National Assembly (Bhutan)

Coordinates: 27°29′23.2″N 89°38′17.5″E / 27.489778°N 89.638194°E / 27.489778; 89.638194

National Assembly
Gyelyong Tshogdu
Coat of arms or logo
Wangchuk Namgyel, DNT
since 7 November 2018
Deputy Speaker
Tshencho Wangdi, DNT
since 7 November 2018
Lotay Tshering, DNT
since 7 November 2018
Leader of the Opposition
Dorji Wangdi, DPT
since 7 November 2018
2018 Assemblee nationale du Bhoutan.svg
Political groups
Government (32)
  •   DNT (32)

Opposition (15)

Round 1: Party-only first-past-the-post
Round 2: Two-party first-past-the-post
Last election
15 September 2018 and 18 October 2018
Meeting place
The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi addressing the Joint Session of the Parliament of Bhutan, in Thimphu, Bhutan on June 16, 2014.jpg
Gyelyong Tshokhang, Thimphu
Official Website of the National Assembly of Bhutan

The National Assembly is the elected lower house of Bhutan's bicameral Parliament which also comprises the Druk Gyalpo (Dragon King) and the National Council. It is the more powerful house.

Current National Assembly

The current National Assembly has 47 members, first elected in the inaugural general election on March 24, 2008. Jigme Thinley's Druk Phuensum Tshogpa (DPT) Party won a landslide victory, securing 45 seats. The People's Democratic Party (PDP) won the other two,[1] but its leader, Sangay Ngedup, lost the election in his constituency.[2]

Under the 2008 Constitution, Article 12, section 1, the National Assembly consists of a maximum of 55 members directly elected by the citizens of constituencies within each Dzongkhag (District).[3] Under this single-winner voting system, each constituency is represented by a single National Assembly member; each of the 20 Dzongkhags must be represented by between 2–7 members. Constituencies are reapportioned every 10 years (Art. 12, § 2).[3] The National Assembly meets at least twice a year (Art. 12, § 5), and elects a Speaker and Deputy Speaker from among its members (Art. 12, § 3). Members and candidates are allowed to hold political party affiliation.

The 2013 National Assembly election resulted in large increase in percentage of PDP members, who will hold 32 seats to the DPT's 15 when the new assembly convenes.[4]


The National Assembly was originally decreed in 1953 by King Jigme Dorji Wangchuck. The National Assembly began as a unicameral parliament within the King's framework for democratization. In 1971, King Jigme Dorji empowered the National Assembly to remove him or any of his successors with a two-thirds majority. The procedure for abdication remains a part of Bhutan's Constitution of 2008, with the addition of a three-fourths majority in a joint sitting of Parliament (i.e., including the National Council) to confirm the involuntary abdication as well as a national referendum to finalize it.[3] (Art. 2)

Electoral system

The 47 members of the National Assembly are elected from single-member constituencies. Primary elections are held in which voters cast votes for parties. The top two parties are then able to field candidates in the main round of voting, in which members are elected using first-past-the-post voting.[5]


Complete list of speakers of the National Assembly.[6]

Name Entered Office Left Office
Dasho Kesang Dawa 1953 1955
Dasho Thinley Dorji 1956 1963
Dasho Tamji Jagar 1964 1965
Nidup Yanglop 1966 1968
Dasho Kesang Dawa 1969 1971
Dasho Shingkhar Lam 1971 1974
Nidup Yanglop 1974 1977
Dasho Tamji Jagar 1977 1988
Lyonpo Sangye Penjor 1988 1989
Dasho Passang Dorji 1989 1997
Lyonpo Kinzang Dorji 1997 2000
Dasho Ugyen Dorji 2000 2007
Lyonpo Jigme Tshultim 2008 2013
Lyonpo Jigme Zangpo 2013 2018
Lyonpo Wangchuk Namgyel 2018 Present


A map of Bhutan showing its 20 dzongkhags.
A map of Bhutan showing its 20 dzongkhags. Currently, each dzongkhag has between two and five National Assembly constituencies.

The National Assembly, the lower of the Parliament of Bhutan, consists Members of Parliament (MPs). Each MP represents a single geographic constituency.[7] Currently, there are 47 National Assembly constituencies.[8][9]

National Assembly constituencies are distributed among the dzongkhags[A] in proportion to their registered voter population as recommended by the Delimitation Commission, provided that "no Dzongkhag shall have less than two more than seven National Assembly constituencies."[7]

Gelegphu (NA1301) constituency has the highest number of registered voter population with 16,283 registered voters; Khatoed_Laya (NA0402) constituency has the lowest number of registered voter population with 966 registered voters.

Out of the 20 dzongkhags of Bhutan, Trashigang, with five constituencies, has the highest number of National Assembly constituencies. Samtse, with four constituencies, has the second highest number of National Assembly constituencies. Mongar and Pema Gatshel, with three constituencies each, share the third highest position. All of the other 16 dzongkhags have two constituencies each.

The table below lists the 47 National Assembly constituencies with the name of the dzongkhag they are in, the number of constituent gewogs,[B] and the number of registered voters.

