Salvadoran Army

Salvadoran Army
Ejército Salvadoreño
Salvadoran Army Seal.svg
Badge of the Salvadoran Army.
Founded1824
CountryEl Salvador
BranchArmy
Size14,165[1]

The Salvadoran Army (Spanish: Ejército Salvadoreño) is the land branch and largest of the Armed Forces of El Salvador.

Conflicts

The Football War

The Football War (also called The Soccer War or 100-hours War) was a term coined by Polish reporter Ryszard Kapuściński to describe a brief conflict between El Salvador and neighbouring Honduras. He argued that the war began after the rival nations traded wins during the qualifying round for the 1970 FIFA World Cup. But this event was not the cause of the war. Tensions had been mounting between both nations for several years because of immigration and economic problems, resulting on the war in 1969. The soccer matches incidents just one of several events that happened during that time. Longstanding tensions between the countries were heightened by media reports on both sides, each accusing the other of hooliganism and violence toward their own football fans. On June 26, 1969, El Salvador dissolved all ties with Honduras, the events were used as a call for nationalist pride for both governments and the media.

On July 14 Salvadoran forces began moving rapidly into Honduras following a series of border clashes. Their progress halted after the Organization of American States (OAS) and the United States brought heavy diplomatic pressure to bear on both governments in an effort to effect a cease-fire.

A ceasefire was ultimately negotiated and signed by July 18, with Salvadoran forces withdrawing from Honduras by August 2 following guarantees of safety for Salvadoran citizens in Honduras by the Honduran government.

The Salvadoran Civil War

By the late 1970s, longstanding socio-economic inequality, human rights violations and the unwillingness of the National Conciliation Party dictatorship to address these problems led to the growth of a social movement. The government responded by assassinating thousands of political opponents and massacring students and protestors on several occasions. The heavy handed response of the government signaled to those identifying with the social movement that peaceful solutions were futile, which led to the growth of an insurgency.

On October 15, 1979, the military government was deposed by a joint military-civilian government calling itself the Revolutionary Government Junta of El Salvador (JRG). The JRG's policies were met with opposition from the military and economic elites and government repression increased, with tens of thousands of civilians being killed in 1980 and 1981 alone. This led to the formation of the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN), which brought on a twelve-year civil war.

The Iraq War

An unidentified Salvadoran special forces Soldier keeps a close eye on the borders of Camp Charlie in Al Hillah, Iraq, April 14, 2005. The Cuscatlan Battalion IV Soldier is helping support Operation Iraqi Freedom, which is being conducted mainly by Coalition Forces in Hillah.

Up to 380 Salvadoran troops, mostly paratroopers, were deployed as part of the Coalition Forces in Iraq between August 2003 and January 2009. They operated alongside the elite Spanish Legion in Najaf. While in Iraq, the Salvadoran contingent suffered 5 dead, and more than 50 wounded.[2][3]

In 2006 the government of El Salvador approached the Israeli ambassador to El Salvador seeking assistance in modernising its army.[4]

Organizational structure

Salvadoran Special Forces

El Salvador is divided into 6 military zones, each of which has its own infantry brigade:

Furthermore, the army has the following units:

  • 1 Special Military Security Brigade consisting of 2 Military Police and 2 border security battalions,
  • 8 infantry detachments with 2 battalions,
  • 1 Engineer Command with of 2 battalions,
  • 1 artillery brigade with of 2 field artillery and 2 anti-aircraft battalions,
  • 1 mechanized cavalry regiment with 2 battalions, and the
  • Special Forces Command with 1 Special Operations Group, and 1 Anti-Terrorism Command.
  • 1 female soldiers battalion on the artillery brigade.

