Minneapolis

Minneapolis
Bde Óta Othúŋwe (Dakota)
Official seal of Minneapolis
Official logo of Minneapolis
Etymology: Dakota mni ('water') with Greek polis ('city')
Nicknames: 
"City of Lakes",[1] "Mill City",[1] "Twin Cities"[2] (with Saint Paul), "Mini Apple"[1]
Motto: 
En Avant (French: 'Forward')[3]
Map
Map
Map
Map
Coordinates: 44°58′55″N 93°16′09″W / 44.98194°N 93.26917°W / 44.98194; -93.26917[4]
CountryUnited States
StateMinnesota
CountyHennepin
Incorporated1867
Founded byFranklin Steele and John H. Stevens
Government
 • TypeMayor-council (strong mayor)[5]
 • BodyMinneapolis City Council
 • MayorJacob Frey (DFL)
Area
[6]
 • City57.51 sq mi (148.94 km2)
 • Land54.00 sq mi (139.86 km2)
 • Water3.51 sq mi (9.08 km2)
Elevation
[4]
830 ft (250 m)
Population
 (2020)[7]
 • City429,954
 • Estimate 
(2022)[8]
425,096
 • Rank
  • 46th (U.S.)
  • 1st (Minnesota)
 • Density7,962.11/sq mi (3,074.21/km2)
 • Urban
[9]
2,914,866
 • Urban density2,872.4/sq mi (1,109/km2)
 • Metro
[10]
3,693,729
DemonymMinneapolitan
GDP
[11]
 • MSA$277.6 billion (2022)
Time zoneUTC–6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC–5 (CDT)
ZIP Codes
55401-55419, 55423, 55429-55430, 55450, 55454-55455, 55484-55488
Area code612
FIPS code27-43000[4]
GNIS ID655030[4]
WebsiteMinneapolisMN.gov

Minneapolis,[a] officially the City of Minneapolis,[13] is a city in the state of Minnesota and the county seat of Hennepin County.[4] As of the 2020 census the population was 429,954, making it the state's most populous city.[7] Nicknamed the "City of Lakes",[14] Minneapolis is abundant in water, with thirteen lakes, wetlands, the Mississippi River, creeks, and waterfalls. Minneapolis was the 19th-century lumber and flour milling capital of the world and has preserved its financial clout into the 21st century. It occupies both banks of the Mississippi River and adjoins Saint Paul, the state capital of Minnesota.

The site of Minneapolis was originally inhabited by Dakota people. European settlement was founded along Saint Anthony Falls—the only natural waterfall on the Mississippi River[15]—on land north of Fort Snelling. Its early growth was attributed to its proximity to the fort and the falls providing power for industrial activity. Minneapolis, Saint Paul, and the surrounding area are collectively known as the Twin Cities, a metropolitan area home to 3.69 million inhabitants.[16]

Minneapolis has one of the most extensive public park systems in the U.S.; many of these parks are connected by the Grand Rounds National Scenic Byway. Biking and walking trails run through many parts of the city including the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area, Lake of the Isles, Bde Maka Ska, and Lake Harriet, and Minnehaha Falls. Minneapolis has cold, snowy winters and warm, humid summers. Minneapolis is the birthplace of General Mills, the Pillsbury brand, and the Target Corporation. The city's cultural offerings include the Minneapolis Institute of Art, the First Avenue nightclub, and four professional sports teams. Minneapolis is home to the University of Minnesota's main campus. The city's public transport is provided by Metro Transit and the international airport, serving the Twin Cities region, is located towards the south on the city limits.

Despite its well-regarded quality of life,[17] Minneapolis faces a pressing challenge in the form of stark disparities among its residents—arguably the most critical issue confronting the city in the 21st century.[18] Governed by a mayor-council system, Minneapolis has a political landscape dominated by the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL), with Jacob Frey serving as mayor since 2018.

History

Dakota homeland, city founded

Line drawing of the location of villages and paths, map shows the Minnesota River (then called St Peter), the Mississippi, Minnehaha Creek, Saint Anthony Falls, and several lakes
Area that became Minneapolis pictured c. 1820–1860

About a half dozen[b] Native American nations inhabited Minnesota, and in modern times, two nations dominated:[22] the Dakota (also known as the Sioux)[23] and the Ojibwe (or Anishinaabe or Chippewa).[24] Evidence says the Dakota were state residents in or before 1000 AD.[20] Dakota are the only inhabitants who claimed no other land;[25] they have no traditions of having immigrated and their site of creation is at nearby Bdóte.[26][c] The Ojibwe migrated west from the Atlantic states to northern Minnesota where they displaced many Dakota by the 17th century.[28] In the Dakota language, the city's name is Bde Óta Othúŋwe ('Many Lakes Town').[d]

Around 1680, first French explorers and then the British arrived[31] and traded in furs for nearly 150 years[32] with the Dakota and Ojibwe as partners.[33] After the US became a country, the fur trade declined, and US Americans gradually emerged as exploiters—desiring forests for timber and land for farms.[34] Purchasing most of modern-day Minneapolis, Zebulon Pike made the 1805 Treaty of St. Peter with the Dakota.[e] Pike bought a 9-square-mile (23 km2) strip of land—coinciding with the sacred place of Dakota origin[27]—on the Mississippi south of Saint Anthony Falls,[38] with the agreement the US would build a military fort and trading post there and the Dakota would retain their land use rights.[39] In 1819, the US Army built Fort Snelling[40] to direct Native American trade away from British-Canadian traders, and to deter warring between the Dakota and Ojibwe in northern Minnesota.[41] The fort attracted traders, settlers, and merchants, spurring growth in the surrounding region. Agents of the St. Peters Indian Agency at the fort enforced the US policy of assimilating Native Americans into European-American society, asking them to give up subsistence hunting and cultivate the land.[42] Missionaries encouraged Native Americans to convert from their religion to Christianity.[42]

Under pressure from US officials[43] in a series of treaties, the Dakota ceded their land—which they consider to be living (a relative, and not property)[44]—first to the east and then to the west of the Mississippi.[45][f] After Minnesota became a territory in 1849[45] cession treaties unleashed formerly prohibited[57] settlement and US manifest destiny.[58] Dakota leaders twice refused to sign the next treaty until they were paid for the previous one.[59] Historians have called Minnesota's leaders "thieves",[60] and their actions "scams",[61] "deceit, coercion, and broken promises".[62] In the space of sixty years, the US had seized all of Dakota land. In the decades following these treaty signings, the US government rarely honored their terms.[63] After closing in 1858, the University of Minnesota was revived using land taken from the Dakota people under the Morrill Land-Grant Acts in 1862.[64][65]

Black and white photo of one end of an island covered with hundreds of teepees inside a stockade
Dakota non-combatants living in a concentration camp at Fort Snelling during the winter of 1862

At the beginning of the American Civil War, annuity payments owed in June 1862 to the Dakota by treaty were late, causing acute hunger among the Dakota.[66][g] Facing starvation[68] a faction of the Dakota declared war in August and killed settlers.[69] Serving without any prior military experience, US commander Henry Sibley had raw recruits,[70] among them the only mounted troops were volunteers from Minneapolis and Saint Paul with no military experience.[71] The war went on for six weeks in the Minnesota River valley.[72] Some terrified settlers traveled 80 miles (130 km) from the massacre to Minneapolis for safety.[73] After a US kangaroo court,[74] 38 Dakota men died by hanging.[72] The army marched 1,700 non-hostile Dakota men, women, children, and elders 150 miles (240 km) to a concentration camp at Fort Snelling.[75] Minneapolitans reportedly threatened more than once to attack the camp.[76] In 1863, the US "abrogated and annulled" all treaties with the Dakota.[77] With Governor Alexander Ramsey calling for their extermination,[78] most Dakota were exiled from Minnesota.[79]

