|Also known as||PS2|
|Developer||Sony Computer Entertainment|
|Type||Home video game console|
|Release date||PlayStation 2|
PlayStation 2 Slimline
|Lifespan||2000–2013 (13 years)|
|Introductory price||¥39,800, US$299, £299, F2,990, DM869|
|Units shipped||158.70 million (as of January 4, 2013) |
|System on a chip||Integrated Emotion Engine, Graphics Synthesizer, 32 MB of RDRAM, and 4 MB of eDRAM (PlayStation 2 Slimline models only)|
|CPU||MIPS R5900 Emotion Engine @ |
|Graphics||147.456 MHz Graphics Synthesizer, 6 GFLOPS|
|Sound||PCM 2ch 48KHz, Dolby Digital 5.1 and DTS 5.1|
|Dimensions||Original PS2: 3.1" (78.7 mm) × 11.9" (302.3 mm) × 7.2" (182.9 mm)|
|Mass||Original PS2: 4.85 lb (2.2 kg)|
|Best-selling game||Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas: 17.33 million sold (as of February 2009)|
The PlayStation 2 (PS2) is a home video game console developed and marketed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It was first released in Japan on 4 March 2000, in North America on 26 October 2000, in Europe on 24 November 2000, and in Australia on 30 November 2000. It is the successor to the original PlayStation, as well as the second installment in the PlayStation brand of consoles. As a sixth-generation console, it competed with Nintendo's GameCube, and Microsoft's Xbox. It is the best-selling video game console of all time, having sold over 155 million units worldwide.
Announced in 1999, Sony began developing the console after the immense success of its predecessor. The PS2 offered backward-compatibility for its predecessor's DualShock controller, as well as its games.
The PlayStation 2 received widespread critical acclaim upon release. A total of over 4,000 game titles were released worldwide, with over 1.5 billion copies sold. In 2004, Sony released a smaller, lighter revision of the console known as the PS2 Slim. Even after the release of its successor, the PlayStation 3, it remained popular well into the seventh generation. It continued to be produced until 2013 when Sony finally announced that it had been discontinued after over twelve years of production, one of the longest lifespans of any video game console. New games for the console continued to be made until the end of its life.
Released in 1994, the original PlayStation proved to be a phenomenal worldwide success and signalled Sony's rise to power in the video game industry. Its launch elicited critical acclaim and strong sales; it eventually became the first computer entertainment platform to ship over 100 million units. The PlayStation enjoyed particular success outside Japan in part due to Sony's refined development kits, large-scale advertising campaigns, and strong third-party developer support. By the late 1990s Sony had dethroned established rivals Sega and Nintendo in the global video game market. Sega, spurred on by its declining market share and significant financial losses, launched the Dreamcast in 1998 as a last-ditch attempt to stay in the industry.
Though Sony has kept details of the PlayStation 2's development secret, Ken Kutaragi, the chief designer of the original PlayStation, reportedly began working on a second console around the time of the original PlayStation's launch in late 1994. At some point during development, employees from Argonaut Games, under contract for semiconductor manufacturer LSI Corporation, were instructed to design a rendering chip for Sony's upcoming console. Jez San, founder of Argonaut, recalled that his team had no direct contact with Sony during the development process. Unbeknownst to him, Sony was designing their own chip in-house and had instructed other companies to design rendering chips merely to diversify their options.
By early 1997, the press was reporting that a new PlayStation was being developed and would have backward-compatibility with the original PlayStation, a built-in DVD player, and Internet connectivity. However, Sony continued to officially deny that a successor was being developed. Chris Deering, then-president of SCEE recalled that there was a degree of trepidation among Sony leaders to produce a console which would recapture or exceed the success of its predecessor.
Sony announced the PlayStation 2 on March 2, 1999. Sega's Dreamcast enjoyed a successful US launch on September 9 of that year; fuelled by a large marketing campaign, it sold over 500,000 units within two weeks.
"PlayStation 2's real-time graphics have no limitations. That's why I chose the colour black as it represents the infinity of the universe. The blue represents the intelligence and life spouting up."
