Richland County, South Carolina

Richland County
The Richland County Justice Center is located across from Columbia City Hall.
The Richland County Justice Center is located across from Columbia City Hall.
Official seal of Richland County
Official logo of Richland County
Motto: 
"A vision for the future"
Map of South Carolina highlighting Richland County
Location within the U.S. state of South Carolina
Map of the United States highlighting South Carolina
South Carolina's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 34°01′18″N 80°54′11″W / 34.0218°N 80.90304°W / 34.0218; -80.90304
Country United States
State South Carolina
Founded1785
Named forThe county's "Rich Land"[1]
SeatColumbia
Largest cityColumbia
Area
 • Total772 sq mi (2,000 km2)
 • Land757 sq mi (1,960 km2)
 • Water15 sq mi (40 km2)  1.9%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total416,147 Increase
 • Density540/sq mi (210/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional districts2nd, 6th
Websitewww.richlandcountysc.gov

Richland County is located in the U.S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2020 census, its population was 416,147,[2] making it the second-most populous county in South Carolina, behind only Greenville County. The county seat and largest city is Columbia,[3] the state capital. The county was established on March 12, 1785.[4] Richland County is part of the Columbia, SC metropolitan statistical area. In 2010, the center of population of South Carolina was located in Richland County, in the city of Columbia.[5]

History

Harvesting red gum trees in Richland County, 1904
South Carolina Statehouse - Richland County holds the state's capitol, Columbia.
A swamp in rural Richland County

Richland County was probably named for its "rich land". The county was formed in 1785 as part of the large Camden District.[4] A small part of Richland County was later ceded to adjacent Kershaw County in 1791. The county seat and largest city is Columbia, which is also the state capital. In 1786, the state legislature decided to move the capital from Charleston to a more central location. A site was chosen in Richland County, which is in the geographic center of the state, and a new town was laid out. Richland County's boundaries were formally incorporated on December 18, 1799.[6] Cotton from the surrounding plantations was shipped through Columbia and later manufactured into textiles there. General William T. Sherman captured Columbia during the Civil War and his troops burned the town and parts of the county on February 17, 1865. The U. S. Army returned on friendlier terms in 1917, when Fort Jackson was established, which is now the largest and most active Initial Entry Training Center in the U.S. Army. The South Carolina State House is located in downtown Columbia.

Geography

Interactive map of Richland County
The Congaree River makes the border between Richland and Lexington Counties.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 772 square miles (2,000 km2), of which 15 square miles (39 km2) (1.9%) are covered by water.[7] Richland County is situated in the center of South Carolina.

National protected area

State and local protected areas/sites

Major water bodies

Adjacent counties

Transportation

Bus system

Public transportation in Richland County is provided by the COMET, or officially the Central Midlands Regional Transit Authority (CMRTA). The bus system is the main public transit system for the greater Columbia area. In Richland County, the bus system runs in the areas of Columbia, Forest Acres, Fort Jackson, Irmo, St. Andrews, Northeast Richland, Lower Richland, and Eastover. Additionally, COMET offers Dial-a-ride transit (DART), which provides personalized service passengers with disabilities.[8]

Railway

Columbia has one Amtrak station (CLB) that serves over 30,000 passengers per year on the Silver Star rail line.[9] Additionally, Richland County has an operating facility for CSX Transportation, a company that transports over one million carloads of freight on South Carolina's rail network.[10]

Airports

The Jim Hamilton–L.B. Owens Airport operates over 56,000 aircraft annually, but is a smaller airport used mostly for small and private planes. The main airport for the region is the Columbia Metropolitan Airport, which is located in neighboring Lexington County. In 2018, the Columbia Metro Airport served 1,197,603 passengers with 12,324 flights.