While the Dakota were being expelled, Franklin Steele laid claim to the east bank of Saint Anthony Falls,[80] and John H. Stevens built a home on the west bank.[81] Residents had divergent ideas on names for their community. In 1852, Charles Hoag proposed combining the Dakota word for 'water' (mni[h]) with the Greek word for 'city' (polis), yielding Minneapolis. In 1851 after a meeting of the Minnesota Territorial Legislature, leaders of east bank St. Anthony lost their bid to move the capital from Saint Paul.[86] In a close vote, Saint Paul and Stillwater agreed to divide federal funding:[86] Saint Paul would be the capital, while Stillwater would build the prison. The St. Anthony contingent eventually won the state university.[86] In 1855 with a charter from the legislature, Steele and associates opened the first bridge across the Mississippi; the toll bridge cost pedestrians three cents ($0.94 in 2022).[87] In 1856, the territorial legislature authorized Minneapolis as a town on the Mississippi's west bank.[82] Minneapolis was incorporated as a city in 1867, and in 1872, it merged with St. Anthony.[88]

Water power, lumber, and flour milling

Waterfall surrounded by sawmills and scaffolding
Saint Anthony Falls c. 1850s

Minneapolis developed around Saint Anthony Falls, the only natural waterfall on the Mississippi, which was used as a source of energy.[15] A 1989 Minnesota Archaeological Society analysis of the Minneapolis riverfront describes the use of water power in Minneapolis between 1880 and 1930 as "the greatest direct-drive waterpower center the world has ever seen".[89] Minneapolis earned the nickname "Mill City."[90][14] The city's two founding industries—lumber and flour milling—developed in the 19th century nearly concurrently. Flour milling overshadowed lumber for some decades; nevertheless, each came to prominence for about fifty years.[i] The city's first commercial sawmill was built in 1848, and the first gristmill in 1849.[92][j]

A lumber industry was built around forests in northern Minnesota, largely by lumbermen emigrating from Maine's depleting forests.[95][96] Towns built in western Minnesota with lumber from Minneapolis sawmills shipped their wheat back to the city for milling.[97] The region's waterways were used to transport logs well after railroads developed; the Mississippi River carried logs to St. Louis until the early 20th century.[98] In 1871, of the thirteen mills sawing lumber in St. Anthony, eight ran on water power and five ran on steam power.[99] Minneapolis supplied the materials for farmsteads and settlement of rapidly expanding cities on the prairies that lacked wood.[100] White pine milled in Minneapolis built Miles City, Montana; Bismarck, North Dakota; Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Omaha, Nebraska; and Wichita, Kansas.[101] Auxiliary businesses on the river's west bank in 1871 included woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, and mills for cotton, paper, sashes, and wood-planing.[102] Due to the occupational hazards of milling, by the 1890s, six companies manufactured artificial limbs.[103]

Growing use of steam power freed lumbermen and their sawmills from dependence on the falls.[104] Lumber was the main Minneapolis industry in 1870,[105] before flour milling overtook it in the 1880s.[105] Lumbering reached a statewide peak in 1900 when its decline began.[106] After depleting Minnesota's white pine,[107] some lumbermen moved on to Douglas fir in the Pacific Northwest.[108] Sawmills in the city including the Minneapolis Weyerhauser mill closed by 1919.[109]

Two men who loaded flour and a bag of flour that says Monahan's Minneapolis and a Pillsbury truck
Loading flour, Pillsbury, 1939

Disasters struck the city in the late 19th century. Dug under the river at Nicollet Island, the Eastman tunnel leaked in 1869. Water sucked the 6 ft (1.8 m) tailrace into a 90 ft (27 m)-wide chasm.[110] Community-led repairs failed and in 1870, several buildings and mills fell into the river.[110] For years, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers struggled to close the gap with timber until their concrete dike held in 1876.[110] In 1870, and again in 1887, fire destroyed the entire row of sawmills on the east bank.[111] In 1878, an explosion of flour dust at the Washburn A mill killed eighteen people[112] and demolished several mills.[113] The explosion cost the city nearly one half of its capacity, but the mill was rebuilt the next year.[114] In 1893, fire spread from Nicollet Island to Boom Island to northeast Minneapolis where wind stopped it at the stone Grain Belt Brewery. Twenty blocks were destroyed and two people died.[115]

Cadwallader C. Washburn founded Washburn-Crosby, the company that became General Mills.[116][117] He learned of and adopted three flour milling innovations:[118] middlings purifiers blew out the husks that had colored flour;[119] gradual reduction by steel and porcelain roller mills combined gluten with starch;[119] and a ventilation system decreased the risk of explosion by reducing flour dust in the air.[120] Washburn and partner John Crosby[121] sent Austrian civil engineer William de la Barre to Hungary where he acquired some of these innovations through industrial espionage.[119] De la Barre carefully calculated and managed the power at the falls and encouraged steam for auxiliary power.[122] Charles Alfred Pillsbury and the C. A. Pillsbury Company across the river hired Washburn employees and began using the new methods.[119]

The hard red spring wheat grown in Minnesota became valuable—$0.50 profit per barrel in 1871 ($12.21 in 2022) increased to $4.50 in 1874 ($116.00 in 2022)[123]—and Minnesota "patent" flour was recognized at the time as the best in the world.[119] By 1895, through the efforts of silent partner William Hood Dunwoody, Washburn-Crosby exported four million barrels of flour a year to the United Kingdom.[124] When exports peaked in 1900, fourteen percent of America's grain was milled in Minneapolis[119] and about one third of that was shipped overseas.[125] Overall production peaked at 18.5 million barrels in 1916.[126]

Decades of soil exhaustion, stem rust, and changes in freight tariffs combined to quash the city's flour industry.[127] In the 1920s, Washburn-Crosby and Pillsbury developed new milling centers in Buffalo, New York, and Kansas City, Missouri, while maintaining their headquarters in Minneapolis.[128] Under increasingly consolidated management, plants on the Minneapolis mill properties generated hydroelectricity with surplus water.[129] Hydroelectricity became the equal of flour milling as a user of the falls's power.[130] Northern States Power bought the united mill companies in 1923,[131] and by the 1950s controlled over 53,000 horsepower at the falls.[132] In 1971, the falls became a national historic district.[133] Hitherto "the backside of the city",[134] the riverfront caught the attention of a convoluted network of private and government interests who sometimes fought. They developed townhouses and high rises, and rebuilt and renovated lofts—often neglecting affordability—revitalizing mills on both banks.[135] The upper St. Anthony lock and dam permanently closed in 2015,[136] and the region's three locks were under federal disposition study as of 2023.[137]

panoramic view of Saint Anthony Falls and the Mississippi riverfront in 1915
Mississippi riverfront and Saint Anthony Falls in 1915. At left, Pillsbury, power plants and the Stone Arch Bridge. Today the Minnesota Historical Society's Mill City Museum is in the Washburn "A" Mill, across the river just to the left of the falls. At center-left are Northwestern Consolidated mills. The tall building is Minneapolis City Hall. In the right foreground are Nicollet Island and the Hennepin Avenue Bridge.

Other industries develop

Minneapolis Star humorist Don Morrison wrote that the city doubled, tripled, then quadrupled its population every decade, and in 1922, the city's assessed property value was $266 million, "nearly 10 times the price paid for the entire midcontinent in the Louisiana Purchase."[138] After the milling era waned, a "modern, major city"[138] surfaced in 1900, attracted skilled workers,[139] and depended on expertise from the university's Institute of Technology.[140]

Refer to caption
Seymour Cray and colleagues began work on the CDC 6600 (pictured) in downtown Minneapolis and completed the project in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin.[141]

In 1886, businessman George D. Munsing found that itchy wool underwear could be covered in silk. His Minneapolis textile business—known then as Munsingwear, today as Perry Ellis[142]—lasted a century and in 1923, was the world's largest manufacturer of underwear.[143] In 1922, inventor David W. Onan founded Onan Corporation (bought by Cummins in 1986[144]), that built and sold generators in Minneapolis.[145] Onan brought electricity to midwestern markets before power lines covered the country, and supplied about half the generator sets the US military used during World War II.[146] Frederick McKinley Jones invented mobile refrigeration in Minneapolis, and with his associate founded Thermo King in 1938.[147] Medtronic, founded in a Minneapolis garage in 1949,[148] and today domiciled in Ireland, as of 2022 usually appears in lists of the world's largest medical device makers.[149]

