Nepali language

Nepali
नेपाली
The word "Nepali" written in Devanagari script
Pronunciation[ˈnepali]
Native toNepal
Bhutan
India
RegionHimalayas[a][1]
EthnicityKhas people
Native speakers
L1: 19 million (2011–2021)[2]
L2: 14 million (2021 census)[2]
Early forms
Devanagari
Devanagari Braille
Signed Nepali
Official status
Official language in
   Nepal
 India[b]
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byNepal Academy
Language codes
ISO 639-1ne
ISO 639-2nep
ISO 639-3nep – inclusive code
Individual code:
npi – Nepali
nep Nepali (macrolanguage)
 npi Nepali (individual language)
Glottolognepa1254
Linguasphere59-AAF-d
Map showing distribution of Nepali speakers in South Asia. Dark red is areas with a Nepali-speaking majority or plurality, light red is where Nepali speakers are more than 20% of the population
Nepali language
Languages recognised by the Constitution of India
Official nameNepali language
LocationSikkim
Part ofOfficial languages of India
IncludesOfficial language of the Government of Sikkim
Referenceconstitution-india-seventy-first-amendment-act-1992

Nepali (English: /nɪˈpɔːli/;[3] Devanagari: नेपाली, [ˈnepali]) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Himalayas region of South Asia. It is the official, and most widely spoken, language of Nepal, where it also serves as a lingua franca. Nepali has official status in the Indian state of Sikkim and in the Gorkhaland Territorial Administration of West Bengal. It is spoken by about a quarter of Bhutan's population. Nepali also has a significant number of speakers in the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Uttarakhand.[4] In Myanmar it is spoken by the Burmese Gurkhas. The Nepali diaspora in the Middle East, Brunei, Australia and worldwide also use the language.[5] Nepali is spoken by approximately 19 million native speakers and another 14 million as a second language.

Nepali is commonly classified within the Eastern Pahari group of the Northern zone of Indo-Aryan. The language originated from the Sinja Valley, Karnali Province then the capital city of the Khasa Kingdom around the 10th and 14th centuries. It developed proximity to a number of Indo-Aryan languages, most significantly to other Pahari languages. Nepali was originally spoken by the Khas people, an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group native to the Himalayan region of South Asia. The earliest inscription in the Nepali language is believed to be an inscription in Dullu, Dailekh District which was written around the reign of King Bhupal Damupal around the year 981. The institutionalisation of the Nepali language arose during the rule of the Kingdom of Gorkha (later became known as the Kingdom of Nepal) in the 16th century. Over the centuries, different dialects of the Nepali language with distinct influences from Sanskrit, Maithili, Hindi, and Bengali are believed to have emerged across different regions of the current-day Nepal and Uttarakhand, making Nepali the lingua franca.

Nepali is a highly fusional language with a relatively free word order, although the dominant arrangement is subject–object–verb word order (SOV). There are three major levels or gradations of honorific: low, medium and high. Low honorific is used where no respect is due, medium honorific is used to signify equal status or neutrality, and high honorific signifies respect. Like all modern Indo-Aryan languages, Nepali grammar has syncretized heavily, losing much of the complex declensional system present in the older languages. Nepali developed significant literature within a short period of a hundred years in the 19th century. Around 1830, several Nepali poets wrote on themes from the Sanskrit epics Ramayana and the Bhagavata Purana, which was followed by Bhanubhakta Acharya translating the Ramayana in Nepali which received "great popularity for the colloquial flavour of its language, its religious sincerity, and its realistic natural descriptions".[6]

Etymology

A map showing languages of the Indian subcontinent c. 1858; It refers to the language as "Nepalee".