Constituencies of the National Assembly of Bhutan[8]
Code Name Dzongkhag Number of
NA0101 Chhoekhor_Tang Bumthang 2 5721
NA0102 Chhumig_Ura Bumthang 2 3498
NA0201 Bongo_Chapchha Chhukha[D] 5 13512
NA0202 Phuentshogling Chhukha 6 10228
NA0301 Drukjeygang_ Tseza Dagana 7 11521
NA0302 Lhamoi Dzingkha _Tashiding Dagana 7 11327
NA0401 Khamaed_Lunana Gasa 2 968
NA0402 Khatoed_Laya Gasa 2 966
NA0501 Bji_Kar-tshog_Uesu Haa 3 3982
NA0502 Sangbaykha Haa 3 3361
NA0601 Gangzur_Minjey Lhuentse[E] 4 7717
NA0602 Maenbi_Tsaenkhar Lhuentse 4 7644
NA0701 Dramedtse_Ngatshang Mongar[F] 7 12600
NA0702 Kengkhar_Weringla Mongar 5 10254
NA0703 Monggar Mongar 5 10008
NA0801 Dokar_Sharpa Paro 4 8209
NA0802 Lamgong_Wangchang Paro 6 9512
NA0901 Khar_Yurung Pema Gatshel[G] 5 9032
NA0902 Nanong_Shumar Pema Gatshel 3 8809
NA0903 Nganglam Pema Gatshel 3 6662
NA1001 Kabisa_Talog Punakha 6 9293
NA1002 Lingmukha_Toedwang Punakha 5 6475
NA1101 Dewathang_Gomdar Samdrup Jongkhar[H] 5 13429
NA1102 Jomotsangkha_Martshala Samdrup Jongkhar 6 10153
NA1201 Dophuchen_Tading Samtse 4 12536
NA1202 Phuentshogpelri_Samtse Samtse 3 10229
NA1203 Tashichhoeling Samtse 4 12376
NA1204 Ugyentse_Yoeseltse Samtse 4 9186
NA1301 Gelegphu Sarpang 7 16283
NA1302 Shompangkha Sarpang 5 12451
NA1401 North Thimphu Thromde_Kawang_Lingzhi_Naro_Soe Thimphu 4 5446
NA1402 South Thimphu Thromde_Chang_Darkarla_Ge-nyen_Maedwang Thimphu 4 8124
NA1501 Bartsham_Shongphu Trashigang 4 10688
NA1502 Kanglung_Samkhar_Udzorong Trashigang 3 10311
NA1503 Radhi_Sagteng Trashigang 4 9155
NA1504 Thrimshing Trashigang 2 6550
NA1505 Wamrong Trashigang 2 7821
NA1601 Boomdeling_Jamkhar Trashi Yangtse[I] 4 8793
NA1602 Khamdang_Ramjar Trashi Yangtse 4 8740
NA1701 Draagteng_Langthil Trongsa 3 5558
NA1702 Nubi_Tangsibji Trongsa 2 4163
NA1801 Kilkhorthang_Mendrelgang Tsirang 6 11080
NA1802 Sergithang_Tsirangtoed Tsirang 6 10527
NA1901 Athang_Thedtsho Wangdue Phodrang[J] 8 9249
NA1902 Nyishog_Saephu Wangdue Phodrang 7 9635
NA2001 Bardo_Trong Zhemgang 4 10157
NA2002 Panbang Zhemgang 4 7211

See also


  1. ^ The word "dzongkhag" translates to "district". In English uses, specific Dzongkha words, including the word "dzongkhag", are italicised and only translated the first time they are used.[10]
  2. ^ The word "gewog" translates to "county".[11] In English uses, specific Dzongkha words, including the word "gewog", are italicised and only translated the first time they are used.[10]
  3. ^ As of 2017-05-08
  4. ^ Also spelled as "Chukha"
  5. ^ Also spelled as "Lhuntse"
  6. ^ Also spelled as "Monggar"
  7. ^ Also spelled as "Pemagatshel"
  8. ^ Also spelled as "Samdrupjongkhar"
  9. ^ Also spelled as"Trashiyangste"
  10. ^ Also spelled as "Wangduephodrang"


  1. ^ Majumdar, Bappa (March 27, 2008). "CORRECTED: Bhutan corrects poll results, opposition shrinks". Reuters. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
  2. ^ "Bhutan votes for status quo" Archived 2011-04-29 at the Wayback Machine, France 24, March 24, 2008
  3. ^ a b c "Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan (English)" (PDF). Government of Bhutan. 2008-07-18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-06. Retrieved 2010-10-13.
  4. ^ "Bhutan's Election Commission completes polls process, hands over MP list to King". DNA India. 2013-07-14. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  5. ^ Electoral system IPU
  6. ^ Past Speakers National Assembly of Bhutan.
  7. ^ a b "Election Act of the Kingdom of Bhutan 2008" (PDF). Government of Bhutan. 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-09-21. Retrieved 2019-05-25.
  8. ^ a b "Final Delimitation Order For The National Assembly Constituencies Of The Kingdom Of Bhutan, 2017" (PDF). Election Commission of Bhutan. 2017-12-26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-06-15.
  9. ^ "Constituency List". National Assembly of Bhutan. Archived from the original on 2019-04-02. Retrieved 2019-05-31.
  10. ^ a b J. Schuelka, Matthew; W. Maxwell, Tom, eds. (2016). Education in Bhutan: Culture, Schooling and Gross National Happiness (PDF). Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects. Vol. 36. Springer. pp. 2–3. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-1649-3. ISBN 978-981-10-1647-9. ISSN 1573-5397. LCCN 2016948217. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-06-09. Retrieved 2019-06-09.
  11. ^ "The Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan" (PDF). Government of Bhutan. 2008. p. 64. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-04-29. Retrieved 2019-06-01.

External links

  • "Official website of the National Assembly of Bhutan". Retrieved 2008-04-16.
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