Minnesota's computer industry was the largest and most varied in the US beginning in the 1950s, and in 1989 employed 68,000 people.[150][k] Minneapolis-Honeywell built a south Minneapolis campus where their experience regulating indoor temperature earned them contracts controlling military servomechanisms like the secret Norden bombsight and the C-1 autopilot.[152] In the 1960s, the Honeywell 316 and DDP-516 were nodes in ARPANET, the internet's precursor.[152] The Honeywell Project from 1968 until 1990 advocated for peaceful means to replace the company's military interests.[152] General Mills built computers for NASA in northeast Minneapolis in the 1950s.[153] In 1957, Control Data began in downtown Minneapolis, where in the CDC 1604 they replaced vacuum tubes with transistors. Later Control Data moved to the suburbs[l] and built the CDC 6600 and CDC 7600, the first supercomputers.[155] A highly successful business until disbanded in 1990, Control Data opened a facility in economically depressed north Minneapolis in 1967, bringing jobs and good publicity.[155] The University of Minnesota formed an educational computing group that placed three or four personal computers in every Minnesota school, and in 1991 the group's personnel released Gopher on a Macintosh SE/30 which ran until World Wide Web traffic surpassed Gopher traffic in 1994.[156]

In the 1960s, developers and city leaders successfully contended with shopping attractions in suburbia[157]—the pioneering Southdale Center[158] and later the Mall of America.[159] The new Minneapolis Skyway System and the Nicollet Mall brought with them a heyday for downtown.[160]

Social tension

In many ways, the 20th century was a difficult time of bigotry and malfeasance, beginning with four decades of corruption.[161] Known initially as a kindly physician, mayor Doc Ames made his brother police chief, ran the city into crime, and tried to leave town in 1902 according to historian Iric Nathanson.[162] Lincoln Steffens published Ames's story in "The Shame of Minneapolis" in 1903.[163] The Ku Klux Klan was a force in the city from 1921[164] until 1923.[165] The gangster Kid Cann engaged in bribery and intimidation between the 1920s and the 1940s.[166] After Minnesota passed a eugenics law in 1925, the proprietors of Eitel Hospital sterilized people at Faribault State Hospital.[167]

group of men holding pipes confronting police on street seen from above
Battle between striking teamsters and police, 1934. The May (pictured) and subsequent July battles killed four men, two on each side.[168]

The city was relatively unsegregated before 1910,[169] with a Black population of less than one percent,[170] when a developer wrote the first restrictive covenant based on race and ethnicity into a Minneapolis deed.[171] Realtors adopted the practice, thousands of times preventing non-Whites from owning or leasing properties;[172] this practice continued for four decades until the city became more and more racially divided.[173] Though such language was prohibited by state law in 1953 and by the federal Fair Housing Act of 1968,[174] restrictive covenants against minorities remained in many Minneapolis deeds as of the 2020s, and in 2021 the city gave residents a means to discharge them.[175]

During the summer of 1934 and the financial downturn of the Great Depression, the Citizens' Alliance, an association of employers, refused to negotiate with teamsters. The truck drivers union executed strikes in May and July–August.[176] Charles Rumford Walker explains in his book American City that Minneapolis teamsters succeeded in part due to the "military precision of the strike machine".[177] The union victory ultimately led to 1935 and 1938 federal laws protecting workers' rights.[178]

From the end of World War I in 1918 until 1950, antisemitism was commonplace in Minneapolis—Carey McWilliams called the city the anti-Semitic capital of the US.[179] A hate group called the Silver Legion of America held meetings in the city from 1936 to 1938.[180] In the 1940s, mayor Hubert Humphrey worked to rescue the city's reputation,[181] and helped the city establish the country's first fair employment practices and a human-relations council that interceded on behalf of minorities.[182] However, the lives of Black people had not been improved.[169] In 1966 and 1967—years of significant turmoil across the US—suppressed anger among the Black population was released in two disturbances on Plymouth Avenue.[183] A coalition reached a peaceful outcome but again failed to solve Black poverty and unemployment. Prince, who was bused to fourth grade in 1967, said in retrospect, "he believed that Minnesota at that time was no more enlightened than segregationist Alabama had been".[184]

Between 1958 and 1963—in the largest urban renewal plan undertaken in America as of 2022[185]—Minneapolis demolished "skid row". Gone were 35 acres (10 ha) with more than 200 buildings, or roughly 40 percent of downtown, including the Gateway District and its significant architecture, such as the Metropolitan Building.[186] Efforts to save the building failed but encouraged interest in historic preservation.[186]

In 1968, relocated Native Americans founded the American Indian Movement[187] in Minneapolis,[188] and its A.I.M. Survival School, later called Heart of the Earth,[189] taught native traditions to children until closing in 2008.[190] In a backlash of the "dominant" White voters, Charles Stenvig, a law-and-order candidate, became mayor in 1969, and governed for a decade until 1977.[191][192] After their marriage license was denied in 1970, a same-sex Minneapolis couple appealed all the way to the US Supreme Court in Baker v. Nelson.[193] They managed to get a license and marry in 1971,[193] forty years before Minnesota legalized same-sex marriage in 2013, and Obergefell v. Hodges did so nationwide in 2015.[194]

Immigration helped to curb the city's mid-20th century population decline. But because of a few radicalized persons, the city's large Somali population was targeted with discrimination after 9/11, when its hawalas or banks were closed.[195]

On May 25, 2020, 17-year-old Darnella Frazier recorded the murder of George Floyd;[196] her video contradicted the police department's initial statement.[197] Floyd, an African American man, suffocated when Derek Chauvin, a White Minneapolis police officer, knelt on his neck and back for more than nine minutes. While Floyd was neither the first nor the last Black man killed by Minneapolis police,[198][199] his murder sparked international rebellions and mass protests.[200] Reporting on the local insurgency, The New York Times said that "over three nights, a five-mile stretch of Minneapolis sustained extraordinary damage"[201]—destruction included a police station that demonstrators overran and set on fire.[202] The Twin Cities experienced ongoing unrest over racial injustice from 2020 to 2022.[203]

Structural racism

Minneapolis has a history of structural racism[204] and has racial disparities in nearly every aspect of society.[205] Some historians and commentators have said White Minneapolitans used discrimination based on race against the city's non-White residents. As White settlers displaced the indigenous population during the 19th century, they claimed the city's land,[206] and Kirsten Delegard of Mapping Prejudice explains that today's disparities evolved from control of the land.[169] Discrimination increased when flour milling moved to the East Coast and the economy declined.[207] The I-35W highway built in 1959 under the Interstate Highway System[208] cut through Black and Mexican neighborhoods.[209]

The foundation laid by racial covenants on residential segregation, property value, homeownership, wealth, housing security, access to green spaces, trees and parks, and health equity shapes the lives of people in 2022.[210] The city wrote in a decennial plan that racially discriminatory federal housing policies starting in the 1930s "prevented access to mortgages in areas with Jews, African-Americans and other minorities", and "left a lasting effect on the physical characteristics of the city and the financial well-being of its residents."[211]

Discussing a Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis report on how systemic racism compromises education in Minnesota,[212] Professor Keith Mayes says, "So the housing disparities created the educational disparities that we still live with today."[213] Professor Samuel Myers Jr. says of redlining, "Policing policies evolved that substituted explicit racial profiling with scientific management of racially disparate arrests. ... racially discriminatory policies became institutionalized and 'baked in' to the fabric of Minnesota life."[214][m] In 2020, government efforts to address these disparities include declaring racism a public health emergency,[216] and zoning changes passed by the 2018 Minneapolis City Council 2040 plan.[217]

Geography

Clouds reflected in lake, IDS tower and downtown visible in the distance
The city's largest lake, Bde Maka Ska[218]

The history and economic growth of Minneapolis are linked to water, the city's defining physical characteristic. Long periods of glaciation and interglacial melt carved several riverbeds through what is now Minneapolis.[219] During the last glacial period, around 10,000 years ago, ice buried in these ancient river channels melted, resulting in basins that filled with water to become the lakes of Minneapolis.[220] Meltwater from Lake Agassiz fed the glacial River Warren, which created a large waterfall that eroded upriver past the confluence of the Mississippi River, where it left a 75-foot (23-meter) drop in the Mississippi.[221] This site is located in what is now downtown Saint Paul. The new waterfall, later called Saint Anthony Falls, in turn, eroded up the Mississippi about eight miles (13 kilometers) to its present location, carving the Mississippi River gorge as it moved upstream. Minnehaha Falls also developed during this period via similar processes.[222][221]