The term Nepali derived from Nepal was officially adopted by the Government of Nepal in 1933, when Gorkha Bhasa Prakashini Samiti (Gorkha Language Publishing Committee), a government institution established in 1913 (B.S. 1970) for advancement of Gorkha Bhasa, renamed itself as Nepali Bhasa Prakashini Samiti (Nepali Language Publishing Committee) in 1933 (B.S. 1990), which is currently known as Sajha Prakashan.[7] Conversely, the term Gorkhali in the former national anthem entitled "Shriman Gambhir" was changed to Nepali in 1951.[8] However, the term Nepali was used before the official adoption notably by Jaya Prithvi Bahadur Singh, now considered one of the national heroes of Nepal, who advocated for the embracement of the term.[9]

The initial name of Nepali language was Khas Kura (खस कुरा), meaning language or speech of the Khas people, who are descended from the ancient Khasas of Mahabharata, as the language developed during the rule of the Khasa Kingdom in the western Nepal.[10][11] Following the Unification of Nepal led by Shah dynasty's Prithvi Narayan Shah, Nepali language became known as Gorakhā Bhāṣā (गोरखा भाषा; language of the Gorkhas) as it was spoken by Gorkhas.[12][13] The people living in the Pahad or the hilly region, where it does not generally contain snow, called the language Parvate Kurā (पर्वते कुरा), meaning the speech of the hills.[14][15]

History

Origin and development

A simplified overview of the Indo-Aryan language family.

Early forms of present-day Nepali developed from the Middle Indo-Aryan apabhraṃśa Vernaculars of present-day western Nepal in the 10th–14th centuries, during the times of the Khasa Kingdom.[16] The language evolved from Sanskrit, Prakrit, and Apabhraṃśa.[16] Following the decline of the Khasa Kingdom, it was divided into Baise Rajya (22 principalities) in Karnali-Bheri region and Chaubise rajya (24 principalities) in Gandaki region.[16] The currently popular variant of Nepali is believed to have originated around 500 years ago with the mass migration of a branch of Khas people from the Karnali-Bheri-Seti eastward to settle in lower valleys of the Karnali and the Gandaki basin.[17][16]

During the times of Sena dynasty, who ruled a vast area in Terai and central hills of Nepal, Nepali language became influenced by the Indian languages including Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Braj Bhasha and Maithili.[16] Nepali speakers and Senas had a close connect, subsequently, the language became the lingua franca in the area.[16] As a result, the grammar became simplified, vocabulary was expanded, and its phonology was softened, after it was syncretised, Nepali lost much of the complex declensional system present in the older languages.[16] In the Kathmandu Valley (then known as Nepal Mandala), Nepali language inscriptions can be seen during the reigns of Lakshmi Narasimha Malla and Pratap Malla, which indicates the significant increment of Nepali speakers in Kathmandu Valley.[18]

Middle Nepali

Copper Inscription by King of Doti, Raika Mandhata Shahi, at Saka Era 1612 (1747 BS) in old Nepali language using Devanagari script

The institutionalisation of the Nepali language is believed to have started with the Shah kings of Gorkha Kingdom, in the modern day Gorkha District of Nepal.[19] Following the Unification of Nepal, the language moved to the court of the Kingdom of Nepal in the 18th century, where it became the state language.[19] One of the earliest works in the Middile Nepali is written during the reign of Ram Shah, King of Gorkha, a book by unknown writer called Ram Shah ko Jivani (A Biography of Ram Shah).[19] Prithvi Narayan Shah's Divyopadesh, written toward the end of his life, around 1774–75, contains old Nepali dialect of the era, is considered as the first work of essay of Nepali literature.[20]

Manuscript of Bhanubhakta Acharya's Bhanubhakta Ramayana led to "cultural, emotional and linguistic unification" of Nepal.