Interstates

  • I-20 Interstate 20 travels from west to east and connects Columbia to Atlanta and Augusta in the west and Florence in the east. It serves the nearby towns and suburbs of Pelion, Lexington, West Columbia, Sandhill, Pontiac, and Elgin. Interstate 20 is also used by travelers heading to Myrtle Beach, although the interstate's eastern terminus is in Florence.
  • I-26 Interstate 26 travels from northwest to southeast and connects the Columbia area to the other two major population centers of South Carolina - the Greenville-Spartanburg area in the northwestern part of the state and North Charleston – Charleston area in the southeastern part of the state.
  • I-77 Interstate 77 begins in Lexington county and ends in Cleveland, Ohio, and is frequently used by travelers on the east coast heading to or from Florida.
  • I-126 Interstate 126 branches off from I-26 and leads into downtown Columbia and provides access to Riverbanks Zoo.

U.S. routes

State routes

Major infrastructure

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
17903,930
18006,09755.1%
18109,02748.1%
182012,32136.5%
183014,77219.9%
184016,39711.0%
185020,24323.5%
186018,307−9.6%
187023,02525.8%
188028,57324.1%
189036,82128.9%
190045,58923.8%
191055,14321.0%
192078,12241.7%
193087,66712.2%
1940104,84319.6%
1950142,56536.0%
1960200,10240.4%
1970233,86816.9%
1980269,73515.3%
1990285,7205.9%
2000320,67712.2%
2010384,50419.9%
2020416,1478.2%
2021 (est.)418,307[11]0.5%
U.S. Decennial Census[12]
1790-1960[13] 1900-1990[14]
1990-2000[15] 2010-2020[16][17]

2020 census

Richland County racial composition[18]
Race Num. Perc.
White (non-Hispanic) 172,644 41.49%
Black or African American (non-Hispanic) 188,141 45.21%
Native American 888 0.21%
Asian 11,330 2.72%
Pacific Islander 427 0.1%
Other/mixed 16,622 3.99%
Hispanic or Latino 26,095 6.27%

As of the 2020 United States census, 416,147 people, 153,484 households, and 90,802 families were residing in the county.

2010 census

As of the 2010 United States Census, 384,504 people, 145,194 households, and 89,357 families were residing in the county.[19][16] The population density was 507.9 inhabitants per square mile (196.1/km2). There were 161,725 housing units at an average density of 213.6 per square mile (82.5/km2).[20] The racial makeup of the county was 45.3% White, 48.9% African American, 2.2% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.9% from other races, and 2.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.8% of the population.[19] In terms of ancestry, 9.6% were German, 8.6% were English, 7.6% were Irish, and 7.1% were American.[21]

Of the 145,194 households, 32.9% had children under 18 living with them, 39.6% were married couples living together, 17.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.5% were not families, and 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.43, and the average family size was 3.05. The median age was 32.6 years.[19]

The median income for a household in the county was $47,922 and for a family was $61,622. Males had a median income of $42,453 versus $34,012 for females. The per capita income for the county was $25,805. About 10.0% of families and 14.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.6% of those under age 18 and 9.7% of those age 65 or over.[22]

Law and government

Richland County Sheriff's Department Horses, 1913 in Columbia, South Carolina

Richland County is governed by a county council,[23] who hold concurrent four-year terms. Richland County is governed under the Council-Administrator form of government, which is very similar to the council-manager form of government. The major difference between the council-manager and council-administrator forms of government is the title of the chief executive.

County council (as of 2022)
District Council person
District 1 Bill Malinowski
District 2 Derrek Pugh
District 3 Yvonne McBride
District 4 Paul Livingston
District 5 Allison Terracio
District 6 Joe Walker III
District 7 Gretchen Barron
District 8 Overture Walker (chair)
District 9 Jesica Mackey (vice chair)
District 10 Cheryl English
District 11 Chakisse Newton