Minneapolis is sited above an artesian aquifer[223] and on flat terrain. Its total area is 59 sq mi (152.8 km2), of which six percent is covered by water.[224] The city has a 12-mile (19 km) segment of the Mississippi River, four streams, and 17 waterbodies—13 of them lakes,[225] with 24 miles (39 km) of lake shoreline.[226]

A 1959 report by the US Soil Conservation Service listed Minneapolis's elevation above mean sea level as 830 feet (250 meters).[227] The city's lowest elevation of 687 feet (209 m) above sea level is near the confluence of Minnehaha Creek with the Mississippi River.[228] Sources disagree on the exact location and elevation of the city's highest point, which is cited as being between 967 and 985 feet (295 and 300 m) above sea level.[n]

Neighborhoods

Cyclists on Midtown Greenway in Midtown Phillips, one of the 83 neighborhoods of Minneapolis

Minneapolis has 83 neighborhoods and 70 neighborhood organizations.[231] In some cases, two or more neighborhoods act together under one organization.[232]

Around 1990, the city set up the Neighborhood Revitalization Program (NRP), in which every one of the city's eighty-some neighborhoods participated.[233] Funded for 20 years through 2011, with $400 million tax increment financing (TIF),[233] the program caught the eye of UN-Habitat who considered it an example of best practices. Residents had a direct connection to government in NRP, whereby they proposed ideas appropriate for their area, and NRP reviewed the plans and provided implementation funds.[233] [234] The city's Neighborhood and Community Relations department took NRP's place in 2011[235] and is funded only by city revenue.[236] In 2023, two neighborhood organizations merged and others contemplated similar moves so they could combine reduced resources.[236] In his 2024 proposed budget, the mayor suggested an increase in base funding for neighborhood organizations.[237]

In 2018, Minneapolis City Council approved the Minneapolis 2040 Comprehensive Plan, which resulted in a city-wide end to single-family zoning.[238] Slate reported that Minneapolis was believed to be the first major city in the US to make citywide such a revision in housing possibilities.[239] At the time, 70 percent of residential land was zoned for detached, single-family homes,[240] though many of those areas had "nonconforming" buildings with more housing units.[241] City leaders sought to increase the supply of housing so more neighborhoods would be affordable and to decrease the effects single-family zoning had caused on racial disparities and segregation.[242] The Brookings Institution called it "a relatively rare example of success for the YIMBY agenda".[243] In 2023, a district court judge ruled that the plan violated the Minnesota Environmental Rights Act and that the city must abandon it.[244] The city reverted to its 2030 plan.[245]

Climate

Minneapolis experiences a hot-summer humid continental climate (Dfa in the Köppen climate classification),[246] that is typical of southern parts of the Upper Midwest; it is situated in USDA plant hardiness zone 5a.[247][248][249] Minneapolis has cold, snowy winters and hot, humid summers, as is typical in a continental climate. The difference between average temperatures in the coldest winter month and the warmest summer month is 58.1 °F (32.3 °C).

The Minneapolis area experiences a full range of precipitation and related weather events, including snow, sleet, ice, rain, thunderstorms, and fog. The highest recorded temperature is 108 °F (42 °C) in July 1936 while the lowest is −41 °F (−41 °C) in January 1888.[250] The snowiest winter on record was 1983–1984, when 98.6 in (250 cm) of snow fell.[251] The least-snowy winter was 1930–1931, when 14.2 inches (36 cm) fell.[251] According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the annual average for sunshine duration is 58 percent.[252]

Climate data for Minneapolis area, Minnesota (Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport) 1873–2023
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 58
(14)
64
(18)
83
(28)
95
(35)
106
(41)
104
(40)
108
(42)
103
(39)
104
(40)
92
(33)
77
(25)
68
(20)
108
(42)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 42.5
(5.8)
46.7
(8.2)
64.7
(18.2)
79.7
(26.5)
88.7
(31.5)
93.3
(34.1)
94.4
(34.7)
91.7
(33.2)
88.3
(31.3)
80.1
(26.7)
62.1
(16.7)
47.1
(8.4)
96.4
(35.8)
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 23.6
(−4.7)
28.5
(−1.9)
41.7
(5.4)
56.6
(13.7)
69.2
(20.7)
79.0
(26.1)
83.4
(28.6)
80.7
(27.1)
72.9
(22.7)
58.1
(14.5)
41.9
(5.5)
28.8
(−1.8)
55.4
(13.0)
Daily mean °F (°C) 16.2
(−8.8)
20.6
(−6.3)
33.3
(0.7)
47.1
(8.4)
59.5
(15.3)
69.7
(20.9)
74.3
(23.5)
71.8
(22.1)
63.5
(17.5)
49.5
(9.7)
34.8
(1.6)
22.0
(−5.6)
46.9
(8.3)
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 8.8
(−12.9)
12.7
(−10.7)
24.9
(−3.9)
37.5
(3.1)
49.9
(9.9)
60.4
(15.8)
65.3
(18.5)
62.8
(17.1)
54.2
(12.3)
40.9
(4.9)
27.7
(−2.4)
15.2
(−9.3)
38.4
(3.6)
Mean minimum °F (°C) −14.7
(−25.9)
−8
(−22)
2.7
(−16.3)
21.9
(−5.6)
35.7
(2.1)
47.3
(8.5)
54.5
(12.5)
52.3
(11.3)
38.2
(3.4)
26.0
(−3.3)
9.2
(−12.7)
−7.1
(−21.7)
−16.9
(−27.2)
Record low °F (°C) −41
(−41)
−33
(−36)
−32
(−36)
2
(−17)
18
(−8)
34
(1)
43
(6)
39
(4)
26
(−3)
10
(−12)
−25
(−32)
−39
(−39)
−41
(−41)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.89
(23)
0.87
(22)
1.68
(43)
2.91
(74)
3.91
(99)
4.58
(116)
4.06
(103)
4.34
(110)
3.02
(77)
2.58
(66)
1.61
(41)
1.17
(30)
31.62
(803)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 11.0
(28)
9.5
(24)
8.2
(21)
3.5
(8.9)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.8
(2.0)
6.8
(17)
11.4
(29)
51.2
(130)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9.6 7.8 9.0 11.2 12.4 11.8 10.4 9.8 9.3 9.5 8.3 9.7 118.8
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 9.3 7.3 5.2 2.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 4.5 8.8 38.2
Average relative humidity (%) 69.9 69.5 67.4 60.3 60.4 63.8 64.8 67.9 70.7 68.3 72.6 74.1 67.5
Average dew point °F (°C) 4.1
(−15.5)
9.5
(−12.5)
20.7
(−6.3)
31.6
(−0.2)
43.5
(6.4)
54.7
(12.6)
60.1
(15.6)
58.3
(14.6)
49.8
(9.9)
37.9
(3.3)
25.0
(−3.9)
11.1
(−11.6)
33.9
(1.0)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 156.7 178.3 217.5 242.1 295.2 321.9 350.5 307.2 233.2 181.0 112.8 114.3 2,710.7
Percent possible sunshine 55 61 59 60 64 69 74 71 62 53 39 42 59
Average ultraviolet index 1 2 3 5 7 8 8 7 5 3 2 1 4
Source: National Weather Service, Twin Cities Office, 1873–2023[253]

Cityscape

The Minneapolis skyline rises to its highest point at the center of the image, with the three tallest buildings standing out against a clear blue sky. Before the skyline are trees, university buildings, and residential complexes.
The Minneapolis skyline seen from the Prospect Park Water Tower

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
18605,809
187013,066124.9%
188046,887258.8%
1890164,738251.4%
1900202,71823.1%
1910301,40848.7%
1920380,58226.3%
1930464,35622.0%
1940492,3706.0%
1950521,7186.0%
1960482,872−7.4%
1970434,400−10.0%
1980370,951−14.6%
1990368,383−0.7%
2000382,6183.9%
2010382,5780.0%
2020429,95412.4%
2022 (est.)425,096[8]−1.1%
US Decennial Census[254]
2020 Census
Racial and ethnic composition
2020[255] 2010[255] 1990[256] 1970[256] 1950[256]
White alone 58.0% 60.3% 77.5% 92.8%
Black or African American alone 18.9% 18.3% 13.0% 4.4% 1.3%
Hispanic or Latino 10.4% 10.5% 2.1% 0.9%
Asian alone 5.8% 5.6% 4.3% 0.4% 0.2%
Other race alone 0.5% 0.3%
Two or more races 5.2% 3.4%