During this time Nepali developed a standardized prose in the Lal mohar (royal charter)—documents related to the Nepalese Kingdom dealing with diplomatic writings, tax, and administrative records.[19] The language of the Lal mohar is nearly modern with some minor differences in grammar and with a pre-modern orthography.[21] Few changes including changing Kari (करि) to Gari (गरि) and merging Hunu (हुनु) with cha (छ) to create huncha (हुन्छ) were done.[21] The most prominent work written during this time was Bhanubhakta Acharya's Bhanubhakta Ramayana, a translation of the epic Ramayana from Sanskrit to Nepali for the first time.[22] Acharya's work led to which some describe as "cultural, emotional and linguistic unification" of Nepal, comparatively to Prithvi Narayan Shah who unified Nepal.[23][24]

Modern Nepali

The modern period of Nepali begins in the early 20th century.[6] During this time the ruling Rana dynasty made various attempts to make Nepali the language of education, notably, by Dev Shumsher and Chandra Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana, who established Gorkhapatra, and the Gorkha Bhasa Prakashini Samiti respectively.[25][7] At this time, Nepali had limited literature compared to Hindi and Bengali languages, a movement notably in Banaras, and Darjeeling was started to create uniformed Nepali identity, which was later adopted in Nepal following the 1951 Nepalese revolution and during the Panchayat system.[25] In 1957, Royal Nepal Academy was established with the objectives of developing and promoting Nepali literature, culture, art and science.[26] During Panchayat, Nepal adopted a "One King, One Dress, One Language, One Nation" ideology, which promoted Nepali language as basis for Nepali nationalism, this time is considered to be a Golden Age for the language.[27][28]

In West Bengal, Nepali language was recognised by West Bengal Government in 1961 as the official language for the Darjeeling district, and Kalimpong and Kurseong.[29] The Nepali Language Movement took place in India around 1980s to include Nepali language in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India.[30] In 1977, Nepali was officially accepted by Sahitya Academy, an organisation dedicated to the promotion of Indian literature.[31] After Sikkim was annex by India, the Sikkim Official Languages Act, 1977, made Nepali as one of the official languages of state.[32] On 20 August 1992, the Lok Sabha passed a motion to add the Nepali language to the Eighth Schedule.[33]

Official status

Nepal

Nepali language serves as the official language in education, administration, media, court and publication.[34] Part 1 of the Nepali Constitution deals with the official language of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal.[35] Under Article 6, the official "language of the nation" will be "all languages spoken as the mother tongues in Nepal".[35] In Article 7, the official language of Nepal have been written, which includes Nepali in Devanagari script:[35]

  1. The Nepali language in the Devanagari script shall be the official language of Nepal.
  2. A Province may, by a provincial law, determine one or more than one languages of the nation spoken by a majority of people within the Province as its official language or languages, in addition to the Nepali language.
  3. Other matters relating to language shall be as decided by the Government of Nepal on recommendation of the Language Commission.

India

On 31 August 1992, the Parliament of India passed a bill to amend the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India declaring Konkani, Manipuri, and Nepali to be languages with official status in India.[36] Nepali has official status in the Indian state of Sikkim and in the Gorkhaland Territorial Administration of West Bengal.[4] Nepali also has a significant number of speakers in the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Uttarakhand.[4]

Bhutan

Despite Nepali language being spoken by about a quarter of population in Bhutan,[37] it has no official status in Bhutan. The native speakers of Nepali are known as Lhotshampa ("southerners").[38] Many of Nepali-language speaking Bhutanese people were displaced by various laws enacted by the Bhutanese government.[39][40]

Geographic distribution

Nepal

Geographic distribution of the Nepali language as their mother tongue in the Indian subcontinent.

According to the 2011 national census, 44.6% of the population of Nepal speaks Nepali as its first language.[41] and 32.8% speak Nepali as a second language.[42] Ethnologue reports 12,300,000 speakers within Nepal (from the 2011 census).[42] It is spoken by 20,250,952, about 77.20% of the population, as their first language and second language.[43]

India

Total number of Nepali speakers in India by state (2011 census)[44]

  West Bengal (36%)
  Assam (20%)
  Sikkim (12%)
  Rest of Northeast India (8%)
  UP and Uttarakhand (12%)
  Other states (12%)

According to the 2011 Census of India, there were a total of 2,926,168 Nepali language speakers in India.[45]

