Serdar (city)

Serdar
Kyzyl-Arvat (1881-1992) Кызыл-Арват (in Russian)
Gyzylarbat (1992-1999)
Serdar is located in Turkmenistan
Serdar
Serdar
Location in Turkmenistan
Coordinates: 38°59′N 56°17′E / 38.983°N 56.283°E / 38.983; 56.283
Country Turkmenistan
ProvinceBalkan Province
Population
 (2020)[1]
 • Total89,582
Area code+993 246

Serdar (formerly Kyzyl-Arvat or Gyzylarbat[2] and Farāva[3]) is a city with district status in Turkmenistan, located north-west of the capital, Ashkhabad on the M37 highway to the Caspian Sea. The population of Serdar is 50,000 people, mainly Turkmen. The main language spoken in the region is Turkmen. It is near the northwest end of the line of oases on the north slope of the Kopet Dag that extends southeast to Ashkhabad.[4]

Name

"Kyzyl-Rabat" and later evolution

The 8th-9th-century fortification in this place was called Kyzyl-Rabat, "red fortress". In the 16th-17th centuries this name was corrupted in the vernacular to Kyzyl-Arbat. In 1925, during Soviet rule, a district called Kizyl-Arvat[5] (Russian: Кызыл-Арбат) was established.

Serdar

On 29 December 1999 the town was renamed from Kizyl-Arvat to Serdar.[5] The word serdar is a loan word from Persian meaning "leader" and is a reference to the first President of Turkmenistan, Saparmurat Niyazov.

The town also shares a name with the third President of Turkmenistan, Serdar Berdimuhamedow, but has no relation.[citation needed]

Location

The city is located on the edge of the Karakum Desert at the foot of the Kopet-Dag ridge.[3]

History

Persian city of Farava

In ancient times, the region was inhabited by the Dahae,[citation needed] an Iranian people. Serdar is at the site of the old Persian city of Farāva (Parau;[3] فراوه in Persian). Before the immigration of the Turkmens to these regions, Farava's population was Persian.[6]

Turkic settlement

When the Oghuz, under the command of Tughril and Chaghri, lost a battle against Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna (r. 998–1030), they made a submission to the sultan, requesting him to allow them to cross the waters of the Oxus and settle somewhere between Nisa and Abivard. Sultan Mahmud acceded to their request and allotted them the grazing grounds in the steppe near Sarakhs, Abivard and Farava.[6]

Russian and Soviet periods

During the Russian conquest several exploring expeditions reached here, but the main fighting was at Geok Tepe – see Battle of Geok Tepe (1879) and Battle of Geok Tepe (1881). The modern city was established in 1881 with a station on the Trans-Caspian Railway.[7]

In July 1918, following his declaration of martial law in Ashgabat, Commissar V. Frolov, head of the Tashkent Cheka, came to Kyzyl-Arvat to impose the authority of the Tashkent Soviet. However the railway workers had heard of his execution of strike leaders in Ashgabat and organised an armed response. He was shot with some of his followers and the rest were disarmed. This action opened the way to the formation of the Transcaspian Government.[8]

On 25 June 1957, the Soviet 58th Motor Rifle Division was established in Kyzyl-Arvat, from the 58th Rifle Division which had arrived years earlier.[9]

After independence (1991)

During the reign of President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov (r. 2007–), the city has expanded to the north-west: a house of culture, a carpet factory, a secondary school, a kindergarten, an art school, a shopping center, a sports complex with a stadium, a swimming pool and playgrounds for various sports have been erected. In addition, the infrastructure of the city was updated. In particular, a new railway and bus station, a flyover bridge and a collector for absorbing mudflows, sewage treatment plants, and a number of other engineering facilities were built here.[citation needed]

Private construction of the northern outskirts of the city is planned. Urban road infrastructure has been upgraded in recent years.[citation needed]

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
197022,000—    
198933,388+2.22%
199951,000+4.33%
202089,582+2.72%
Source: [10][11][12][1]

Transportation

Serdar station is on the Trans-Caspian railway. Construction began in 1879 of a narrow-gauge railway to Gyzylarbat in connection with the Russian conquest of Transcaspia under General Mikhail Skobelev.[citation needed]

Road transport includes two bus routes.[13] Small PAZ buses serve the local population.