—Teiyu Goto reflecting on the PlayStation 2's aesthetics
Sony unveiled the PlayStation 2 at the Tokyo Game Show on 20 September 1999. Sony showed fully playable demos of upcoming PlayStation 2 games including Gran Turismo 2000 (later released as Gran Turismo 3: A-Spec) and Tekken Tag Tournament—which showed the console's graphic abilities and power.
The PS2 was launched in March 2000 in Japan, October in North America, and November in Europe. Sales of the console, games and accessories pulled in $250 million on the first day, beating the $97 million made on the first day of the Dreamcast. Directly after its release, it was difficult to find PS2 units on retailer shelves due to manufacturing delays. Another option was purchasing the console online through auction websites such as eBay, where people paid over a thousand dollars for the console. The PS2 initially sold well partly on the basis of the strength of the PlayStation brand and the console's backward compatibility, selling its entire inventory of 1.4 million units in Japan by 31 March 2000, less than a month after launch. Backward compatibility had been widely seen as a desirable feature for consumers since the debut of the first successor video game console, but prior to the PlayStation 2 only one console had featured true backward compatibility (i.e. without the use of add-ons), the Atari 7800, due to the added hardware costs and industry concerns that backward compatibility could cause the console to appear to be a merely a new model of its predecessor or lead developers to prefer making games for the predecessor system.
Later, Sony added new development kits for game developers and more PS2 units for consumers. The PS2's built-in functionality also expanded its audience beyond the gamer, as its debut pricing was less than many standalone DVD players on the market. This made the console a low-cost entry into the home theater market.
Marketing for the PlayStation 2 reverted to the same tactic used in the early days of the original PlayStation: use 17-year-olds as the target audience, since younger audiences aspire to be teenagers and older audiences enjoy video games at the same level they did when they were 17.
The success of the PS2 at the end of 2000 caused Sega problems both financially and competitively, and Sega announced the discontinuation of the Dreamcast in March 2001, just 18 months after its successful Western launch. Despite the Dreamcast still receiving support through 2001, the PS2 remained the only sixth-generation console for over 6 months before it faced competition from new rivals: Nintendo's GameCube and Microsoft's Xbox. Many analysts predicted a close three-way matchup among the three consoles. The Xbox had the most powerful hardware, while the GameCube was the least expensive console, and Nintendo changed its policy to encourage third-party developers. While the PlayStation 2 theoretically had the weakest specification of the three, it had a head start due to its installed base plus strong developer commitment, as well as a built-in DVD player (the Xbox required an adapter, while the GameCube lacked support entirely). While the PlayStation 2's initial games lineup was considered mediocre, this changed during the 2001 holiday season with the release of several blockbuster games that maintained the PS2's sales momentum and held off its newer rivals. Sony also countered the Xbox by securing timed PlayStation 2 exclusives for highly anticipated games such as the Grand Theft Auto series and Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty.
Sony cut the price of the console in May 2002 from US$299 to $199 in North America, making it the same price as the GameCube and $100 less than the Xbox. It also planned to cut the price in Japan around that time. It cut the price twice in Japan in 2003. In 2006, Sony cut the cost of the console in anticipation of the release of the PlayStation 3.
Unlike Sega's Dreamcast, Sony originally placed little emphasis on online gaming during its first few years, although that changed upon the launch of the online-capable Xbox. Coinciding with the release of Xbox Live, Sony released the PlayStation Network Adapter in late 2002, with several online first-party titles released alongside it, such as SOCOM U.S. Navy SEALs to demonstrate its active support for Internet play. Sony also advertised heavily, and its online model had the support of Electronic Arts (EA); EA did not offer online Xbox titles until 2004. Although Sony and Nintendo both started late, and although both followed a decentralized model of online gaming where the responsibility is up to the developer to provide the servers, Sony's moves made online gaming a major selling point of the PS2.
In September 2004, in time for the launch of Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, Sony revealed a newer, slimmer model of the PlayStation 2. In preparation for the launch of the new models (SCPH-700xx-9000x), Sony stopped making the older models (SCPH-3000x-500xx) to let the distribution channel empty its stock of the units. After an apparent manufacturing issue—Sony reportedly underestimated demand—caused some initial slowdown in producing the new unit caused in part by shortages between the time Sony cleared out the old units and the new units were ready. The issue was compounded in Britain when a Russian oil tanker became stuck in the Suez Canal, blocking a ship from China carrying PS2s bound for the UK. During one week in November, British sales totalled 6,000 units—compared to 70,000 units a few weeks prior. There were shortages in more than 1,700 shops in North America on the day before Christmas.
