The Water Portal

The multiple arches of the Pont du Gard in Roman Gaul (modern-day southern France). The upper tier encloses an aqueduct that carried water to Nimes in Roman times; its lower tier was expanded in the 1740s to carry a wide road across the river.
Drinking water.jpg

Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a solvent). It is vital for all known forms of life, despite providing neither food, energy, nor organic micronutrients. Its chemical formula, H2O, indicates that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, connected by covalent bonds. The hydrogen atoms are attached to the oxygen atom at an angle of 104.45°. "Water" is also the name of the liquid state of H2O at standard temperature and pressure.

A number of natural states of water exist. It forms precipitation in the form of rain and aerosols in the form of fog. Clouds consist of suspended droplets of water and ice, its solid state. When finely divided, crystalline ice may precipitate in the form of snow. The gaseous state of water is steam or water vapor.

Water covers about 71% of the Earth's surface, with seas and oceans making up most of the water volume on earth (about 96.5%). Small portions of water occur as groundwater (1.7%), in the glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland (1.7%), and in the air as vapor, clouds (consisting of ice and liquid water suspended in air), and precipitation (0.001%). Water moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation, transpiration (evapotranspiration), condensation, precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea. (Full article...)

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Ultrapure water (UPW), high-purity water or highly purified water (HPW) is water that has been purified to uncommonly stringent specifications. Ultrapure water is a term commonly used in manufacturing to emphasize the fact that the water is treated to the highest levels of purity for all contaminant types, including: organic and inorganic compounds; dissolved and particulate matter; volatile and non-volatile; reactive, and inert; hydrophilic and hydrophobic; and dissolved gases.

UPW and the commonly used term deionized (DI) water are not the same. In addition to the fact that UPW has organic particles and dissolved gases removed, a typical UPW system has three stages: a pretreatment stage to produce purified water, a primary stage to further purify the water, and a polishing stage, the most expensive part of the treatment process. (Full article...)

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  • ... that competitive swimmer Meenakshi Pahuja encountered water snakes in one river race at Murshidabad, and a corpse in another?
  • ... that Laura J. Crossey has shown that travertines are more likely to form when meteoric groundwater mixes with deeper groundwater from the Earth's mantle?
  • ... that groups of social feather dusters sway in unison in the water current and retract into their tubes at the slightest disturbance?
  • ... that William D. Dunham threw a lifejacket to the Japanese pilot he shot down in aerial combat, after the pilot parachuted into the water?
  • ... that the canoe routes through Obabika River Provincial Park are part of Temagami's 2,400-kilometre-long (1,500 mi) network of portages and waterways, many of which are traditional indigenous routes?
  • ... that it is impossible to draw water from Robin Hood's Well?

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Water News

Note: this section was updated in February 2020
  • Water topic page – from NASA
  • The World Water Assessment Programme – monitors freshwater issues and provides recommendations
  • Water Security – from UNESCO
  • Dundee UNESCO Centre – a portal for Water Law, Policy and Science from the University of Dundee
  • The Water Network – knowledge platform for water professionals to connect share knowledge
  • Watermonitor.gov – a portal to U.S. federal water information
  • Water Topics – from the U.S. EPA
  • Watershed News – from EPA
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture Water News – USDA
  • National Rural Water Association – NRWA news and press releases
  • India Water Portal – community-contributed water resources, articles, news, Q&A, data, events, opportunities, photos and videos.
  • Alberta WaterPortal – water news, info, events, and community
  • The New York Times Water topic page
  • The Guardian Water topic page
  • The 2005 Preliminary Report of the Sustainable Water Resources Roundtable – Advisory Committee on Water Information (inactive as of December 5, 2019)

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(updated in February 2020)


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The following are images from various water-related articles on Wikipedia.

Related portals


  • WikiProject Lakes describes the Earth's lakes. The project aims to consolidate and unify pages relating to lakes around the world.

Things you can do

Here are some tasks awaiting attention:
  • Stubs : Expand water stubs
  • Other :
    • Invite water experts to contribute their information.
    • Add your expert knowledge for your local river at WikiProject Rivers.
    • Help rotate/refresh the three items in the "Did you know?" box.
    • Expand articles on local lakes at WikiProject Lakes
    • Write or improve an article on a country whose water sector you know well at Category:Water supply and sanitation by country

Associated Wikimedia

The following Wikimedia Foundation sister projects provide more on this subject:

  • Commons
    Free media repository
  • Wikibooks
    Free textbooks and manuals
  • Wikidata
    Free knowledge base
  • Wikinews
    Free-content news
  • Wikiquote
    Collection of quotations
  • Wikisource
    Free-content library
  • Wikispecies
    Directory of species
  • Wikiversity
    Free learning tools
  • Wikivoyage
    Free travel guide
  • Wiktionary
    Dictionary and thesaurus

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