The Minneapolis area was originally occupied by Dakota tribes, particularly the Mdewakanton, until European Americans moved westward.[257] In the 1840s,[258] new settlers arrived from Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts, while French-Canadians came around the same time. [259][260] Farmers from Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania later followed in a secondary migration. A small fraction of the populace, settlers from New England had an outsized influence on civic life.[261]

Mexican migrant workers began coming to Minnesota as early as 1860, although few stayed year-round.[262] Latinos eventually settled in several neighborhoods in Minneapolis, including Phillips, Whittier, Longfellow and Northeast.[263] Before the turn of the 21st century, Latinos were the state's largest[262] and fastest-growing group of immigrants.[264]

Settlers from Sweden, Norway, and Denmark found common ground with the Republican and Protestant belief systems of the New England migrants who preceded them.[265][266] Irish, Scots, and English immigrants arrived after the Civil War;[267] Germans[268] and Jews from Central and Eastern Europe, as well as Russia, followed.[269] Minneapolis welcomed Italians and Greeks in the 1890s and 1900s,[270][271] and Slovak and Czech immigrants settled in the Bohemian Flats area on the west bank of the Mississippi River. Ukrainians arrived after 1900,[272] and Central European migrants made their homes in the Northeast neighborhood.[273]

Chinese began immigration in the 1870s and Chinese businesses centered on the Gateway District and Glenwood Avenue.[274] Westminster Presbyterian Church gave language classes and support for Chinese Americans in Minneapolis, many of whom had fled discrimination in western states.[275] Japanese Americans, many relocated from San Francisco, worked at Camp Savage, a secret military Japanese-language school that trained interpreters and translators.[276] Following World War II, some Japanese and Japanese Americans remained in Minneapolis, and by 1970, they numbered nearly 2,000, forming part of the state's largest Asian American community.[277] In the 1950s, the US government relocated Native Americans to cities like Minneapolis, attempting to do away with Indian reservations.[278] Around 1970, Koreans arrived,[279] and the first Filipinos came to attend the University of Minnesota.[280] Vietnamese, Hmong (some from Thailand), Lao, and Cambodians settled mainly in Saint Paul around 1975, but some built organizations in Minneapolis.[281][282] In 1992, 160 Tibetan immigrants came to Minnesota, and many settled in the city's Whittier neighborhood.[283] Burmese immigrants arrived in the early 2000s, with some moving to Greater Minnesota.[284] The population of people from India in Minneapolis increased by 1,000 between 2000 and 2010, making it the largest concentration of Indians living in the state.[285]

The population of Minneapolis grew until 1950 when the census peaked at 521,718—the only time it has exceeded a half million. The population then declined for decades; after World War II, people moved to the suburbs, and generally out of the Midwest.[286]

In 1910, there were approximately 2,500 Black residents,[287] and by 1930, Minneapolis had one of the nation's highest literacy rates[288] among Black residents.[289][290] However, discrimination prevented them from obtaining higher-paying jobs.[291] In 1935, Cecil Newman and the Minneapolis Spokesman led a year-long consumer boycott of four area breweries that refused to hire Blacks.[292] Employment improved during World War II, but housing discrimination persisted.[293] Between 1950 and 1970, the Black population in Minneapolis increased by 436 percent.[292] After the Rust Belt economy declined in the 1980s, Black migrants were attracted to Minneapolis for its job opportunities, good schools, and relatively safe neighborhoods.[294] In the 1990s, immigrants from the Horn of Africa, particularly Somalia, began to arrive.[295] Immigration from Somalia slowed following a 2017 executive order.[296] As of 2019, over 20,000 Somalis reside in Minneapolis.[297]

The Williams Institute reported that the Twin Cities had an estimated 4.2% LGBT adult population in 2020.[298] In 2022, the Human Rights Campaign gave Minneapolis its highest score possible on the Municipal Equality Index of support for the LGBTQ+ population.[299]

Census and estimates

By population in 2023, Minneapolis is the state's largest city[300] and in 2015, it became the country's 46th largest city.[301] According to the 2020 US census, the population of Minneapolis was 429,954.[302] Hispanic and Latinos comprised 44,513 (10.4 percent).[303] For those who were not Hispanic or Latino, 249,581 people (58.0 percent) were White alone (62.7 percent White alone or in combination), 81,088 (18.9 percent) were Black or African American alone (21.3 percent Black alone or in combination), 24,929 (5.8 percent) were Asian alone, 7,433 (1.2 percent) were American Indian and Alaska Native alone, 25,387 (0.6 percent) some other race alone, and 34,463 (5.2 percent) were multiracial.[302]

The most common ancestries in Minneapolis according to the 2021 American Community Survey (ACS) were German (22.9 percent), Irish (10.8 percent), Norwegian (8.9 percent), Subsaharan African (6.7 percent), and Swedish (6.1 percent).[304] Among those five years and older, 81.2 percent spoke only English at home, while 7.1 percent spoke Spanish and 11.7 percent spoke other languages, including large numbers of Somali and Hmong speakers.[304] About 13.7 percent of the population was born abroad, with 53.2 percent of them being naturalized US citizens. Most immigrants arrived from Africa (40.6 percent), Asia (24.6 percent), and Latin America (25.2 percent), with 34.6 percent of all foreign-born residents having arrived in 2010 or earlier.[304]

The 2021 ACS reported that the median household income in Minneapolis was $69,397. It was $97,670 for families, $123,693 for married couples, and $54,083 for non-family households.[305][306] The median gross rent in Minneapolis was $1,225, and 92.7 percent of housing units in Minneapolis were occupied. Housing units in the city built in 1939 or earlier comprised 43.7 percent.[307] About 15.0 percent of residents lived in poverty.[308] The percentage of residents who had obtained a bachelor's degree or higher was 53.6 percent, and 92.1 percent had at least a high school diploma.[309] US veterans made up 3.2 percent of the population.[304]

In Minneapolis, African Americans comprised approximately 20% of the population as of 2020.[302] Blacks owned homes at a rate one-third that of White families.[310] In the metro area, Black home ownership declined between 2000 and 2018; in the Twin Cities for that period, 93 percent of new Black households rented their homes.[311] In 2018, the median income for a Black family was $36,000, which was $47,000 less than a White family's median income. This income gap was one of the largest in the country, with Black Minneapolitans earning about 44% of what White Minneapolitans earned annually.[310]

Religion

Christ Church with its tower and cross
Christ Church Lutheran is one of the city's four National Historic Landmarks.[312]

The indigenous Dakota people believed in the Great Spirit, and were surprised that not all European settlers were religious.[313]

Twin Cities residents are 70 percent Christian according to the most recent Pew Research Center religious survey in 2014.[314] Settlers who arrived in Minneapolis from New England were for the most part Protestants, Quakers, and Universalists.[313] The oldest continuously used church, Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Church, was built in 1856 by Universalists and soon afterward was acquired by a French Catholic congregation.[315] St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral was founded in 1887;[316] it opened a missionary school and in 1905 created a Russian Orthodox seminary.[317] Edwin Hawley Hewitt designed St. Mark's Episcopal Cathedral and Hennepin Avenue United Methodist Church, both of which are located south of downtown.[318] The Basilica of Saint Mary, the first basilica in the US and co-cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis, was named by Pope Pius XI in 1926.[313] The Billy Graham Evangelistic Association was headquartered in Minneapolis from the 1950s until 2001.[319] Christ Church Lutheran in the Longfellow neighborhood was the final work in the career of Eliel Saarinen, and has an education building designed by his son Eero.[320]

Aligning with a national trend, the metro area's next largest group after Christians is the 23 percent non-religious population.[314] At the same time, more than 50 denominations and religions are present in Minneapolis, representing most of the world's religions.[313] Temple Israel was built in 1928 by the city's first Jewish congregation, Shaarai Tov, which was formed in 1878.[269] By 1959, a Temple of Islam was located in north Minneapolis.[321] In 1971, a reported 150 persons attended classes at a Hindu temple near the university.[321] In 1972, a relief agency resettled the first Shi'a Muslim family from Uganda in the Twin Cities.[322] Somalis who live in Minneapolis are primarily Sunni Muslim.[323] In 2022, Minneapolis amended its noise ordinance to allow broadcasting the Muslim call to prayer five times per day.[324] The city has about seven Buddhist centers and meditation centers.[325]