Nepali speakers in India by state[46][47]
State Nepali speakers (2011 census) Growth (from 2001 census)
West Bengal 1,155,375 Increase+12.97%
Assam 596,210 Increase+5.56%
Sikkim 382,200 Increase+12.87%
Uttarakhand 106,399 Increase+16.86%
Arunachal Pradesh 95,317 Increase+00.42%
Himachal Pradesh 89,508 Increase+27.37%
Maharashtra 75,683 Increase+19.22%
Manipur 63,756 Increase+38.61%
Meghalaya 54,716 Increase+4.91%
Nagaland 43,481 Increase+27.06%
Mizoram 8,994 Increase+0.51%

Bhutan

In Bhutan, native Nepali speakers, known as Lhotshampa, are estimated at 35%[48] of the population. This number includes displaced Bhutanese refugees, with unofficial estimates of the ethnic Bhutanese refugee population as high as 30 to 40%, constituting a majority in the south (about 242,000 people).[49]

Australia

Nepali is the third-most spoken language in the Australian territory of Tasmania, where it is spoken by 1.3% of its population,[50] and fifth-most spoken language in the Northern Territory, Australia, spoken by 1.3% of its population.[51] Nepali is the most spoken language other than English in Rockdale and Kogarah. In Granville, Campsie and Ashfield it is the second most commonly spoken language other than English. Allawah and Hurstville have third most Nepali speaking population in New South Wales. There are regular Nepali language News papers and Magazines in Australia.

International geographic distribution
Country Speaker population Notes
 Myanmar 300,000-500,000[52]
 Australia 133,068[53] 2021 census
 Hong Kong 25,472[54] 2016 census
 Canada 13,375[55] 2016 census

Phonology

Vowels and consonants are outlined in the tables below.

Vowels

Nepali vowel phonemes
Front Central Back
Close i ĩ u ũ
Close-mid e o
Open-mid ʌ ʌ̃
Open a ã

Nepali distinguishes six oral vowels and five nasal vowels. /o/ does not have a phonemic nasal counterpart, although it is often in free variation with [õ].

Nepali has ten diphthongs: /ui̯/, /iu̯/, /ei̯/, /eu̯/, /oi̯/, /ou̯/, /ʌi̯/, /ʌu̯/, /ai̯/, and /au̯/.

Consonants

Nepali consonant phonemes
Bilabial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m ⟨म⟩ n ⟨न/ञ⟩ (ɳ ⟨ण⟩) ŋ ⟨ङ⟩
Plosive/
Affricate
voiceless unaspirated p ⟨प⟩ t ⟨त⟩ t͡s ⟨च⟩ ʈ ⟨ट⟩ k ⟨क⟩
aspirated ⟨फ⟩ ⟨थ⟩ t͡sʰ ⟨छ⟩ ʈʰ ⟨ठ⟩ ⟨ख⟩
voiced unaspirated b ⟨ब⟩ d ⟨द⟩ d͡z ⟨ज⟩ ɖ ⟨ड⟩ ɡ ⟨ग⟩
aspirated ⟨भ⟩ ⟨ध⟩ d͡zʱ /झ⟩ ɖʱ ⟨ढ⟩ ɡʱ ⟨घ⟩
Fricative s ⟨श/ष/स⟩ ɦ ⟨ह⟩
Rhotic r ⟨र⟩
Approximant (w ⟨व⟩) l ⟨ल⟩ (j ⟨य⟩)

[j] and [w] are nonsyllabic allophones of [i] and [u], respectively. Every consonant except [j], [w], and /ɦ/ has a geminate counterpart between vowels. /ɳ/ and /ʃ/ also exist in some loanwords such as /baɳ/ बाण "arrow" and /nareʃ/ नरेश "king", but these sounds are sometimes replaced with native Nepali phonemes.