The South Carolina Department of Corrections, headquartered in Columbia and in Richland County,[24] operates several correctional facilities in Columbia and in Richland County. They include the Broad River Correctional Institution,[25] the Goodman Correctional Institution,[26] the Camille Griffin Graham Correctional Institution,[27] the Stevenson Correctional Institution,[28] and the Campbell Pre-Release Center.[29] Graham houses the state's female death row.[30] The State of South Carolina execution chamber is located at Broad River. From 1990 to 1997 Broad River housed the state's male death row.[31]

In March 2008, the Richland County Sheriff's Department acquired an armored personnel carrier equipped with a .50 caliber machine gun.[32] Reason magazine criticized the acquisition as "overkill".[33]

Politics

Richland County was one of the first areas of South Carolina to break away from a Solid South voting pattern. From 1948 to 1988, it only supported the official Democratic candidate for president once, in 1976. It voted for splinter Dixiecrat Strom Thurmond in 1948, and for unpledged electors in 1956.

Since 1992, Richland County has been one of the stronger Democratic bastions in South Carolina, following the trend of most urban counties across the country.

United States presidential election results for Richland County, South Carolina[34]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 58,313 30.09% 132,570 68.40% 2,939 1.52%
2016 52,469 31.10% 108,000 64.01% 8,253 4.89%
2012 53,105 33.37% 103,989 65.34% 2,060 1.29%
2008 57,941 35.11% 105,656 64.02% 1,440 0.87%
2004 56,212 42.01% 76,283 57.01% 1,306 0.98%
2000 50,164 43.07% 63,179 54.24% 3,138 2.69%
1996 39,092 41.05% 52,222 54.84% 3,916 4.11%
1992 43,744 41.17% 53,648 50.49% 8,858 8.34%
1988 43,841 52.74% 36,420 43.81% 2,862 3.44%
1984 46,773 57.44% 32,212 39.56% 2,444 3.00%
1980 36,337 49.87% 33,158 45.50% 3,374 4.63%
1976 32,727 46.78% 36,855 52.68% 380 0.54%
1972 39,746 64.11% 21,462 34.62% 787 1.27%
1968 26,215 50.96% 18,198 35.37% 7,032 13.67%
1964 27,306 60.35% 17,939 39.65% 0 0.00%
1960 20,736 63.94% 11,694 36.06% 0 0.00%
1956 6,714 29.99% 6,154 27.49% 9,516 42.51%
1952 15,925 64.17% 8,890 35.83% 0 0.00%
1948 670 7.29% 2,419 26.31% 6,104 66.40%
1944 140 1.98% 6,590 93.12% 347 4.90%
1940 167 3.38% 4,781 96.62% 0 0.00%
1936 152 2.21% 6,728 97.79% 0 0.00%
1932 119 2.64% 4,371 97.13% 10 0.22%
1928 444 12.33% 3,158 87.67% 0 0.00%
1924 88 3.48% 2,369 93.60% 74 2.92%
1920 295 10.81% 2,434 89.19% 0 0.00%
1916 292 11.20% 2,283 87.57% 32 1.23%
1912 23 1.30% 1,557 88.17% 186 10.53%
1908 236 11.76% 1,750 87.19% 21 1.05%
1904 122 9.09% 1,220 90.91% 0 0.00%
1900 62 12.23% 445 87.77% 0 0.00%
1896 468 32.91% 925 65.05% 29 2.04%
1892 146 15.63% 788 84.37% 0 0.00%

Education

Public Primary and Secondary Education

Public School Districts[35]
Name Enrollment Notes
Richland School District 1 22,939[when?] Central and southern portions of the county
Richland School District 2 28,398[when?] Northeastern portions of the county
Lexington & Richland County School District Five 16,680[when?] Northwestern portions of the county
Fort Jackson Varies The on-post areas of Fort Jackson are served by the Department of Defense Education Activity

(DoDEA) for elementary grades, with District 2 serving that area for secondary grades.

