Sulawesi montane rain forests

Sulawesi montane rain forests
Anggrek putih digunung latimojong sulawesi selatan.jpg
Rhododendron on Mount Latimojong, South Sulawesi
Ecoregion AA0124.png
Ecoregion territory (in purple)
Ecology
RealmAustralasian realm
Biometropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests
BordersSulawesi lowland rain forests
Geography
Area75,472 km2 (29,140 sq mi)
CountriesIndonesia
ProvinceCentral Sulawesi, Gorontalo, North Maluku, North Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi, and West Sulawesi
Coordinates1°54′S 120°12′E / 1.9°S 120.2°E / -1.9; 120.2Coordinates: 1°54′S 120°12′E / 1.9°S 120.2°E / -1.9; 120.2
Conservation
Conservation statusRelatively stable/intact
Global 200Sulawesi moist forests
Protected9,066 km² (12%)[1]

The Sulawesi montane rain forests is a tropical moist forest ecoregion in Indonesia. It includes the highlands of Sulawesi. [2] [3] [4]

Geography

Sulawesi, with an area of 180,681 km², is the fourth-largest island in Indonesia, and the eleventh-largest in the world. The landmass of Sulawesi includes four peninsulas: the northern Minahasa Peninsula, the East Peninsula, the South Peninsula, and the Southeast Peninsula. The island is mountainous, and the highest peak is Mount Latimojong at 3,478 meters. Approximately 40% of Sulawesi's land area is in the montane rain forests ecoregion; the surrounding lowlands are in the Sulawesi lowland rain forests ecoregion.

The islands that make up the ecoregion are part of Wallacea, a group of islands that are part of the Australasian realm, but were never joined to either the Australian or Asian continents. The islands of Wallacea are home to a mix of plants and animals from both terrestrial realms, and have many unique species that evolved in isolation.[5] The Makassar Strait separates Sulawesi from Borneo to the west; the strait is part of the Wallace Line, which demarcates the western boundary of Wallacea. Borneo and the other Indonesian islands west of Sulawesi are part of Sundaland, and were connected to the Asian continent when sea levels were lower during the ice ages.

Climate

The ecoregion has a wet tropical montane climate.

Flora

The main plant communities are lower montane rain forest, upper montane rain forest, and sub-alpine forests. The forests generally form a closed canopy, and height decreases with elevation.

Lower montane rain forest, or sub-montane forest, ranges from 1000 to 1500 meters elevation. Trees in the beech family (Fagaceae) are predominant, including four species of Lithocarpus and two species of Castanopsis (Castanopsis acuminatissima and C. buruana). Other trees include Eugenia, along with trees in the myrtle family (Myrtaceae), laurel family (Lauraceae), and tea family (Theaceae) and the conifers Agathis dammara and Phyllocladus. Epiphytes including orchids are common. In the mid-montane forests (1500-2000 meters elevation) Fagaceae, especially Lithocarpus menadoensis and L. celebicus, Myrtaceae, and Agathis are predominant.[6]

Upper montane forests are characterized by conifers, including species of Agathis, Podocarpus, Dacrycarpus, Dacrydium, and Phyllocladus, together with Myrtaceae and the shrubs Rhododendron, Vaccinium, Gaultheria, and Tasmannia piperita. Fagaceae are less common than in the lower-elevation forests. Mosses become abundant over 2000 meters elevation.[7][8]

Sub-alpine communities form above 3200 meters elevation, with low trees and shrubs, principally Rhododendron, Decaspermum, and Hedyotis, along with the lower shrubs Gaultheria and Styphelia suaveolens. The trees and shrubs are festooned with lichens. Herbs include the daisy Keysseria, the ginger Alpinia, Potentilla leuconata and P. parvus, and the grasses Poa and Agrostis.[9][10]

Fauna

The ecoregion is home to 102 mammal species, a third of which are endemic or near-endemic. 24 mammal species are endemic to the ecoregion, and 10 are near-endemic.[11]

Larger mammals include two pigs, the Celebes warty pig (Sus celebensis) and North Sulawesi babirusa (Babyrousa celebensis). The Celebes warty pig lives in the lower montane and lowland rain forests of Sulawesi and other islands of Wallacea. The North Sulawesi babirusa lives in both the montane and lowland rain forests of northern and central Sulawesi. The endemic Mountain anoa (Bubalus quarlesi) is a dwarf buffalo which stands only 70 cm (28 in) high. The Celebes rusa deer (Rusa timorensis macassaricus) is a subspecies of the Javan rusa, which may have been introduced from Sundaland to Sulawesi by humans in ancient times.[12]

There are two endemic arboreal primates, Dian's tarsier (Tarsius dentatus) and the Pygmy tarsier (Tarsius pumilus).

The majority of endemic species are rodents, including three squirrels and 17 Murid rodents:

Another ten species are Sulawesi endemics, which live in both the montane and lowland rain forests ecoregions:

The Bola Batu babirusa (Babyrousa bolabatuensis), known only from bones, is recognized as a separate species. No living individuals have been recorded, and the species may be extinct.

The ecoregion is home to 168 bird species. 19 species are endemic to the ecoregion, and another 23 are near-endemic.[13]

Protected areas

A 2017 assessment found that 9,066 km², or 12%, of the ecoregion is in protected areas.[14]

External links

  • Sulawesi endemic bird area (Birdlife International)

References

  1. ^ Eric Dinerstein, David Olson, et al. (2017). An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm, BioScience, Volume 67, Issue 6, June 2017, Pages 534–545; Supplemental material 2 table S1b. [1]
  2. ^ "Map of Ecoregions 2017". Resolve. Retrieved August 20, 2021.
  3. ^ "Sulawesi montane rain forests". Digital Observatory for Protected Areas. Retrieved August 20, 2021.
  4. ^ "Sulawesi montane rain forests". The Encyclopedia of Earth. Retrieved August 20, 2021.
  5. ^ Wikramanayake, Eric; Eric Dinerstein; Colby J. Loucks; et al. (2002). Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: a Conservation Assessment. Washington, DC: Island Press.
  6. ^ Culmsee, H., Pitopang, R., Mangopo, H. et al. Tree diversity and phytogeographical patterns of tropical high mountain rain forests in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodivers Conserv 20, 1103–1123 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-011-0019-y
  7. ^ Culmsee, H., Pitopang, R., Mangopo, H. et al. Tree diversity and phytogeographical patterns of tropical high mountain rain forests in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodivers Conserv 20, 1103–1123 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-011-0019-y
  8. ^ Wikramanayake, Eric; Eric Dinerstein; Colby J. Loucks; et al. (2002). Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: a Conservation Assessment. Washington, DC: Island Press.
  9. ^ Wikramanayake, Eric; Eric Dinerstein; Colby J. Loucks; et al. (2002). Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: a Conservation Assessment. Washington, DC: Island Press.
  10. ^ Tony Whitten, Greg S. Henderson (2012) Ecology of Sulawesi. Tuttle Publishing, Jun 19, 2012.
  11. ^ Wikramanayake, Eric; Eric Dinerstein; Colby J. Loucks; et al. (2002). Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: a Conservation Assessment. Washington, DC: Island Press.
  12. ^ Grubb, P. (2005). "Rusa timorensis". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 670. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  13. ^ Wikramanayake, Eric; Eric Dinerstein; Colby J. Loucks; et al. (2002). Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: a Conservation Assessment. Washington, DC: Island Press.
  14. ^ Eric Dinerstein, David Olson, et al. (2017). An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm, BioScience, Volume 67, Issue 6, June 2017, Pages 534–545; Supplemental material 2 table S1b. [2]
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