Equipment

Infantry weapons

Name Type Image Origin Notes
Handguns
P227 Semi-automatic pistol Sig Sauer P227.jpg  United States All its variants. Used By soldiers and special forces.
P226 Semi-automatic pistol SIG Sauer P226 neu.jpg  Germany All its variants including the Sig Sauer X Six SIG P226 X Six. Used By soldiers and special forces.
M9[5] Semi-automatic pistol M9-pistolet.jpg  United States
CZ 75[5] Semi-automatic pistol Machine pistol Cz75.jpg  Czech Republic
92SB[5] Semi-automatic pistol Beretta 92FS left.jpg  Italy
FN P35[5] Semi-automatic pistol FN Hi Power.jpg  Belgium
IWI 941[5] Semi-automatic pistol Jericho 941F.jpg  Israel
G17[5] Semi-automatic pistol Glock 17-removebg-preview.png  Austria Salvadoran Army's Special Forces and Anti-terrorist Command. Variants that are used: Glock 17, Glock 17C, Glock 17L, Glock 17MB, Glock 17M.
Sub-machine guns
Uzi[5] Sub-machine gun Uzi-nobg.png  Israel Uzi submachine gun, Mini-Uzi.
Ingram MAC-10[5] Sub-machine gun MAC10.jpg  United States
MP5[5] Sub-machine gun MP5.jpg  Germany MP5SD3, MP5A3, MP5A2, MP5, MP5A1
Carbines
CAR-15[5] Carbine USAF GAU-5A.jpg  United States Colt Model 933, XM177, GAU-5/A (Colt Model 610), XM177E1 (Colt Model 609), XM177E2 (Colt Model 629), Colt Model 653 (M16A1 Carbine), Colt Model 654 (M16A1 Carbine), Colt Model 654 (M16A1 Carbine), Colt Model 727 (M16A2 carbine), Colt Model 733 (M16A2 Commando), Colt Model 723 "M16A2 Carbine". M16A2 SMG Model 635, XM177-E2 (Colt Model 629), Model 933, Colt Model 629, Colt 9mm SMG DOE (Model 633, US Car 15 Carbine (Colt Model 607), US XM177E1 (Colt Model 619), US XM177E2 GAU-5/A/B (Colt Model 639)).
M4 Carbine M4A1 ACOG.png  United States M4 Carbine, Colt M4A1, Colt M4 (original 1993 version), M4 (Colt Model 933), Colt M4 (M162 sights, burst and full auto)
HK416[5] Carbine HK416N.png  Germany
Galil ACE Carbine IWI 3686.jpg  Colombia ACE 21, ACE 22, ACE 23 (5.56×45mm NATO), ACE 32 (7.62×39mm), ACE 52, ACE 53 (7.62×51mm NATO).
Assault rifles
M16[5] Assault rifle M16A2 noBG.jpg  United States XM16E1, M16A1, M16A2, M16A3, M16A4, M16A1 with A2 handguards. M16A2 (Model 701, 703, 705 (Burst fire/single fire)), Model 711, Model 715 and Model 720 (Burst fire/single fire)). M16A2 Light Machine Gun (LMG). Some M16A1's have M16A2's brass defectors, XM16E1. M16A2 (Model 645), some M16A1's (also with the A2 handguards) have the M16A2 hand-grip. M16A1 with A2 handgrip A2 brass defectors. Also M16A1 with M16A2 handguards have M16A2 brass defectors and M16A1 handgrip, M16A1 (enhanced).
HK33[5] Assault rifle HK33A2 Flickr (yet another finn).png  Germany Including HK53 variant
FN FNC Assault rifle FNC IMG 1527.jpg  Belgium versions used: Standard" Model 2000 and Short" Model 7000, used by the Salvadoran Military Police and Paratrooper Battalion
T65[5] Assault rifle TwT65.JPG  Republic of China
IMI Galil[5] Assault rifle Galil SAR sideview.png  Israel Galil AR, Galil SAR, Galil SAR339, Micro Galil, Galil ARM.
AK-63 Assault rifle  Hungary Used Since 1992.
Steyr AUG Assault rifle AUG A1 508mm 04.jpg  Austria Used Since the 1990s by the Salvadoran Army Special Forces.