In 2010, Sony introduced a TV with a built-in PlayStation 2.
The PlayStation 2 continued to be produced until 2013 when Sony finally announced that it had been discontinued after over twelve years of production—one of the longest lifespans of any video game console. New games for the console continued to be made until the end of 2013, including Final Fantasy XI: Seekers of Adoulin for Japan, and FIFA 14 for North America. The last game to be released on the PlayStation 2 is Pro Evolution Soccer 2014, which was released in the United Kingdom on 8 November 2013. Repair services for the system in Japan ended on 7 September 2018.
Emotion Engine CPU
An early SCPH-10000 motherboard
A late SCPH-70001 motherboard
The PlayStation 2's main central processing unit (CPU) is the 128-bit R5900-based "Emotion Engine", custom-designed by Sony and Toshiba. The Emotion Engine consists of eight separate "units", each performing a specific task, integrated onto the same die. These units include a central CPU core, two Vector Processing Units (VPU), a 10-channel DMA unit, a memory controller, and an Image Processing Unit (IPU). There are three interfaces: an input output interface to the I/O processor running at a clock speed of 36.864MHz, a graphics interface to the graphics synthesiser, and a memory interface to the system memory. The Emotion Engine CPU has a clock rate of 294.912 MHz (299 MHz on newer versions) and 6,000 MIPS, with a floating point performance of 6.2 GFLOPS.
The GPU is likewise custom-designed for the console, named the "Graphics Synthesiser". It has a fillrate of 2.4 gigapixels per second, capable of rendering up to 75 million polygons per second. The GPU also runs with a clock frequency of 147.456 MHz Which is half the clock speed of the Emotion Engine, 4 MB of DRAM is capable of transmitting a display output of 1280 x 1024 pixels on both PAL and NTSC televisions. The PlayStation 2 has a maximum colour depth of 16.7 million true colours. When accounting for features such as lighting, texture mapping, artificial intelligence, and game physics, the console has a real-world performance of 25 million polygons per second. The PlayStation 2 also features two USB ports, and one IEEE 1394 (Firewire) port for SCPH-10000 to 3900x models only. A hard disk drive can be installed in an expansion bay on the back of the console, and is required to play certain games, notably the popular Final Fantasy XI.
Software for the PlayStation 2 was distributed primarily on DVD-ROMs, with some titles being published on blue-tinted CD-ROM format. In addition, the console can play audio CDs and DVD films and is backward-compatible with almost all original PlayStation games. The PlayStation 2 also supports PlayStation memory cards and controllers, although original PlayStation memory cards will only work with original PlayStation games and the controllers may not support all functions (such as analogue buttons) for PlayStation 2 games.
The standard PlayStation 2 memory card has an 8 megabyte (MB) capacity and features MagicGate encryption. There are a variety of non-Sony manufactured memory cards available for the PlayStation 2, allowing for a memory capacity larger than the standard 8 MB.
The PlayStation 2 can natively output video resolutions on SDTV and HDTV from 480i to 480p, and some games, such as Gran Turismo 4 and Tourist Trophy, are known to support up-scaled 1080i resolution using any of the following standards: composite video [should read component video - the higher resolution RGB connector for video ](480i), S-Video (480i), RGB (480i/p), VGA (for progressive scan games and PS2 Linux only), YPBPR component [should read composite video - the single, lower resolution yellow connector for video] video (which display most original PlayStation games in their native 240p mode which most HDTV sets do not support), and D-Terminal. Cables are available for all of these signal types; these cables also output analogue stereo audio. Additionally, an RF modulator is available for the system to connect to older TVs.
The PlayStation 2 has undergone many revisions, some only of internal construction and others involving substantial external changes.
The PS2 is primarily differentiated between models featuring the original "fat" case design and "slimline" models, which were introduced at the end of 2004. In 2010, the Sony Bravia KDL-22PX300 was made available to consumers. It was a 22" HD-Ready television which incorporated a built-in PlayStation 2.