Colleges and Universities

Colleges and Universities[36][a]
Name Enrollment[b] Notes
University of South Carolina 34,731
Midlands Technical College 8,794
Benedict College 2,090 HBCU
Medical University of South Carolina 3,312[c] Main Campus: Charleston
Columbia International University 2,039
South University-Columbia 1,132 Main Campus: Savannah, Georgia
Columbia College 1,200
Allen University 590 HBCU
Virginia College-Columbia 404 Main Campus: Birmingham, Alabama
Remington College-Columbia 272 Main Campus: Lafayette, Louisiana

Public library

Richland Library System
Branches Circulation Annual Visitors (counted once)
11 3,300,000 364,000

Healthcare

Hospitals
Hospital Approximate Annual Patients
Medical University of South Carolina: Downtown[d] 1,000,000[37]
Medical University of South Carolina: Northeast[d]
Prisma Health Baptist: Taylor and Marion Streets 1,500,000[38]
Prisma Health Baptist: Parkridge
Prisma Health: Richland
William Jennings Bryan Dorn Veterans Affairs Medical Center 1,130,000[39]
Moncrief Army Community Hospital 400,000[40]
Lexington Medical Center: Northeast

Attractions

Top employers

Top ten employers (2019)[41]
Rank Employer Employees
1 Prisma Health 16,000
2 Blue Cross Blue Shield 10,000
3 University of South Carolina 7,000
4 South Carolina Department of Corrections 5,000
5 Richland County School District One 5,000
6 South Carolina Department of Transportation 5,000
7 South Carolina Department of Mental Health 5,000
8 South Carolina Department of Social Services 5,000
9 Richland County School District Two 4,000
10 South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control 4,000

Communities

Municipalities[42][43][44][45]
Type Name Pop. (2022 est.) Notes
City Columbia 139,148 State capital, County seat and largest city in county. Partly in Lexington County[e]
Census-designated place St. Andrews 20,979
Federal enclave[f] Fort Jackson 15,423* *2020 Count, Military base[46]
Census-designated place Dentsville 14,671
City Cayce 14,131 Mostly in Lexington County[47]
Town Irmo 11,640 Mostly in Lexington County
City Forest Acres 11,426
Census-designated place Woodfield 9,141
Town Blythewood 4,984 Partly in Fairfield County
Census-designated place Capitol View 4,653* *2020 Count
Census-designated place Hopkins 2,453
Census-designated place Arthurtown 2,294* *2020 Count
Town Elgin 1,738 Mostly in Kershaw County[48]
Census-designated place Gadsden 1,310
Federal enclave[g] McEntire Joint National Guard Base 1,250* * 2020, County, Military base
Census-designated place Olympia 1,087* *2020 Count
Town Arcadia Lakes 880
Town Eastover 647

Unincorporated communities and neighborhoods

Regions

  • Dutch Fork
  • Fort Jackson
  • Intown/downtown
  • Lower Richland
  • Northeast Richland
  • Upper Richland

In popular culture

Richland County was one of several counties across the country used as a filming location for the A&E reality documentary series Live PD, which worked in collaboration with the Richland County Sheriff's Department. The show first premiered in 2016 and aired for four years until its cancellation in 2020.[49] In 2021, Sheriff Leon Lott said the show will return to Richland County in the future.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In-person institutions only
  2. ^ Part and full-time enrollment
  3. ^ System-wide
  4. ^ a b Formerly Providence Hospital
  5. ^ A very small percentage of the city is in Lexington County.
  6. ^ Though within the city limits of Columbia, Fort Jackson operates autonomously with a private population and closed borders.
  7. ^ The air base operates autonomously with a private population and closed borders.