Colt Canada C7 rifle Assault rifle C7A1 with IronSights.JPG  Canada Colt Model 715. Imported from Canada in the 2000s.
MPi-KM Assault rifle MPi KmS 72.jpg  East Germany Used since 1992 by the special forces.
AK-47 Assault rifle AK-47 type II.png  Russia Used since 1992 by the special forces.
AKM Assault rifle AKM automatkarbin, Ryssland - 7,62x39mm - Armémuseum.jpg  Russia Used since 1992 by the special forces.
Pistol Mitralieră model 1963/1965 Assault rifle PM md. 63.jpg  Romania Recovered from Gang members.
Battle and Designated marksman rifles
M14[5] Battle rifle M14 Stand-off Munitions Disruptor (SMUD) (7414626342).jpg  United States Used as ceremonial gun, still used in active service on the Salvadoran Army infantry divisions,
Heckler & Koch G3[5] Battle rifle Heckler & Koch G3 Kunststoffschaft Display noBG.png  Germany G3A3, G3A4, G3KA4
Sniper rifles
M24 Sniper rifle M24-Sniper-Weapon-System.png  United States
M21 Sniper rifle Sniper Rifles M40 XM21.jpg  United States Used in the Salvadoran Army Special Forces.
Dragunov SVD Sniper rifle SVD Dragunov.jpg  Russia Used in the Salvadoran Army Special Forces.
Barrett M82 Anti-materiel precision rifle Barrett-M82A1-Independence-Day-2017-IZE-048-white.jpg  United States Used in the Salvadoran Army Special Forces.
Light machine guns
Diemaco C7A1 LSW Light machine gun Danish LSV M04.jpg  Canada Colt Model 715. Imported from Canada in the 2000s.
M249[5] light machine gun PEO M249 Para ACOG.jpg  United States First-generation M249 SAW, M249 Paratrooper.
FN Minimi[5] light machine gun FN MINIMI Standard Right.jpg  Belgium Minimi Para, FN Minimi.
General purpose machine guns
M60[5] General purpose machine gun  United States M60, M60E2, M60B, M60C M60D. During the civil war some M60's were chopped from the front sights to give a CBQ capabilities.
HK21[5] General purpose machine gun HK21.JPG  Germany
FN MAG[5] General purpose machine gun FN MAG white background.jpg  Belgium
M2HB[5] Heavy machine gun PEO Browning M2E2 QCB (c1).jpg  United States
Grenade launchers
M79[5] Grenade launcher M79 Grenade Launcher (7414625716).jpg  United States
M203[6] Grenade launcher PEO M203A2 Grenade Launcher.png  United States mounted in M16 Rifles (all its variants), M4's, M4A1's and CAR-15's (all its variants).
Grenades
M18[5] Smoke grenade US Marines 100520-M-9232S-012 M18 green smoke grenade crop.jpg  United States
M67[5] Grenade M67b.jpg  United States
Anti-tank weapons
RPG-7[5] Rocket-propelled grenade RPG-7 detached.jpg  Russia
M72A2 LAW[5] Rocket-propelled grenade M72A2 LAW.png  United States
C90-CR (M3)[5] Rocket-propelled grenade Instalaza C90-CR-BK (M3).jpg  Spain
M67[5] Recoilless rifle 2015.6.29. 해병대 2사단 - 양혁준 병장의 해병대 사랑 29th, June, 2015 ROK 2nd Mar.Div-Sgt, Yang's love for ROKMC (19205326199).jpg  United States 379 units.[1]
M40[5] Recoilless rifle Bangladesh Army RR carrier Willys Jeep M38A1 (24846268099).jpg  United States
MANPADS
FIM-43 Redeye[5] Man portable surface-to-air missile launcher FIM-43 Redeye (Robot 69) 001.jpg  United States
SA-7 Grail (Strela 2)[5] Man portable surface-to-air missile launcher SA-7.jpg  Russia