The PS2 standard color is matte black. Several variations in color were produced in different quantities and regions, including ceramic white, light yellow, metallic blue (aqua), metallic silver, navy (star blue), opaque blue (astral blue), opaque black (midnight black), pearl white, sakura purple, satin gold, satin silver, snow white, super red, transparent blue (ocean blue), and also Limited Edition color Pink, which was distributed in some regions such as Oceania, and parts of Asia.
In September 2004, Sony unveiled its third major hardware revision. Available in late October 2004, it was smaller, thinner, and quieter than the original versions and included a built-in Ethernet port (in some markets it also had an integrated modem). Due to its thinner profile, it did not contain the 3.5" expansion bay and therefore did not support the internal hard disk drive. It also lacked an internal power supply until a later revision (excluding the Japan version), similar to the GameCube, and had a modified Multitap expansion. The removal of the expansion bay was criticized as a limitation due to the existence of titles such as Final Fantasy XI, which required the HDD use.
Sony also manufactured a consumer device called the PSX that can be used as a digital video recorder and DVD burner in addition to playing PS2 games. The device was released in Japan on 13 December 2003, and was the first Sony product to include the XrossMediaBar interface. It did not sell well in the Japanese market and was not widely released anywhere else.
PlayStation 2 users had the option to play select games over the Internet, using dial-up or a broadband Internet connection. The PlayStation 2 Network Adaptor was required for the original models, while the slim models included built-in networking ports. Instead of having a unified, subscription-based online service like Xbox Live as competitor Microsoft later chose for its Xbox console, online multiplayer functionality on the PlayStation 2 was the responsibility of the game publisher and ran on third-party servers. Many games that supported online play exclusively supported broadband Internet access.
The PlayStation 2's DualShock 2 controller retains most of the same functionality as its predecessor. However, it includes analogue pressure sensitivity to over 100 individual levels of depth on the face, shoulder and D-pad buttons, replacing the digital buttons of the original. Like its predecessor, the DualShock 2 controller has force feedback, or "vibration" functionality. It is lighter and includes two more levels of vibration.
Specialized controllers include light guns (GunCon), fishing rod and reel controllers, a Dragon Quest VIII "slime" controller, a Final Fantasy X-2 "Tiny Bee" dual pistol controller, an Onimusha 3 katana controller, and a Resident Evil 4 chainsaw controller.
8MB memory card
Optional hardware includes additional DualShock or DualShock 2 controllers, a PS2 DVD remote control, an internal or external hard disk drive (HDD), a network adapter, horizontal and vertical stands, PlayStation or PS2 memory cards, the multitap for PlayStation or PS2, a USB motion camera (EyeToy), a USB keyboard and mouse, and a headset.
The original PS2 multitap (SCPH-10090) cannot be plugged into the newer slim models. The multitap connects to the memory card slot and the controller slot, and the memory card slot on the slimline is shallower. New slim-design multitaps (SCPH-70120) were manufactured for these models; however, third-party adapters also permit original multitaps to be used.
Early versions of the PS2 could be networked via an i.LINK port, though this had little game support and was dropped. Some third-party manufacturers have created devices that allow disabled people to access the PS2 through ordinary switches, etc.
Some third-party companies, such as JoyTech, have produced LCD monitor and speaker attachments for the PS2, which attach to the back of the console. These allow users to play games without access to a television as long as there is access to mains electricity or a similar power source. These screens can fold down onto the PS2 in a similar fashion to laptop screens.
There are many accessories for musical games, such as dance pads for Dance Dance Revolution, In the Groove, and Pump It Up titles and High School Musical 3: Senior Year Dance. Konami microphones for use with the Karaoke Revolution games, dual microphones (sold with and used exclusively for SingStar games), various "guitar" controllers (for the Guitar Freaks series and Guitar Hero series), the drum set controller (sold in a box set (or by itself) with a "guitar" controller and a USB microphone (for use with Rock Band and Guitar Hero series, World Tour and newer), and a taiko drum controller for Taiko: Drum Master.
Unlike the PlayStation, which requires the use of an official Sony PlayStation Mouse to play mouse-compatible games, the few PS2 games with mouse support work with a standard USB mouse as well as a USB trackball. In addition, some of these games also support the usage of a USB keyboard for text input, game control (instead of a DualShock or DualShock 2 gamepad, in tandem with a USB mouse), or both.