Economy

Largest downtown
Minneapolis employers[326]
2023
Rank Company/Organization
1 Hennepin Healthcare
2 Target Corporation
3 Hennepin County
4 Wells Fargo
5 Ameriprise Financial
6 U.S. Bancorp
7 Xcel Energy
8 City of Minneapolis
9 SPS Commerce
10 RBC Wealth Management
Top 2023 publicly traded Minneapolis companies[327]
Minneapolis
rank
Corporation US rank Revenue
(in millions)
1 Target Corporation 33 $109,120
2 U.S. Bancorp 149 $27,401
3 Xcel Energy 271 $15,310
4 Ameriprise Financial 289 $14,347
5 Thrivent 412 $9,347

Early in the city's history, millers were required to pay for wheat with cash during the growing season, and then to store the wheat until it was needed for flour.[328] The Minneapolis Grain Exchange was founded in 1881; located near the riverfront, it is the only exchange as of 2023 for hard red spring wheat futures.[329]

Along with cash requirements for the milling industry, the large amounts of capital that lumbering had accumulated stimulated the local banking industry and made Minneapolis a major financial center.[330] The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis serves Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, and parts of Wisconsin and Michigan; it has the smallest population of the twelve districts in the Federal Reserve System, and has one branch in Helena, Montana.[331]

Minneapolis area employment is primarily in trade, transportation, utilities, education, health services, and professional and business services. Smaller numbers of residents are employed in manufacturing, leisure and hospitality, mining, logging, and construction.[332]

In 2022, the Twin Cities metropolitan area tied with Boston as having the eighth-highest concentration of major corporate headquarters in the US.[333] Five Fortune 500 corporations were headquartered within the city limits of Minneapolis:[327] Target Corporation, U.S. Bancorp, Ameriprise Financial, Xcel Energy, and Thrivent.[327] Other companies with offices or headquarters in Minneapolis include Accenture,[334] Bellisio Foods,[335] Canadian Pacific,[336] Coloplast,[337] RBC[338] and Voya Financial.[339]

Arts and culture

Visual arts

center of imposing facade of a block-long, white classical building
The Minneapolis Institute of Art admission is free except for special exhibitions.[340]

During the Gilded Age, the Walker Art Center began as a private art collection in the home of lumberman T. B. Walker who extended free admission to the public.[341] Around 1940, the center's focus shifted to modern and contemporary art.[342]

The Minneapolis Institute of Art (Mia) is located in south-central Minneapolis on the 10-acre (4 ha) former homestead of the Morrison family.[343] The collection of more than 90,000 artworks spans six continents and about 5,000 years.[344] Perhaps reflecting the ambitions of the founders, competition winner McKim, Mead & White designed a complex seven times the size of what opened in 1915.[345]

Frank Gehry designed Weisman Art Museum, which opened in 1993, for the University of Minnesota.[346] A 2011 addition by Gehry doubled the size of the galleries.[347] The Museum of Russian Art opened in a restored church in 2005, and hosts a collection of 20th-century Russian art and special events.[348] Northeast Minneapolis Arts District hosts 400 independent artists, a center at the Northrup-King Building, and recurring annual events.[349]

Theater and performing arts

Midnight blue modern building seen from green area
The Guthrie Theater originated as an alternative to Broadway.[350]

Minneapolis has hosted theatrical performances since the end of the American Civil War.[351] Early theaters included Pence Opera House, the Academy of Music, Grand Opera House, Lyceum, and later the Metropolitan Opera House, which opened in 1894.[352] Fifteen of the fifty-five Twin Cities theater companies counted in 2015 by Peg Guilfoyle had a physical site in Minneapolis. About half the remainder performed in variable spaces throughout the metropolitan area.[353]

In his social history of American regional theater, Joseph Zeigler calls the Guthrie Theater the "granddaddy" of regional theater.[354] Tyrone Guthrie founded the Guthrie in 1963 with an inventive thrust stage—a collaboration by Guthrie, designer Tanya Moiseiwitsch, and architect Ralph Rapson[355]—jutting into the seats and surrounded by the audience on three sides.[356] French architect Jean Nouvel designed a new Guthrie that opened in 2006 overlooking the Mississippi River.[356] The design team reproduced the thrust stage with some alterations, and they added a proscenium stage and an experimental stage.[356]

Minneapolis purchased and renovated the Orpheum, State, and Pantages Theatres, vaudeville and film houses on Hennepin Avenue that are now used for concerts and plays.[357] Another renovated theater, the Shubert, joined with the Hennepin Center for the Arts to become the Cowles Center for Dance and the Performing Arts, which represents more than 20 performing arts groups.[358]

Music

Hip height portrait of Prince playing guitar at night wearing white suit with metallic silver ornament
Prince studied at the Minnesota Dance Theatre[359] through the Minneapolis Public Schools.[360]

Minnesota Orchestra plays classical and popular music at Orchestra Hall under Thomas Søndergård, the music director effective with the 2023–2024 season.[361] The orchestra won a 2014 Grammy for their recording of Symphonies Nos. 1 & 4 by Sibelius,[362] and a 2004 Grammy for composer Dominick Argento with their recording of Casa Guidi.[363] Minneapolis's opera companies include Minnesota Opera,[364] the Gilbert & Sullivan Very Light Opera Company,[365] and Really Spicy Opera.[366]

Singer and multi-instrumentalist Prince was a child prodigy,[367] born in Minneapolis and an area resident for most of his life.[368] Minneapolis became what Pitchfork called the "center of music in the '80s" thanks to the nightclub First Avenue and musicians like Prince, Hüsker Dü, and The Replacements.[369] The city hosts several other concert venues including the Cedar and the Dakota,[370] and Live Nation books the Armory and the Uptown Theater.[371] Hip hop acts such as Atmosphere featured the city and Minnesota in their lyrics.[372][373]

Charity

Philanthropy and charitable giving have been part of the Minneapolis community since the 1800s.[374] According to AmeriCorps, in 2017, Minneapolis–Saint Paul, with 46.3 percent of the population volunteering, had the highest proportion of volunteers among US cities.[375] Catholic Charities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul is one of the largest non-profit organizations in the state, and a provider of several social services.[376]

A decades-old NGO with a $75 million annual budget located in Minneapolis,[377] Alight helps millions of refugees in Africa and Asia with water, shelter, and economic support.[378]

Historical museums

Black Lives Matter mural (2020) organized by the Minnesota African American Heritage Museum and Gallery[379]

Exhibits at Mill City Museum feature the city's history of flour milling.[380] The Bakken, formerly known as the Bakken Library and Museum of Electricity in Life,[381] shifted focus in 2016 from electricity and magnetism to invention and innovation, and in 2020 opened a new entrance on Bde Maka Ska.[382] Hennepin History Museum is housed in a former mansion.[383] Minnehaha Depot was built in 1875.[384]

The American Swedish Institute occupies a former mansion on Park Avenue.[385] The American Indian Cultural Corridor, about eight blocks on Franklin Avenue, houses All My Relatives Gallery.[386] The Minnesota African American Heritage Museum and Gallery was founded in 2018.[387] In 2013, the Somali Museum of Minnesota opened on Lake Street.[388]

Literary arts

The nonprofit literary presses Coffee House Press, Milkweed Editions, and Graywolf Press are based in Minneapolis.[389] The University of Minnesota Press publishes books, journals, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.[390] The Open Book facility houses Milkweed, the Minnesota Center for Book Arts, and The Loft Literary Center.[391] Other Minneapolis publishers are 1517 Media,[392] Button Poetry,[393] and Lerner Publishing Group.[394]

Cuisine

After the flight to the suburbs began in the 1950s, streetcar service ended citywide.[395] One of the largest urban food deserts in the US developed on the north side of Minneapolis, where as of mid-2017, 70,000 people had access to only two grocery stores.[396] When Aldi closed in 2023, the area again became a food desert with two full-service grocers.[397] The nonprofit Appetite for Change sought to improve the diet of residents, competing against an influx of fast-food stores,[398] and by 2017 it administered ten gardens, sold produce in the mid-year months at West Broadway Farmers Market, supplied its restaurants, and gave away boxes of fresh produce.[399]