The Salvadoran Army/Navy/Marines/Air Force use the same kind of small arm types. Also it uses, telescopic sights, Aimpoint T2 Micro, Ohuhu OH-RG-SC Reflex Sights (panoramic sights), EOTech EXPS 3-0 sights, Barska Holographic Reflex Red Dot Sight, Ozark Rihno Tactical Sights, Trijicon MRO-C sights, EOTech 512..A65 sights, Vortex Optics StrikeFire II sights, Burrist Fast BFire3, Tasco Red Dot Sights, CVLIFE Optics Hunting Rifle Scope 2.5x40e red and green illuminated crosshair mount sights in every kind of assault rifle and rifle the every military branch of the Salvadoran armed forces usage.

Vehicles

Note: Sources are circa 1988, while some equipment listed may no longer be in service.

Armored combat vehicles

Model Image Type Number Origin Notes
Fighting vehicles
VCTA2 Tank Hunter 38  El Salvador created by the Salvadoran Military Forces
AML 90[7] Panhard AML-90 img 2308.jpg Armoured scout car 6[1][8]  France
Armored patrol and scout cars
HMMWV
Hamer VS 1.jpg
Light armoured car 50[8]  United States
Armored personnel carriers
Cashuat Armoured personnel carrier 41  El Salvador
 United States
Based on a Dodge M37. Armour kits and turrets purchased from the United States and applied in El Salvador[9]
M113[7]
Blindado M113 (Ejército brasileño) en.jpg
APC 20  United States
Armored special purpose vehicles
UR-416[7] UR-416 Policía Nacional.JPG armored personnel carrier Repair Workshop 6[1]  Germany Maintenance/Repair Workshop - This has a full range of tools, work benches, a vice and cutting equipment, and an A-frame can be erected at the front of the hull to enable the vehicle to change engines and other components. When the A-frame is in use, two stabilisers are lowered at the front of the hull[7]

Logistic vehicles

Model Image Type Number Origin Notes
Trucks
F-Series[10] JASDF Track(HINO RANGER) in Nara Base.JPG Truck 3+  Japan Part of a fleet of 45 new vehicles.
M35 truck[11] M35.jpg Medium cargo truck 45  United States
M809 truck[11] Defense.gov News Photo 060409-A-0575B-024.jpg Heavy cargo truck  United States
MAN 630 truck[11] MAN 630 at Munster (2).jpg Heavy cargo truck  Germany
Utility Trucks
D22[10] 2016 Nissan NP300 Navara (D23) ST 4-door utility (2017-09-22) 01.jpg Pick up 22+  Japan Part of a fleet of 45 new vehicles.
2011 Ford Ranger 2013 Ford Ranger (PX) XLT 4WD 4-door utility (2015-07-09) 01.jpg Light utility vehicle 37[12]  United States
CJ-8 Scrambler[7] Jeep SCrambler white SC-a.jpg utility truck Unknown  United States
Dodge M37[11] RAFBF 90th Birthday Air Show, East Kirkby - geograph.org.uk - 1440198.jpg Light utility vehicle  United States Mostly converted to Cashuats.[11][9]
Utility Vehicle
AIL Storm[11] Sufa 200804.jpg Light utility vehicle 38[1]  Israel
Jeep J8[13] Jeep J8 IDET.jpg Light utility vehicle  United States
Jeep CJ[11] Jeep-CJ.jpg Light utility vehicle  United States
M151[11] AMG M151 A2 (1978) GB (owner Gavin Broad).JPG Light utility vehicle  United States

[11] [9] [7]