Final schwas may or may not be preserved in speech. The following rules can be followed to figure out whether or not Nepali words retain the final schwa:

  1. Schwa is retained if the final syllable is a conjunct consonant. अन्त (anta, 'end'), सम्बन्ध (sambandha, 'relation'), श्रेष्ठ (śreṣṭha, 'greatest'/a last name).
    Exceptions: conjuncts such as ञ्च ञ्ज in मञ्च (mañc, 'stage') गञ्ज (gañj, 'city') and occasionally the last name पन्त (panta/pant).
  2. For any verb form the final schwa is always retained unless the schwa-cancelling halanta is present. हुन्छ (huncha, 'it happens'), भएर (bhaera, 'in happening so; therefore'), गएछ (gaecha, 'he apparently went'), but छन् (chan, 'they are'), गईन् (gain, 'she went'). Meanings may change with the wrong orthography: गईन (gaina, 'she didn't go') vs गईन् (gain, 'she went').
  3. Adverbs, onomatopoeia and postpositions usually maintain the schwa and if they don't, halanta is acquired: अब (aba 'now'), तिर (tira, 'towards'), आज (āja, 'today') सिम्सिम (simsim 'drizzle') vs झन् (jhan, 'more').
  4. Few exceptional nouns retain the schwa such as: दु:ख (dukha, 'suffering'), सुख (sukha, 'pleasure').

Note: Schwas are often retained in music and poetry to add extra syllables when needed.

Grammar

Nepali is a highly fusional language with relatively free word order, although the dominant arrangement is SOV (subject–object–verb). There are three major levels or gradations of honorifics: low, medium and high. Low honorific is used where no respect is due, medium honorific is used to signify equal status or neutrality, and high honorific signifies respect. There is also a separate highest level honorific, which was used to refer to members of the royal family, and by the royals among themselves.[56] Like all modern Indo-Aryan languages, Nepali grammar has syncretized heavily, losing much of the complex declensional system present in the older languages. Instead, it relies heavily on periphrasis, a marginal verbal feature of older Indo-Aryan languages.[57]

Writing system

Nepali is written in Devanagari script.

In the section below Nepali is represented in Latin transliteration using the IAST scheme and IPA. The chief features are: subscript dots for retroflex consonants; macrons for etymologically, contrastively long vowels; h denoting aspirated plosives. Tildes denote nasalised vowels.

Consonants

/kʌ/ /kʰʌ/ /ɡʌ/ /ɡʱʌ/ /ŋʌ/
/t͡sʌ/ /t͡sʰʌ/ /d͡zʌ/ / /d͡zʱʌ/ /nʌ/
/ʈʌ/ /ʈʰʌ/ /ɖʌ/ /ɖʱʌ/ /ɳʌ/
/tʌ/ /tʰʌ/ /dʌ/ /dʱʌ/ /nʌ/
/pʌ/ /pʰʌ/ /bʌ/ /bʱʌ/ /mʌ/
/jʌ/ /rʌ/ /lʌ/ /wʌ/
/sʌ/ /sʌ/ /sʌ/ /ɦʌ/
/t͡sʰjʌ, ksʌ/ /trʌ/ /ɡjʌ/ /ri/

Vowels

Orthography अं अः अँ
IAST a ā i ī u ū e ai o au aṃ aḥ am̐/ã
IPA ʌ a i i u u e ʌ o ʌ ʌŋ ʌɦʌ ʌ̃
Vowel mark indicated on consonant b बा बि बी बु बू बे बै बो बौ बं बः बँ

Literature

Bhanubhakta Acharya, Aadi Kavi in Nepali-language literature

Nepali developed significant literature within a short period of a hundred years in the 19th century. This literary explosion was fuelled by Adhyatma Ramayana; Sundarananda Bara (1833); Birsikka, an anonymous collection of folk tales; and a version of the ancient Indian epic Ramayana by Bhanubhakta Acharya (d. 1868). The contribution of trio-laureates Lekhnath Paudyal, Laxmi Prasad Devkota, and Balkrishna Sama took Nepali to the level of other world languages. The contribution of expatriate writers outside Nepal, especially in Darjeeling and Varanasi in India, is also notable.