Minneapolis-based individuals who have won the food industry James Beard Foundation Award include chef Gavin Kaysen,[400] writer Dara Moskowitz Grumdahl,[401] television personality Andrew Zimmern,[402] and chef Sean Sherman,[403] whose restaurant Owamni received James Beard's 2022 best new restaurant award.[404]

Conceived in Minneapolis as a malted milkshake in candy form, the Milky Way bar of nougat, caramel, and chocolate was made in the North Loop neighborhood during the 1920s.[405] Both purported originators of the Jucy Lucy burger—the 5-8 Club and Matt's Bar—have served it since the 1950s.[406] East African cuisine arrived in Minneapolis with the wave of migrants from Somalia that started in the 1990s.[407] The Herbivorous Butcher opened in 2016; the shop offers natural alternatives to meat that were described by CBS News as "meat-free meat" from the "first vegan 'butcher' shop in the United States".[408]

Annual events

Each January and February, a series of events called The Great Northern is held in Minneapolis.[409] The series includes the annual U.S. Pond Hockey Championships on Lake Nokomis;[410] and the City of Lakes Loppet, a 13-mile (21-kilometer) or 26-mile (42-kilometer) cross-country ski race that is part of the American ski marathon series.[411]

The annual MayDay Parade is held in south Minneapolis in May.[412] Other events include Art-A-Whirl[413] in May; Twin Cities Pride,[414] the Stone Arch Bridge Festival,[415] and Twin Cities Juneteenth[416] in June; Minnehaha Falls Art Fair and Loring Park Art Festival in July;[417] the Minneapolis Aquatennial,[418] the Minnesota Fringe Festival,[419] the Uptown Art Fair, Powderhorn Art Fair, and Downtown Mpls Street Art Festival in August;[417] the Minneapolis Monarch Festival in September that celebrates the monarch butterfly's 2,300-mile (3,700 km) migration;[420] and in October, the Twin Cities Marathon which is a Boston Marathon qualifier.[421]

Libraries

In 2008, the Minneapolis Public Library merged with the Hennepin County Library. Fifteen of the system's 41 branches serve Minneapolis.[422] The downtown Central Library, designed by César Pelli, opened in 2006.[423] Seven special collections hold resources for researchers.[424]

Sports

Minneapolis has four professional sports teams. The American football team Minnesota Vikings and the baseball team Minnesota Twins have played in the state since 1961. The Vikings were a National Football League expansion team and the Twins were formed when the Washington Senators relocated to Minnesota.[425] The Twins won the World Series in 1987 and 1991, and have played at Target Field since 2010.[426] The Vikings played in the Super Bowl following the 1969, 1973, 1974, and 1976 seasons, losing all four games.[427] The basketball team Minnesota Timberwolves returned National Basketball Association (NBA) basketball to Minneapolis in 1989, and were followed by Minnesota Lynx in 1999. Both basketball teams play in the Target Center.[428] In the 2010s, the Lynx were the most-successful Minnesota professional sports team and a dominant force in the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA), winning four WNBA championships from 2011 to 2017.[429]

Minnesota Wild, a National Hockey League team, play at the Xcel Energy Center;[430] and the Major League Soccer soccer team Minnesota United FC play at Allianz Field, both of which are located in Saint Paul.[431]

In addition to professional sports teams, Minneapolis hosts a majority of the Minnesota Golden Gophers' college sports teams of the University of Minnesota. The Gophers football team plays at Huntington Bank Stadium and have won seven national championships.[432] The Gophers women's ice hockey team is a six-time NCAA champion.[433] The Gophers men's ice hockey team plays at 3M Arena at Mariucci, and won five NCAA championships.[434] Both the Golden Gophers men's basketball and women's basketball teams play at Williams Arena.[435]

The 1,750,000-square-foot (163,000 m2) U.S. Bank Stadium was built for the Vikings at a cost of $1.122 billion, $348 million of which was provided by the state of Minnesota and $150 million by the city of Minneapolis. The stadium, which was called "Minnesota's biggest-ever public works project", opened in 2016 with 66,000 seats, which was expanded to 70,000 for the 2018 Super Bowl.[436] U.S. Bank Stadium also hosts indoor running and rollerblading nights.[437]

Six golf courses are located within the Minneapolis city limits.[438] While living in Minneapolis, Scott and Brennan Olson founded and later sold Rollerblade, the company that popularized the sport of inline skating.[439]

Parks and recreation

Seven young people in canoe, shoreline is green, women paddling, all wearing life vests, bridge span and university visible behind them
Canoeing on the Mississippi

Landscape architect Horace Cleveland's "crowning achievement" is the Minneapolis park system.[440] In the 1880s, he preserved geographical landmarks and linked them with boulevards and parkways.[441] In their introduction to a modern reprint of Cleveland's treatise on landscape architecture, Nadenicek and Neckar add that "Cleveland was successful in Minneapolis in great measure because he operated with kindred spirits" like William Watts Folwell and Charles M. Loring.[442] In his book The American City: What Works, What Doesn't, Alexander Garvin wrote Minneapolis built "the best-located, best-financed, best-designed, and best-maintained public open space in America".[443]

The city's parks are governed and operated by the independent Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board park district.[444] Beyond its network of 185 neighborhood parks,[445] the park board owns the city's canopy of trees,[446] and nearly all land that borders the city's waterfronts.[447] The park board owns property outside the city limits including the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden and Bird Sanctuary which is part of its largest park, Theodore Wirth Park, shared with Golden Valley, Minnesota.[448]

Theodore Wirth, park superintendent from 1906 to 1935, built parkways for the automobile, dredged lakes, sculpted land, and managed details of park expansion.[449] Superintendent in the 1960s and 1970s, Robert W. Ruhe created neighborhood parks and recreation centers in hitherto underserved areas.[450] In 2022, 500 participants[451] ages 14 to 24 served as Teen Teamworks recruits for on-the-job training in green careers[452] or as future park employees.[453]

Minnehaha Falls in the summer

As of 2020, approximately 15 percent of land in Minneapolis is parks, in accordance with the national median, and 98 percent of residents live within one-half mile (0.8 km) of a park.[454] The city's Chain of Lakes, consisting of seven lakes and Minnehaha Creek, is connected by bicycle paths, and running and walking paths, and is used for swimming, fishing, picnics, boating, and ice skating. A parkway for cars, a bikeway for riders, and a walkway for pedestrians[455] run parallel along the 51-mile (82 km) route of the Grand Rounds National Scenic Byway.[456] Parks are interlinked in many places, and the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area connects regional parks and visitor centers.[457] Among walks and hikes running along the Mississippi River, the five-mile (8 km), hiking-only Winchell Trail offers views of and access to the Mississippi Gorge and a rustic hiking experience.[458]

Cleveland lobbied for a park on the riverfront to include the city's other waterfall.[459] In 1889, George A. Brackett arranged financing, and his associate Henry Brown paid the state to cover the condemnation of surrounding land.[460] The 53-foot (16 m) waterfall Minnehaha Falls is one of Minnesota's first state parks.[461] The falls became what historian Mary Lethert Wingerd calls a "civic emblem", appearing on products and in placenames.[462]

Minneapolis's climate provides opportunities for winter activities such as ice fishing, snowshoeing, ice skating, cross-country skiing, and sledding at many parks and lakes between December and March.[463] Scaling back on skate rental and warming houses since the COVID-19 pandemic, as of 2021, the park board maintained 20 outdoor ice rinks in winter.[464]

Government

Built between 1889 and 1906, Minneapolis City Hall (seen from The People's Plaza) is on the National Register of Historic Places.[465]

The Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (DFL), which is affiliated with the Democratic Party, holds the majority in Minneapolis. The city has not elected a Republican mayor since 1975.[466] At the federal level, Minneapolis is situated in Minnesota's 5th congressional district, which has been represented by Democrat Ilhan Omar since 2018. Both of Minnesota's US Senators, Amy Klobuchar and Tina Smith, were elected or appointed while residing in Minneapolis and are Democrats as well.[467][468] Jacob Frey, a former DFL city council member, was elected as the mayor of Minneapolis in 2017 and re-elected in 2021.[469] In 2006, the city adopted instant-runoff voting and first used it during the 2009 elections.[470]