PlayStation 2 software is distributed on CD-ROM and DVD-ROM; the two formats are differentiated by their discs' bottoms, with CD-ROMs being blue and DVD-ROMs being silver. The PlayStation 2 offered some particularly high-profile exclusive games. Most main entries in the Grand Theft Auto, Final Fantasy, and Metal Gear Solid series were released exclusively for the console. Several prolific series got their start on the PlayStation 2, including God of War, Ratchet & Clank, Jak and Daxter, Devil May Cry, Kingdom Hearts, and Sly Cooper. Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas was the best-selling game on the console.
Game releases peaked in 2004, but declined with the release of the PlayStation 3 in 2006. The last new games for the console were Final Fantasy XI: Seekers of Adoulin in Asia, FIFA 14 in North America, and Pro Evolution Soccer 2014 in Europe. As of 30 June 2007, a total of 10,035 software titles had been released worldwide including games released in multiple regions as separate titles.
Initial reviews in 2000 of the PlayStation 2 highly acclaimed the console, with reviewers commending its hardware and graphics capabilities, its ability to play DVDs, and the system's backwards compatibility with games and hardware for the original PlayStation. Early points of criticism included the lack of online support at the time, its inclusion of only two controller ports, and the system's price at launch compared to the Dreamcast in 2000. PC Magazine in 2001 called the console "outstanding", praising its "noteworthy components" such as the Emotion Engine CPU, 32MB of RAM, support for IEEE 1394 (branded as "i.LINK" by Sony and "FireWire" by Apple), and the console's two USB ports while criticizing its "expensive" games and its support for only two controllers without the multitap accessory.
Later reviews, especially after the launch of the competing GameCube and Xbox systems, continued to praise the PlayStation 2's large game library and DVD playback, while routinely criticizing the PlayStation 2's lesser graphics performance compared to the newer systems and its rudimentary online service compared to Xbox Live. In 2002, CNET rated the console 7.3 out of 10, calling it a "safe bet" despite not being the "newest or most powerful", noting that the console "yields in-game graphics with more jagged edges". CNET also criticized the DVD playback functionality, claiming that the console's video quality was "passable" and that the playback controls were "rudimentary", recommending users to purchase a remote control. The console's two controller ports and the high cost of its memory cards were also a point of criticism.
The slim model of the PlayStation 2 received positive reviews for its incredibly small size and built-in networking, but received criticism for easily overheating due to exclusion of the original model’s built-in fan. The requirement for a separate power adapter was criticized while the top-loading disc drive was noted as being less likely to break compared to the tray-loading drive of the original model.
Demand for the PlayStation 2 remained strong throughout much of its lifespan, selling over 1.4 million units in Japan by 31 March 2000. Over 10.6 million units were sold worldwide by 31 March 2001. In 2005, the PlayStation 2 became the fastest game console to reach 100 million units shipped, accomplishing the feat within 5 years and 9 months from its launch; this was surpassed 4 years later when the Nintendo DS reached 100 million shipments in 4 years and 5 months from its launch. By July 2009, the system had sold 138.8 million units worldwide, with 51 million of those units sold in PAL regions.
Overall, over 155 million PlayStation 2 units were sold worldwide by 31 March 2012, the year Sony officially stopped supplying updated sales numbers of the system.
Using homebrew programs, it is possible to play various audio and video file formats on a PS2. Homebrew programs can also play patched backups of original PS2 DVD games on unmodified consoles and install retail discs to an installed hard drive on older models. Homebrew emulators of older computer and gaming systems have been developed for the PS2.
Sony released a Linux-based operating system, Linux for PlayStation 2, for the PS2 in a package that also includes a keyboard, mouse, Ethernet adapter and HDD. In Europe and Australia, the PS2 comes with a free Yabasic interpreter on the bundled demo disc. This allows users to create simple programs for the PS2. A port of the NetBSD project and BlackRhino GNU/Linux, an alternative Debian-based distribution, are also available for the PS2.
The PlayStation 3 was released in Japan and North America in November 2006 and Europe in March 2007.