Artillery

Model Image Caliber Number Dates Origin Notes
Mortars
M19[1] M2-Mortar.jpg 60mm 306  United States
M29[14] Mortar M29.jpg 81mm 151[1]  United States
M74[14] Mortar 120 mm M-75 Croatian Army.JPG 120mm  Yugoslavia Kept in storage.
UB M-52[14] Teski minobacac 120 mm UB M52 2011 7242.jpg 120mm  Yugoslavia Kept in storage.
Howitzers
M101[14] M101-105mm-howitzer-camp-pendleton-20050326.jpg 105mm 8[1]  United States
M102[14] M102-105mm-howitzer-fort-bragg.jpg 105mm 24[1]  United States
M56[14] M101-105mm-howitzer-camp-pendleton-20050326.jpg 105mm 18[1]  Yugoslavia M101 copy produced in Yugoslavia
105/14 Model 56[15] Spanish-marines-man-105mm-howitzer-19811001.jpg 105mm 14  Italy Pack Howitzer
M114[14] USArmy M114 howitzer.jpg 155mm 6  United States

Air-defence equipment

Model Image Caliber Number Dates Origin Notes
Anti-aircraft autocannon vehicle
BC7A1 20mm 4  El Salvador Armoured personnel carrier armed with two HS 404 20mm cannons. Also used as Anti-Air vehicle, created by the Salvadorian army.
M55 (Self-propelled)[14] Bulgarian truck-mounted AA-gun in 2012.jpg 20mm 4  Yugoslavia Truck or half-track mounted M-55.
Anti-aircraft autocannon
Zastava M55[14] 20 mm M55.JPG 20mm 31[1]  Yugoslavia Hispano-Suiza HS.804 copy.
TCM-20[14] TCM-20-hatzerim-2.jpg 20mm 4[1]  Israel Twin Hispano-Suiza HS.404s on towed pedestal mount.

[14][15]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "El Salvador". Military Technology World Defence Almanac. Bonn : Wehr & Wissen: 60. 2005. ISSN 0722-3226.
  2. ^ "El Salvador withdraws last soldiers from Iraq". USA Today. February 7, 2009.
  3. ^ Reuters Staff (January 18, 2008). "U.S. military chief thanks El Salvador for Iraq help". Reuters.com. Retrieved October 11, 2020.
  4. ^ Itamar Eichner (March 20, 2006). "El Salvador seeks to copy IDF model". ynetnews.com.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag "Latin American Light Weapons National Inventories". Fas.org. Retrieved August 26, 2014.
  6. ^ World Armies 2008. Jane's Information Group.
  7. ^ a b c d e f "country-data.com > El Salvador > Appendix". Country-data.com.
  8. ^ a b "Más dinero para el Ejercito salvadoreño". January 22, 2015. Archived from the original on January 22, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  9. ^ a b c "Jane's VAL Light Assault Vehicle Cashuat". Jane's Information Group.
  10. ^ a b "23NOV2018 MDN ENTREGO VEHICULOS A FT". YouTube. November 23, 2018. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Jane's Military Vehicles and Logistics – El Salvador". Jane's Information Group.
  12. ^ "2012 News - Embassy of the United States San Salvador, El Salvador". January 22, 2015. Archived from the original on January 22, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  13. ^ "United States donates Boston Whaler boat to El Salvador's Navy". sv.usembassy.gov. June 18, 2020.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "ArmyRecognition.com > Index of El Salvador Military Equipment". Armyrecognition.com.
  15. ^ a b "105/14 Model 56 105 mm Pack Howitzer". Forecast International. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved July 27, 2009.

Bibliography

  • "El Salvador". Military Technology World Defence Almanac. Bonn : Wehr & Wissen: 60. 2005. ISSN 0722-3226.

External links

  • defenselink.mil
  • nationsencyclopedia.com
  • EL SALVADOR: STANDING TALL
  • (Salvadorian Armed Forces Research & Development Center)
  • › Land › Machine Gun Armored Patrol Carriers in Central America(Machine Gun Armored Patrol Carriers in Central America)
  • Anti-Tank Weapons in Mexico & the Northern Central American Triangle)
  • Support and Anti-tank Weapons in Latin America: 90mm and 105mm Recoilless Rifles)
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