Dialects

Dialects of Nepali include Acchami, Baitadeli, Bajhangi, Bajurali, Bheri, Dadeldhuri, Dailekhi, Darchulali, Darchuli, Gandakeli, Humli, Purbeli, and Soradi.[42] These dialects can be distinct from Standard Nepali. Mutual intelligibility between Baitadeli, Bajhangi, Bajurali (Bajura), Humli, and Acchami is low.[42] The dialect of Nepali language spoken in Karnali Province is not mutually intelligible with Standard Nepali. The language is known with its old name as Khas Bhasa in Karnali.[10]

Sample text

The following is a sample text in Nepali, of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, with a transliteration (IAST) and transcription (IPA).[58]

Nepali in Devanagari Script
धारा १. सबै व्यक्तिहरू जन्मजात स्वतन्त्र हुन् ती सबैको समान अधिकार र महत्व छ। निजहरूमा विचार शक्ति र सद्विचार भएकोले निजहरूले आपसमा भातृत्वको भावनाबाट व्यवहार गर्नु पर्छ।
Transliteration (ISO)
Dhārā 1. Sabai vyaktiharū janmajāt svatantra hun tī sabaiko samān adhikār ra mahatva cha. Nijharūmā vicār śakti ra sadvicār bhaekole nijharūle āpasmā bhatṛtvako bhāvanabāṭa vyavahār garnu parcha.
Transcription (IPA)
[dʱaɾa ek sʌbʌi̯ bektiɦʌɾu d͡zʌnmʌd͡zat sotʌntɾʌ ɦun ti sʌbʌi̯ko sʌman ʌd(ʱ)ikaɾ rʌ mʌːtːo t͡sʰʌ nid͡zɦʌɾuma bit͡saɾ sʌkti ɾʌ sʌdbit͡sar bʱʌekole nid͡zɦʌɾule apʌsma bʱatɾitːoko bʱawʌnabaʈʌ bebaːr ɡʌɾnu pʌɾt͡sʰʌ]
Gloss (word-to-word)
Article 1. All human-beings from-birth independent are their all equal right and importance is. In themselves, intellect and conscience {endowed therefore} they {one another} brotherhood's spirit {treatment with} do must.
Translation (grammatical)
Article 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

See also

References

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  2. ^ a b Nepali at Ethnologue (27th ed., 2024) Closed access icon
    Nepali at Ethnologue (27th ed., 2024) Closed access icon
  3. ^ "Nepali | Definition of Nepali by Oxford Dictionary on Lexico.com also meaning of Nepali". Lexico Dictionaries | English. Archived from the original on 23 July 2020. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
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  5. ^ "Nepali language | Britannica". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 30 July 2022. Retrieved 28 July 2022.
  6. ^ a b "Nepali literature". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 23 October 2022. Retrieved 23 October 2022.
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  8. ^ "The kings song". Himal Southasian. June 2003. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
  9. ^ Vasistha, Kedar. "'गोर्खा पत्रिकाहरू'को पदचाप". Gorakhapatra Online. Archived from the original on 9 November 2021. Retrieved 9 November 2021. जङ्गबहादुरलाई पनि घिसार्ने गरिएको पाइन्छ तर उनको पालामा गोर्खा भाषा वा नेपाली भाषा नभनी पाष्या बोली वा पर्वते भाषाको प्रचलन रहेको देखिन्छ । तर उक्त सनद जारी भएको एक वर्षपछिको जङ्गबहादुरको एक पत्रमा उनले गोर्खा वा गोर्खाली वा नेपाली भाषाका नमुना भनी नभनी पाष्या (पाखे) बोली भनेका छन् ।
  10. ^ a b "5 features of Nepali, Nepal's lingua franca, that you are unaware of". Online Khabar. Online Khabar. 3 October 2020. Archived from the original on 30 October 2021. Retrieved 30 October 2021.
  11. ^ Jain & Cardona 2007, p. 543.
  12. ^ Maharjan, Rajendra. "एकल राष्ट्र–राज्यको धङधङी". EKantipur. Kantipur Publication Limited. Archived from the original on 30 October 2021. Retrieved 30 October 2021.आजभन्दा करिब नौ दशकअघि मात्रै देशको नाम 'नेपाल' का रूपमा स्विकारिएको हो भने, पहिले खस–पर्वते–गोर्खाली भनिने भाषालाई 'नेपाली' नामकरण गरिएको हो ।
  13. ^ Baniya, Karnabahadur. सेनकालीन पाल्पाको संस्कृति : एक ऐतिहासिक विवेचना. Palpa: Tribhuvan Multiple Campus. pp. 3–4. Archived from the original on 9 November 2021. Retrieved 9 November 2021.
  14. ^ Lienhard, Siegfried (1992). Songs of Nepal: An Anthology of Nevar Folksongs and Hymns. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas. ISBN 81-208-0963-7. Page 3.
  15. ^ Shrestha, Shiva Raj. Khaptad Region in Mythology (PDF). p. 10. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 November 2021. Retrieved 9 November 2021.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Bandhu, C.M. "The Role of the Nepali Language in Establishing The National Unity and Identity of Nepal" (PDF). Digital Himalaya. The Royal Nepal Academy. Retrieved 1 February 2023.
  17. ^ Wagley, Namit (14 February 2015). "Nepal Ka Khas Jaati". SpotlightNepal. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  18. ^ Jain & Cardona 2007, p. 544.
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Footnotes

