Oiapoque

Oiapoque
Município de Oiapoque
A street in Oiapoque.
A street in Oiapoque.
Flag of Oiapoque
Official seal of Oiapoque
Location of Oiapoque in the State of Amapá
Location of Oiapoque in the State of Amapá
Location of Oiapoque
Coordinates: 03°50′34″N 51°50′06″W / 3.84278°N 51.83500°W / 3.84278; -51.83500Coordinates: 03°50′34″N 51°50′06″W / 3.84278°N 51.83500°W / 3.84278; -51.83500
Country Brazil
RegionNorth
StateBandeira do Amapá.svg Amapá
Founded1945
Government
 • MayorMaria Orlana (PSDB)
Area
 • Total22,625 km2 (8,736 sq mi)
Elevation
3 m (10 ft)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total27,906
 • Density0.85/km2 (2.2/sq mi)
 [1]
Time zoneUTC−3 (BRT)
HDI (2000)0.738 – medium[2]
Websiteoiapoque.com.br

Oiapoque (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɔjɐˈpɔki]) is a municipality in the north of the state of Amapá, Brazil. Its population is 27,906[3] and its area is 22,625 square kilometres (8,736 sq mi).[4] Oiapoque is also a major river in the same state, forming the international border with French Guiana. The Oyapock River Bridge, connecting the village with Saint-Georges in French Guiana, was completed in 2011 but not opened to pedestrian or vehicle traffic until 2017.[5]

Lying on the northern coast of Brazil, Oiapoque is popularly considered the northernmost point of Brazil. The phrase do Oiapoque ao Chuí ("from Oiapoque to Chuí") means "all of Brazil."[6] However, there are more northerly points in Roraima state such as the municipality of Uiramutã. Oiapoque remains the northernmost coastal city of Brazil, and the northernmost city of Amapá. It occupies more than half of the north border of the state.

Early history

The Oiapoque River is said to have been discovered by Vicente Yáñez Pinzón in the first years of the 16th century. It has been called Japoc, Yapoc, Iapoco, and even Vicente Pinzón River. The name Oiapoque was officially used from 1900, when a territorial dispute between Brazil and France was resolved through Swiss diplomatic arbitration.

Clevelândia

At the beginning of the 20th century, the village of Oiapoque hosted a political and criminal concentration camp called Clevelândia. In 1922 an agricultural outpost called the Núcleo Colonial Cleveland was transformed into a camp during the presidency of Arthur Bernardes (1922–1926). Many Brazilian anarchist militants were sentenced to hard labour here. Of the 946 prisoners interned at Clevelândia between 1924 and 1927, 491 died. Many of the survivors returned to São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro permanently sickened with malaria.[7]

Geography

Oiapoque is bordered to the west by its long frontier with French Guiana. It is bordered to the north by the Atlantic Ocean. On its eastern and southern sides it borders the municipalities of Calçoene, Serra do Navio, Pedra Branca do Amapari, and Laranjal do Jari.[4]

The municipality contains 24.15% of the 2,369,400 hectares (5,855,000 acres) Amapá State Forest, a sustainable use conservation unit established in 2006.[8] The Cabo Orange National Park is located on the coast of the municipality, and covers 6,573 square kilometres (2,538 sq mi) of rainforest on the coast line.[9]

Oiapoque can be accessed by air via the Oiapoque Airport.[10]

Kuahí Museum

The Kuahí Museum was opened in 2007 by the four indigenous groups living the municipality: the Palikur, the Galibi Marwono, the Galibi do Oiapoque, and the Karipuna do Amapá. The museum contains more than 400 objects used by the Amerindians.[11] The project was conceived in the 1990s to promote and transmit the knowledge of the indigenous community. The museum is a public not-for-profit entity linked to the Amapá State Secretariat of Culture.[12]

Climate

Oiapoque has a tropical monsoon climate (Am) with moderate to little rainfall from August to November and heavy to very heavy rainfall in the remaining months.

