Tonsawang language

Tonsawang
Native toIndonesia
RegionNorthern Sulawesi
Native speakers
(20,000 cited 1981)[1]
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3tnw
Glottologtons1239
ELPTonsawang

Tonsawang, also known as Tombatu,[2] is an Austronesian language of the northern tip of Sulawesi, Indonesia. It belongs to the Minahasan branch of the Philippine languages.[3][4][5]

Location

According to linguist James Sneddon, the language is "one of the most isolated languages", spoken in southeast Minahasa,[6] while linguist Robert Blust situated it, along with the others of the Minahasan group, near Lake Tondano, "in the nothern peninsula of Sulawesi".[7]

Orthography

Alphabet

  • a – [ä]
  • b – [b]
  • e – [ə]
  • è – [ɛ]
  • g – [g]
  • i – [i]
  • j – [d͡ʒ]
  • k – [k]
  • l – [l]
  • m – [m]
  • n – [n]
  • ng – [ŋ]
  • o – [o̞]
  • p – [p]
  • r – [ɾ]
  • s – [s]
  • t – [t]
  • u – [u]
  • w – [w]
  • ' – [ʔ][8][9]

References

  1. ^ Tonsawang at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Sneddon, J. N. “The Languages of Minahasa, North Celebes”. In: Oceanic Linguistics 9, no. 1 (1970): 12, 17. https://doi.org/10.2307/3622930.
  3. ^ Ruhlen, Merritt. "Genetic Classification of the World's Languages" In: A Guide to the World’s Languages. Volume I, Classification. Redwood City: Stanford University Press, 2021 [1987]. p. 342. https://doi-org.wikipedialibrary.idm.oclc.org/10.1515/9781503621336-015
  4. ^ Sneddon, J. N. “The Drift Towards Final Open Syllables in Sulawesi Languages”. In: Oceanic Linguistics 32, no. 1 (1993): 8. https://doi.org/10.2307/3623095.
  5. ^ Adelaar, K. Alexander & Himmelmann, Nikolaus (2005). The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar. London: Routledge.
  6. ^ Sneddon, J. N. “The Languages of Minahasa, North Celebes”. In: Oceanic Linguistics 9, no. 1 (1970): 17. https://doi.org/10.2307/3622930.
  7. ^ Blust, Robert. “The Greater Central Philippines Hypothesis”. In: Oceanic Linguistics 30, no. 2 (1991): 85. https://doi.org/10.2307/3623084.
  8. ^ "Tonsawang language, alphabet, and pronunciation". Omniglot. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  9. ^ Sneddon, James N. Proto-Minahasan: phonology, morphology, and wordlist. Canberra: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1978. pp. 5, 54-57.

Further reading

  • Brickell, Timothy C. (2018). "Tonsawang (Toundanow), North Sulawesi, Indonesia — Language Contexts". In: Peter K. Austin (ed.). Language Documentation and Description, vol 16. London: EL Publishing. pp. 55-85. ISSN 1740-6234.
  • Brickell, Timothy C. (2020). "Language contact in North Sulawesi: Preliminary observations". In: Thomas J. Conners and Atsuko Utsumi, eds. Aspects of regional varieties of Malay. NUSA 68: 159–190. Permanent URL: http://repository.tufs.ac.jp/handle/94893; doi: https://doi.org/10.15026/94893
  • Matu, Tania. "Bentuk Permintaan Sopan dalam Bahasa Inggris dan Bahasa Tonsawang: Suatu Analisis Kontrastif". In: Jurnal Elektronik Fakultas Sastra Universitas Sam Ratulangi Vol 1, No 3 (2018). (Abstract in English).
  • Rorong, Ferdy Dj; Lensun, Sherly; Sompotan, Amelia Gladys; Pandi, Helena; Sambeka; Fince Leny; Aror, Susanti. "Tonsawang Language Speech Acts in Traditional Medicine". In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Social Sciences (ICSS 2018). Atlantis Press, 2018. pp. 903-907. ISBN 978-94-6252-588-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2991/icss-18.2018.187.
  • Utsumi, Atsuko (2018). The Tonsawang language’s basic morphology and syntactic features. Paper presented at The Fourteenth International Conference of Austronesian Linguistics (14-ICAL). July 17-20. Antananarivo: Universitè di Antananarivo.

External links

  • ELAR collection: Tonsawang: a collaborative multimedia project documenting an endangered language of North Sulawesi deposited by Timothy Brickell
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