  1. ^ Historically spoken just by the Karnali Khas people, now spoken as the lingua franca in Nepal.
  2. ^ In India, Nepali is one of the Eighth Schedule languages, i.e. languages of regional significance. Thus, it is not official on federal level but only in states where it is actively spoken.
  3. ^ In the state of Sikkim, Nepali is one of the main official languages in use.
  4. ^ In the state of West Bengal, Nepali is one of the additional official languages, which are secondary to more widely used main official languages.

Bibliography

  • Richard Burghart (1984). "The Formation of the Concept of Nation-State in Nepal". The Journal of Asian Studies. 44 (1): 101–125. doi:10.2307/2056748. JSTOR 2056748. S2CID 154584368.
  • Jain, Danesh; Cardona, George (26 July 2007). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. ISBN 9781135797119. Archived from the original on 15 January 2023. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
  • Hodgson, Brian Houghton (2013). Essays on the Languages, Literature, and Religion of Nepál and Tibet (Reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781108056083. Archived from the original on 15 January 2023. Retrieved 27 March 2014.

Further reading

  • पोखरेल, मा. प्र. (2000), ध्वनिविज्ञान र नेपाली भाषाको ध्वनि परिचय, नेपाल राजकीय प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठान, काठमाडौँ
  • Schmidt, R. L. (1993) A Practical Dictionary of Modern Nepali. Archived 26 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine
  • Turner, R. L. (1931) A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of the Nepali Language. Archived 13 September 2019 at the Wayback Machine
  • Clements, G.N. & Khatiwada, R. (2007). "Phonetic realization of contrastively aspirated affricates in Nepali." In Proceedings of ICPhS XVI (Saarbrücken, 6–10 August 2007), 629- 632. [1] Archived 6 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  • Hutt, M. & Subedi, A. (2003) Teach Yourself Nepali.
  • Khatiwada, Rajesh (2009). "Nepali". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 39 (3): 373–380. doi:10.1017/S0025100309990181.
  • Manders, C. J. (2007) नेपाली व्याकरणमा आधार A Foundation in Nepali Grammar.
  • Dashrath Kharel, "Nepali linguistics spoken in Darjeeling-Sikkim"

External links

  • List of Nepali words at Wiktionary, the free dictionary
  • Omniglot – Nepali Language
  • Barala – Easy Nepali Typing
  • नेपाली बृहत् शब्दकोश | Nepali Brihat Shabdakosh (Comprehensive Nepali Dictionary) | "Nepal Academy"
  • नेपाली बृहत् शब्दकोश | Nepali Brihat Shabdakosh – Nepali Dictionary "Nepali Brihat Shabdakosh Latest Edition"
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