSON (Enplaned + Deplaned ) PASSENGER 2011–2015" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2016.
  186. ^ a b c d e f g h "TORONTO PEARSON (Enplaned + Deplaned ) PASSENGER 2003–2013" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 22, 2014. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  187. ^ Wilkes, Jim (July 6, 2004). "Ghosts of Flight 621 haunt Brampton field". Toronto Star. p. A1. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
  188. ^ Accident description for C-GKFN at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on July 23, 2022.
  189. ^ Accident description for N99S at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on July 23, 2022.
  190. ^ "C-GUBT Accident report". Aviation Safety Network. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved July 27, 2010.
  191. ^ Accident description for XV239 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on July 23, 2022.
  192. ^ Aviation Investigation Report – Runway Overrun and Fire – Air France Airbus 340-313 F-GLZQ – Toronto/Lester B. Pearson International Airport, Ontario – 02 August 2005 – Report Number A05H0002. Transportation Safety Board of Canada. 2007. ISBN 978-0-662-47298-8. Public Works and Government Services Canada Cat. No. TU3-5/05-3E. Archived from the original on March 19, 2016. Retrieved December 13, 2007. [Aussi disponible en français : "Rapport d'enquête aéronautique A05H0002 Archived March 31, 2017, at the Wayback Machine"
  193. ^ "Passenger's alleged bomb threat forces Sunwing flight back to Pearson". CityNews. Toronto: Rogers Media. July 25, 2014. Archived from the original on March 19, 2020. Retrieved March 23, 2020.
  194. ^ "'Incredibly scary': Air Canada plane, fuel tanker collide at Toronto's Pearson airport". Toronto: CBC News. May 10, 2019. Archived from the original on May 10, 2019. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
  195. ^ "C-TSB Final Report A20O0029 March 7 2020". TSBC. June 14, 2022. Retrieved March 14, 2022.
  196. ^ "Air Canada passenger opens cabin door, falls on tarmac | National Post".
  197. ^ "Air France flight from Paris to Toronto attempts 'go around' after failed landing causing tail strike". CityNews Toronto. Retrieved January 22, 2024.
  198. ^ "Accident: France A359 at Toronto on Jan 21st 2024, tail strike on landing/go around". The Aviation Herald. Retrieved January 22, 2024.
  199. ^ "Air France flight failed landing causes tail strike". toronto.citynews.ca. Retrieved January 23, 2024.
  200. ^ Martin Smith (2010). Rush: Classic Albums: 2112 & Moving Pictures (DVD). Eagle Rock Entertainment. Event occurs at 122 minutes.
  201. ^ "Rush by Brian Harrigan from Power Windows". 2112.net. Archived from the original on June 17, 2004. Retrieved September 29, 2011.
  202. ^ Raggo, Michael T.; Hosmer, Chet (December 31, 2012). Data Hiding Exposing Concealed Data in Multimedia, Operating Systems, Mobile Devices and Network Protocols (1st ed (Online-Ausg.). ed.). Rockland, MA: Elsevier Science. ISBN 978-1597497411.
  203. ^ "Rush is a Band Blog: Henderson Brewery at YYZ specialty bar to open at Toronto Pearson airport featuring Rush beer and original Rush artifacts". www.rushisaband.com. Retrieved June 9, 2023.

External links

  • Official website
  • Toronto Pearson International Airport travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Malton: Farms to Flying Book by Kathleen A. Hicks – PDF
  • Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for Toronto Pearson International Airport from Nav Canada as available.
  • Toronto Pearson airport travel data at Airportsdata.net
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Toronto_Pearson_International_Airport&oldid=1209929831"