- Linux for PlayStation 2
- PCSX2 – PlayStation 2 (PS2) emulator for Microsoft Windows, Linux, and macOS
- PlayStation Broadband Navigator
- Perry, Douglas (11 September 1999). "Call It PlayStation 2". IGN. Chicago: Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "Sony announces PS2 launch date and price". Gamespot. San Francisco: CBS Interactive. 13 May 2000. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "Business Development/Europe". Sony Computer Entertainment. Archived from the original on 22 April 2004. Retrieved 19 December 2007.
- Goodley, Simon (5 August 2000). "Sony delays UK launch of PlayStation 2". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- プレイステーション2の日本国内での出荷が本日（2012年12月28日）で完了. Famitsu (in Japanese). Tokyo: Enterbrain. 28 December 2012. Archived from the original on 28 December 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
- "PlayStation 2 manufacture ends after 12 years". The Guardian. London. 4 January 2013. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Diefendorff, Keith (19 April 1999). "Sony's Emotionally Charged Chip" (PDF). Microprocessor Report. 13 (5). Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 September 2006. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- Shiloy, Anton (26 February 2007). "Sony Removes Emotion Engine, Graphics Synthesizer from PAL PlayStation 3". X-bit labs. Archived from the original on 26 October 2016. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- John L. Hennessy and David A. Patterson. "Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, Third Edition". ISBN 1-55860-724-2
- Keeling 2000, p. 92.
- Perry, Douglass (10 March 2000). "The Untapped Power of PlayStation 2". IGN. Chicago: Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
- Leadbetter, Richard (21 July 2012). "Digital Foundry vs. PS2 Classics on PlayStation 3". Bath: Future plc. Archived from the original on 6 August 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
- Guinness (February 2009). Guinness World Records 2009 Gamer's Edition. pp. 108–109. ISBN 978-1-904994-45-9.
GTA: San Andreas is the best-selling PlayStation 2 game, with a massive 17.33 million copies sold.
- Makuch, Eddie (15 February 2011). "150 million PS2 units shipped worldwide". Asia.gamespot.com. Archived from the original on 22 March 2011.
- "PlayStation 2 Breaks Record as the Fastest Computer Entertainment Platform to Reach Cumulative Shipment of 100 Million Units" (PDF) (Press release). Sony Computer Entertainment. 30 November 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 January 2006. Retrieved 8 June 2008.
- Kent 2001, p. 504.
- "Sony PlayStation vs Nintendo 64". Digital Spy. Digital Spy. 9 December 2012. Archived from the original on 20 August 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "The Making Of: PlayStation". Edge. Bath: Future plc. 24 April 2009. p. 3. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- "Sega Enterprises Annual Report 1998" (PDF). Sega Enterprises, Ltd. pp. 1, 7–8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 May 2004. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- "State of the Game: August 1999". IGN. Chicago: Ziff Davis. 10 August 1999. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
- "Letters". Next Generation. No. 22. Imagine Media. October 1996. p. 203.
- Wojmar, Jason (8 July 2019). "10 Secrets Behind The Making Of The PlayStation 2". TheGamer. Valnet. Archived from the original on 8 July 2019. Retrieved 29 December 2021.
- McFerren, Damien (26 November 2019). "The Team Behind Nintendo's Super FX Almost Made the PS2 CPU, And It Was Named After a Dog's Bits". Push Square. Brighton: Gamer Network. Archived from the original on 27 February 2021. Retrieved 29 December 2021.
- "Saturn/PS-X Sequels". Next Generation. No. 27. Imagine Media. March 1997. p. 24.
- "Gaming Gossip". Electronic Gaming Monthly. No. 93. Ziff Davis. April 1997. p. 28.
- "Can Sony Stay on Top?". Next Generation. No. 37. Imagine Media. January 1998. pp. 11–12.
- Gibson, Ellie (2 January 2013). "PS2: The Insiders' Story". Eurogamer. Bath: Future plc. Archived from the original on 13 May 2022. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
- "PlayStation 2 Timeline". GameSpy. p. 2. Archived from the original on 4 June 2004. Retrieved 19 August 2008.
- "A Look Back at the Sega Dreamcast". Archived from the original on 18 January 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
- Whitehead, Dan (25 October 2011). "Dreamcast: A Forensic Retrospective Article". Eurogamer.net. Archived from the original on 15 October 2014.