Climate data for Oiapoque
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29.2
(84.6)
28.6
(83.5)
29.8
(85.6)
29.3
(84.7)
29.5
(85.1)
30.0
(86.0)
31.0
(87.8)
31.9
(89.4)
32.6
(90.7)
33.0
(91.4)
32.3
(90.1)
30.3
(86.5)
30.6
(87.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.4
(77.7)
25.0
(77.0)
25.7
(78.3)
25.6
(78.1)
25.8
(78.4)
25.8
(78.4)
26.0
(78.8)
26.4
(79.5)
26.5
(79.7)
26.5
(79.7)
26.3
(79.3)
25.7
(78.3)
25.9
(78.6)
Average low °C (°F) 21.6
(70.9)
21.5
(70.7)
21.6
(70.9)
22.0
(71.6)
22.1
(71.8)
21.6
(70.9)
21.0
(69.8)
20.9
(69.6)
20.5
(68.9)
20.0
(68.0)
20.4
(68.7)
21.2
(70.2)
21.2
(70.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 395
(15.6)
345
(13.6)
396
(15.6)
450
(17.7)
537
(21.1)
370
(14.6)
193
(7.6)
102
(4.0)
48
(1.9)
44
(1.7)
116
(4.6)
313
(12.3)
3,309
(130.3)
Source: Climate-Data.org[13]

Subdivisions

The municipality of Oiapoque contains three districts:[14]

Name / Main settlement Other settlements
The town of Oiapoque
Clevelândia do Norte Ilha Bela, Vila Brasil
Vila Velha

There are four indigenous tribes in the municipality located in indigenous territories:[11]

Tribe Main settlement Other settlements
Galibi Marwono Kumarumã
Galibi do Oiapoque São José dos Galibi
Karipuna do Amapá Manga Espírito Santo, Santa Isabel
Palikur Kumenê Flecha, Kamuywa

Gallery

References

  1. ^ ESTIMATIVAS DAS POPULAÇÕES RESIDENTES, EM 1o DE JULHO DE 2008, SEGUNDO OS MUNICÍPIOS
  2. ^ [1] Archived 2013-07-28 at the Wayback Machine UNDP
  3. ^ IBGE 2020
  4. ^ a b "Oiapoque". Macapá: Amapá Digital. 2003. Retrieved 2014-12-04.
  5. ^ Pacheco, John (2014). "Tráfego na ponte binacional em Oiapoque terá limitação de horários" (in Portuguese). G1 Amapá. Retrieved 2014-12-04.
  6. ^ Pacheco, John (2014). "Oiapoque/Brazil". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on 2014-12-08. Retrieved 2014-12-04.
  7. ^ Romani, Carlo. "Clevelândia (Oiapoque): colônia penal ou campo de concentração?". Verve: revista semestral autogestionária do Nu-Sol (in Portuguese). Núcleo de Sociabilidade Libertária do Programa de Estudos Pós-Graduados em Ciências Sociais da PUC-SP. 2003 (3): 112–130. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  8. ^ FES do Amapá (in Portuguese), ISA: Instituto Socioambiental, retrieved 2016-07-06
  9. ^ "Unidade de Conservação: PARQUE NACIONAL DO CABO ORANGE". Ministério do Meio Ambiente (in Portuguese). Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  10. ^ "Aeroporto / OIAPOQUE". Flight Market (in Portuguese). Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  11. ^ a b "Kuahí Museum of the Indigenous Peoples of Oiapoque". Contemporary And. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
  12. ^ Lux Vidal (2013). "Kuahí The Indians of the Lower Oiapoque and their museum". Cultural Heritage and Museums. v10n1.
  13. ^ "Climate: Oiapoque". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
  14. ^ "Histórico". Municipality of Oiapoque (in Portuguese). Retrieved 30 March 2021.

External links

  • Oiapoque City Hall official website
  • Media related to Oiapoque at Wikimedia Commons
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