References

  1. ^ "About Richland County". www.richlandcountysc.gov. Retrieved June 13, 2022.
  2. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Richland County, South Carolina". www.census.gov. Retrieved June 11, 2022.
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  4. ^ a b "South Carolina - Legislative Acts Creating Counties / Districts". South Carolina General Assembly. 1785. Retrieved March 20, 2022.
  5. ^ "Centers of Population by State: 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
  6. ^ "About Richland County". Richland County, South Carolina. Retrieved March 20, 2022.
  7. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved March 19, 2015.
  8. ^ "The Comet Routes" (PDF). The Central Midlands Transit Authority. n.d. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
  9. ^ "Columbia, SC (CLB)". Great American Stations. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
  10. ^ "CSX in South Carolina". CSX. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
  11. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Richland County, South Carolina". www.census.gov. Retrieved June 11, 2022.
  12. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 19, 2015.
  13. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved March 19, 2015.
  14. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 19, 2015.
  15. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved March 19, 2015.
  16. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved November 25, 2013.
  17. ^ "Census Bureau Quick Facts". U.S. Census Bureau. April 1, 2020. Retrieved March 20, 2022.
  18. ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved December 13, 2021.
  19. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
  20. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
  21. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES - 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
  22. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS - 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
  23. ^ "Richland County > Government > County Council > County Council Members". www.richlandonline.com. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  24. ^ "Institutions." South Carolina Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 17, 2010.
  25. ^ "Broad River Correctional Institution." South Carolina Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 17, 2010.
  26. ^ "Goodman Correctional Institution." South Carolina Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 17, 2010.
  27. ^ "Graham (Camille Griffin) Correctional Institution." South Carolina Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 17, 2010. "4450 Broad River Road Columbia, SC 29210-4096"
  28. ^ "Stevenson Correctional Institution." South Carolina Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 17, 2010.
  29. ^ "Campbell Pre-Release Center." South Carolina Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 17, 2010.
  30. ^ "Graham (Camille Griffin) Correctional Institution." South Carolina Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 17, 2010. "The institution also functions as a major special management unit with the ability to house female death row inmates and county safekeepers."
  31. ^ "Death Row/Capital Punishment." South Carolina Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 17, 2010.
  32. ^ S.C. Sheriff's Department Armored Vehicle with Belt-Fed Machine Gun Archived 2008-09-04 at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ Sheriff Lott's New Toy by Radley Balko September 1, 2008
  34. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  35. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Richland County, SC" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved February 5, 2022. - Text list - "Fort Jackson Schools" refers to the DoDEA schools on base.
  36. ^ "Colleges in Richland County, South Carolina". Countyoffice.org. Retrieved July 7, 2022.
  37. ^ "MUSC Fact Sheet". Medical University of South Carolina. Retrieved July 29, 2022.
  38. ^ "FY21 highlights and statistics". prismahealth.org. Retrieved July 29, 2022.
  39. ^ "Columbia VA Health Care System" (PDF). va.gov. United States Department of Veterans Affairs. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022.
  40. ^ "Fort Jackson, SC - Hospital". United States Army. Retrieved July 29, 2022.
  41. ^ "Comrehensive Financial Report (2019)" (PDF). Richland County. 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022.
  42. ^ "Richland County, SC Internet Mapping". RichlandMaps.com. n.d. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  43. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau Quick Facts". U.S. Census. July 2019. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  44. ^ "Richland County SC - Cities, Towns, Neighborhoods, & Subdivisions". southcarolina.hometownlocator.com. Retrieved June 11, 2022.
  45. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau Quick Facts". U.S. Census. July 2019. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  46. ^ "Fort Jackson, South Carolina Demographics Data". Town Charts. 2010. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  47. ^ "Cayce, SC Profile: Facts & Data". southcarolina.hometownlocator.com. Retrieved September 17, 2022.
  48. ^ "Elgin, SC Profile: Facts & Data". southcarolina.hometownlocator.com. Retrieved September 17, 2022.
  49. ^ Schneider, Michael (June 11, 2020). "'Live PD': Inside A&E's Swift Decision to Cancel the Show, and Whether it Will Ever Return". Variety. Retrieved June 28, 2020.

External links

  • Official website

Coordinates: 34°01′18″N 80°54′11″W / 34.0218°N 80.90304°W / 34.0218; -80.90304

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