- Keeling 2000, p. 90.
- Perry, Douglass C. (20 September 1999). "TGS 1999: Sony's Grand Showing". Archived from the original on 28 July 2017. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
- "Roosevelt Creative Arts Middle School –". Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
- "Sony Pulls in Over $250 Million at Launch". IGN. 17 June 2012. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013.
- "PlayStation 2 Timeline". GameSpy. pp. 2–3. Archived from the original on 4 June 2004. Retrieved 19 December 2007.
- "PS2 history". gamesindustry.biz. 22 November 2006. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- "PlayStation 2 Timeline". GameSpy. p. 3. Archived from the original on 4 June 2004. Retrieved 19 December 2007.
- "Backward Compatibility for PlayStation 2?". Next Generation. No. 39. Imagine Media. March 1998. p. 22.
- What Ever Happened To The Dreamcast?. TechnoBuffalo. Retrieved on 23 August 2013.
- Calvin, Alex (6 January 2020). "How Sony's PlayStation 2 took the world by storm". GamesIndustry.biz. Brighton: Gamer Network. Archived from the original on 23 November 2021. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
- "Hardware Behind the Consoles - Part II: Nintendo's GameCube". AnandTech. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- Morris, Chris (14 May 2002). "Sony slashes PlayStation prices: Preemptive move undercuts competition and could spark video game price war". CNN. Archived from the original on 30 November 2005. Retrieved 4 January 2006.
- Gaither, Chris. "Sony to Cut PlayStation 2 Price by $100." New York Times: 0. 14 May 2002. ProQuest. Web. 29 July 2013.
- "Sony to Cut Price of PlayStation 2 in Japan Market --- Move Follows Plan to Lower Cost of Product in U.S. by a Third." Asian Wall Street Journal: 0. 15 May 2002. ProQuest. Web. 29 July 2013.
- "Sony to Cut Price of PlayStation 2 Game Console by 20 Percent." Knight Ridder Tribune Business News: 1. 4 November 2003. ProQuest. Web. 29 July 2013.
- Falcone, John (12 November 2002). "Sony PlayStation 2 Online Adaptor review". CNET. Archived from the original on 1 October 2021. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
- Elliott, Valerie (9 December 2004). "Merry Christmas, your PlayStation 2 is stuck in Suez". Times Online. News International. Archived from the original on 16 March 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2007.
- "2004 Holiday Sales Results Call". GameStop. Archived from the original on 5 May 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2006.
- Trenholm, Richard. "Sony Bravia KDL-22PX300 TV with PS2 built-in parties like it's 2000". CNET.
- King, Rachel. "Sony Bravia KDL-22PX300 LCD TV sports PlayStation 2". ZDNet. Archived from the original on 1 October 2021.
- "Chicharito es portada de FIFA 14". ESPN Deportes (in Mexican Spanish). 28 June 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "Sony Computer Entertainment Announces World's Fastest 128 Bit CPU "Emotion Engine" For The Next Generation PlayStation". Ars Technica. 2 March 1999. Archived from the original on 10 May 2000. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
- Stokes, Jon (16 February 2000). "Sound and Vision: A Technical Overview of the Emotion Engine". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 10 June 2018. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- Casamassina, Matt (3 November 2000). "Gamecube Versus PlayStation 2". IGN. Chicago: Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Keeling 2000, p. 93.
- Leigh 2018, p. 201.
- "Final Fantasy XI Review for PlayStation 2 – GameSpot". GameSpot. San Francisco: CBS Interactive. 23 March 2004. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
- Keeling 2000, p. 91.