Climate

Serdar has a cool desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWk), with cool winters and very hot summers. Rainfall is generally light and erratic, and occurs mainly in the winter and autumn months.

Climate data for Serdar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 26.4
(79.5)
28.1
(82.6)
36.6
(97.9)
39.7
(103.5)
45.7
(114.3)
46.8
(116.2)
47.3
(117.1)
46.2
(115.2)
44.6
(112.3)
38.5
(101.3)
31.9
(89.4)
29.0
(84.2)
47.3
(117.1)
Average high °C (°F) 5.6
(42.1)
8.5
(47.3)
14.7
(58.5)
23.0
(73.4)
30.3
(86.5)
35.6
(96.1)
38.2
(100.8)
36.9
(98.4)
31.5
(88.7)
22.9
(73.2)
14.0
(57.2)
7.4
(45.3)
22.4
(72.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.6
(33.1)
3.1
(37.6)
8.7
(47.7)
16.3
(61.3)
23.4
(74.1)
28.6
(83.5)
31.3
(88.3)
29.7
(85.5)
23.8
(74.8)
15.7
(60.3)
8.2
(46.8)
3.0
(37.4)
16.0
(60.9)
Average low °C (°F) −3.1
(26.4)
−1.2
(29.8)
3.7
(38.7)
10.3
(50.5)
16.6
(61.9)
21.4
(70.5)
24.4
(75.9)
22.5
(72.5)
16.7
(62.1)
9.5
(49.1)
3.4
(38.1)
−0.7
(30.7)
10.3
(50.5)
Record low °C (°F) −26.0
(−14.8)
−26.3
(−15.3)
−21.5
(−6.7)
−2.7
(27.1)
2.6
(36.7)
8.4
(47.1)
13.5
(56.3)
10.6
(51.1)
2.0
(35.6)
−2.9
(26.8)
−15.3
(4.5)
−22.1
(−7.8)
−26.3
(−15.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 23.0
(0.91)
24.3
(0.96)
29.8
(1.17)
24.5
(0.96)
22.0
(0.87)
10.8
(0.43)
7.7
(0.30)
4.8
(0.19)
5.2
(0.20)
14.9
(0.59)
19.2
(0.76)
23.9
(0.94)
210.1
(8.28)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 8.9 8.9 6.7 8.2 4.8 1.5 1.3 0.8 1.7 3.6 6.5 9.8 62.7
Average relative humidity (%) 78.0 73.5 62.8 58.2 46.3 37.5 36.3 33.1 37.5 50.7 69.1 78.7 55.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 118.7 137.1 181.1 226.0 294.6 344.7 352.2 342.8 296.5 236.1 174.1 110.3 2,814.2
Source 1: climatebase.ru[14]
Source 2: NOAA (1961–1990)[15]

Coordinates: 38°59′N 56°17′E / 38.983°N 56.283°E / 38.983; 56.283

References

  1. ^ a b Population of Serdar, all-populations.com (in Russian), retrieved 12 February 2022.
  2. ^ Kyzyl-Arvat as the former name
  3. ^ a b c "Farāva". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
  4. ^ Turkmenistan Geoname Changes/List of Current Names of Municipalities and Their Former Names/Cities with District Status
  5. ^ a b Explanation card from the Museum of History in Serdar, Turkmenistan
  6. ^ a b Bulliet, Richard W. 2011. Cotton, climate, and camels in early Islamic Iran. New York: Columbia University Press. p.98
  7. ^ Columbia-Lippincott Gazetteer, p. 958
  8. ^ The British Intervention in Transcaspia, 1918–1919 by C. H. Ellis, University of California Press, 1963 p26
  9. ^ Michael Holm. "58th Motorised Rifle Division". www.ww2.dk. Retrieved 2016-03-18.
  10. ^ Кизил-Арват in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 1969–1978 (in Russian)
  11. ^ 1989 census USSR, listed as "г. Кизыл-Арват"
  12. ^ Turkmenistan, citypopulation.de
  13. ^ В городе Сердар запущен новый автобусный маршрут
  14. ^ "Gyzylarbat, Turkmenistan". Climatebase.ru. Archived from the original on 10 October 2007. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  15. ^ "Climate Normals for Gyzylarbat". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 10 October 2007. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
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