- "Playstation 1 and Playstation 2 Compatibility". 6 December 2018. Archived from the original on 6 December 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
- "Memory Card (8MB) (for PlayStation 2)". 5 March 2016. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
- "Gran Turismo 4 - #9 Top PS2 Games". IGN. Archived from the original on February 26, 2016. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
- "Amazon.com: TRADERPLUS 6FT AV to RCA Composite Cable Cord for Sony Playstation 2 (PS2), Playstation 3 (PS3): Video Games". Amazon. 6 September 2019. Archived from the original on 6 September 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
- "Amazon.com: 6' S-Video Cable for PlayStation 2 (Black): Video Games". Amazon. 12 March 2015. Archived from the original on 12 March 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
- "Sony Playstation RGB SCART lead Sync on Luma PS1 PS2 GROUNDED cable co | Retro Access". 15 July 2020. Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
- "Official Sony Genuine PS2 Linux VGA Cable Playstation 2 [VideoGameX] | eBay". 15 July 2020. Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
- "Amazon.com: Gam3Gear Component AV Audio Video Cable for PS3 PS2: Artist Not Provided: Electronics". Amazon. 27 February 2020. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
- "240p — HD Retrovision". 18 November 2019. Archived from the original on 18 November 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
- "Amazon.com: (PS3/PS2 for) D Terminal Cable: Video Games". Amazon. 28 February 2015. Archived from the original on 28 February 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
- "PS2 - Installation using an RFU adapter" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 July 2015.
- "PS2 Model Identification - PS2 Model Numbers". 31 October 2019. Archived from the original on 31 October 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
- Trenholm, Richard. "Sony Bravia KDL-22PX300 TV with PS2 built-in parties like it's 2000". CNET. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
- "The PS2 Isn't Gone, It's In This TV". Kotaku. 3 December 2010. Archived from the original on 1 October 2021. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
- Calvert, Justin (4 November 2003). "PS2 price drop, new colors for Japan". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
- Fahey, Rob (9 March 2004). "Sony launches new PS2 colors in Japan". gamesindustry.biz. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
- "Sony PSX (DVR) | Video Game Console Library". 25 March 2019. Archived from the original on 25 March 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
- "Dual Shock 2 Review". IGN. Chicago: Ziff Davis. 27 September 2001. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
The biggest difference between the Dual Shock 2 and the original… all of the buttons and even the digital pad offer analog support. This means that the d-pad, the four face buttons and the four shift buttons are all pressure-sensitive and have 255 degrees of sensitivity. It is also worth noting that the Dual Shock 2 is a bit lighter than the original Dual Shock because it appears to have less in the way of gears for the vibration function of the controller.
- "PlayStation Knowledge Center | Support - PlayStation.com". Us.playstation.com. 10 January 2011. Archived from the original on 26 November 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- "Cumulative Software Titles". Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- Marriott, Michel (26 October 2000). "PlayStation 2: Game Console as Trojan Horse". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 13 July 2019. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- "Hardware Review - Sony PlayStation 2". www.thedigitalbits.com. Archived from the original on 30 August 2019. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- Sarrel, Matthew D. (6 March 2001). "Sony Playstation 2". PC Magazine. Archived from the original on 30 August 2019. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- Gladstone, Darren. "Sony PS2 review: Sony PS2". CNET. Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- Falcone, John. "Sony PlayStation 2 (slim form factor)". CNET. Archived from the original on 30 August 2019. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- "Slim-line PlayStation 2 (PS2)". Pocket-lint. 28 January 2005. Archived from the original on 30 August 2019. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- "PlayStation®2 Cumulative Production Shipments of Hardware ｜ CORPORATE INFORMATION ｜ Sony Computer Entertainment Inc". 9 June 2012. Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- "Nintendo Ships 100 Millionth Portable Nintendo DS System". Nintendo. 11 March 2009. Archived from the original on 15 January 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2009.
- "Slimmer, Lighter PlayStation®3, new PlayStation®Network services, plenty of content and a great value price" (PDF). 2 September 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 September 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- "Cumulative Worldwide Hardware Unit Sales (Sell-In)". Sony Interactive Entertainment Business Development. Archived from the original on 27 April 2019. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
- "SIE Business Development | Sony Interactive Entertainment Inc". www.sie.com. Archived from the original on 27 April 2019. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- PS2 Emulators – "SKS Apps - Wii Ps3 Ps2 Apps - Game Downloads - Gaming Forums". Archived from the original on 12 June 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2008.
- Keeling, Justin (February 2000). "Digital Dream Kids". PlayStation World. Bath: Future plc (1): 89–102.
- Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze That Touched Our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville: Prima Publishing. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- Leigh, Peter (2018). The Nostalgia Nerd's Retro Tech. London: Ilex Press. pp. 188–191. ISBN 978-1781575703.