The Minneapolis City Council has 13 members who represent the city's 13 wards.[471] In 2021, a ballot question shifted more weight from the city council to the mayor, a change that proponents had tried to achieve since the early 20th century.[472] The mayor and city council now share responsibility for the city's finances.[473] The city's primary source of funding is property tax,[474] and there is a sales tax of 9.03 percent[475] on purchases made within the city, which is a combination of state, county, special district taxes, a city sales tax of 0.50 percent, and a local use tax for out-of-state purchases.[476][477] The Park and Recreation Board is an independent city department with nine elected commissioners who levy their own taxes, subject to city charter limits.[444] The Board of Estimation and Taxation, which oversees city levies, is also an independent department.[478]

The restructured mayor's role created a new Minneapolis Office of Community Safety, with its commissioner overseeing the police and fire departments, 911 dispatch, emergency management, and violence prevention.[479] In 2023, the city renewed[480] a pilot cooperation with the police department and a mental health services company, Canopy Mental Health & Consulting, to respond to some 911 calls that do not require police.[481]

A half-dozen officers wearing light blue shirts, black gas masks and black bullet-proof vests, carrying long tear gas launchers, standing in front of a corner brick and glass building with boarded up windows, identified with the seal of Minneapolis and "Minneapolis Police" in large white letters
Police guard the third precinct the day before it was burned down during the George Floyd protests.

After the murder of George Floyd in May 2020, about 166 police officers left of their own accord either to retirement or to temporary leave—many with PTSD[482]—and a crime wave resulted in more than 500 shootings.[483] A Reuters investigation found that killings surged when a "hands-off" attitude resulted in fewer officer-initiated encounters.[484] Violent crime rose three percent across Minneapolis in July 2022 compared with 2021,[485] and in 2020, it rose 21 percent compared to the previous five years.[486] Violent crime was down for 2022 in every category except assaults. Carjackings, gunshots fired, gunshot wounds, and robberies decreased, and homicides were down 20 percent compared to the previous year.[487]

In 2023, the US Justice Department (DOJ) proposed 28 immediate "remedial" steps as it completed its investigation of the city's policing practices.[488] Among DOJ findings, Minneapolis police officers routinely used excessive force, discriminated against people, and, with the city, violated people's rights.[489] In 2022, the Minnesota Department of Human Rights completed its two-year investigation of the police department[490] that found a "pattern or practice of race discrimination in violation of the Minnesota Human Rights Act".[491] The state stipulated that the federal decree would take precedence in the case of conflicts, and city leaders sought one monitor to oversee both, to assure a single measure of compliance.[488] The 2023 city budget planned for one negotiated consent decree, and the statutory minimum of 731 officers in the police department, which had been short of that minimum.[492]

In 2015, the city council passed a resolution making fossil fuel divestment city policy,[493] joining 17 cities worldwide in the Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance. Minneapolis's climate plan calls for an 80 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.[494] In 2021, the city council voted unanimously to abolish its required minimum number of parking spaces for new construction.[495] Minneapolis has a separation ordinance that directs local law-enforcement officers not to "take any law enforcement action" for the sole purpose of finding undocumented immigrants, nor to ask an individual about his or her immigration status.[496]

Education

Primary and secondary

Volunteer missionaries,[497] the Pond brothers received permission from the US Indian agency[498] at Fort Snelling in 1834 to teach new farming techniques and a new religion to Chief Cloud Man and his community on the east shore of Bde Maka Ska.[313] That year, J. D. Stevens and the Ponds built an Indian mission near Lake Harriet, which was the first educational institution in Minneapolis.[313] When more settlers moved to the area, by 1874, ten school buildings served nearly 4,000 students. The city of Minneapolis joined with St. Anthony and by 1922, together they enrolled 70,000 students.[499]

Teacher faces a full classroom, children raising arms to speak, teacher is holding a sign that says "Aislador" (insulator)
Dual language science outreach at Emerson, one of nine[500] magnet elementary schools

Minneapolis Public Schools served 28,689 K–12 students as of October 2022,[501] in more than fifty schools, divided between community and magnet.[502] As of 2023, enrollment was declining about 1.5 percent per year, and approximately 60 percent of school age children attended district schools.[501] Many students enrolled in alternatives such as charter schools, of which the city has thirty as of 2023.[503] By state law, charter schools are open to all students and are tuition free.[504] In 2022, about 1200 at-risk students attended district Contract Alternative Schools.[505]

The public school district adopted a comprehensive district design beginning with the 2020–2021 school year to address academics, equity, financial sustainability, and to end disadvantages for students of color and students from low-income neighborhoods. The design changed student placement, changed the boundaries for almost all schools, moved magnet schools to central locations and narrowed the magnet types, standardized many start times to improve bus service, and gave every student a community elementary and middle school in their neighborhood. Students may attend a community school by request and be accepted to the school in their neighborhood. Students entered a lottery to be enrolled in a magnet school.[502] Eight high schools had school-based clinics with a doctor, nurses, a mental health counselor, and a registered dietitian.[506] School district demographics differed from the city's. White students made up 41 percent, Black students 35 percent, Hispanic 14 percent, and 5 percent each were Asian and Native American.[507] English-language learners were about 17 percent,[507] in a district that spoke 100 languages at home.[508] About 15 percent were special education students.[507] As of fall 2023, every Minneapolis public school student receives one free breakfast and one free lunch each school day.[509] In 2022, the district's graduation rate was 77 percent, an improvement of three percent over the previous year.[510]

Colleges and universities

striking geometric metallic building in front of more traditional ones
University of Minnesota teaching art museum, teaching hospital, and student union (left to right)

The University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus is headquartered in Minneapolis.[511] With more than 50,000 students in 2023, it is the sixth largest campus in the US by enrollment.[512] College rankings for 2023 place the school in the range of 44th[513] (2022) to 185th for academics worldwide.[512][511] QS found a decline in rank over a decade.[511] Shanghai found excellence in ecology, business management, library & information science, and biotechnology.[513] Among the 2,000 schools U.S. News & World Report compared in its 2022–2023 best global universities rankings, the University of Minnesota was 57th.[514] The state's land-grant university,[515] the school has unusual autonomy that has existed in Minnesota since 1858, when the state constitution included the provision: regents are in control, independent of city government.[516]

Augsburg University, Minneapolis College of Art and Design, and North Central University are private four-year colleges; the first two offer master's programs.[517] The public two-year Minneapolis Community and Technical College[518] and the private Dunwoody College of Technology[519] provide career training and associate degrees and the latter offers a bachelor's program. Saint Mary's University of Minnesota has a Twin Cities campus for its graduate and professional programs.[520] Opening a new Minneapolis site in 2023, Red Lake Nation College is a federally recognized tribal college site that teaches Ojibwe culture.[521] The large, principally online universities Capella University[522] and Walden University[523] are both headquartered in the city. The public four-year Metropolitan State University[524] and the private four-year University of St. Thomas[525] are post-secondary institutions based elsewhere that have campuses in Minneapolis.

The city has more than twenty-five licensed career schools. These institutions offer short term training, some diplomas, and certificates in a wide variety of fields including business, yoga, pilates, portfolio development, CompTIA certification, floral design, cosmetology, construction, healthcare, information technology, and for those who wish to become a personal trainer, ophthalmic technician, or phlebotomy technician.[526]

Media

As of 2022, Minnesota Newspaper Association members who publish in Minneapolis include The Circle, Insight News, Finance & Commerce, Longfellow Nokomis Messenger, Minneapolis/St. Paul Business Journal, Minnesota Daily, Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder, Minnesota Women's Press, MinnPost, The Monitor, North News, Northeaster, Southwest Connector, Star Tribune, and St. Paul – Midway Como Frogtown Monitor.[527] La Prensa de Minnesota, Vida y Sabor, Metro Lutheran, and The American Jewish World are published in the city.[528] Other papers are Southwest Voices,[529] Streets.mn,[530] and Racket.[531]

Historically what Media Tales called a "plentiful" source of national trade magazines,[532] Minneapolis companies publish Foodservice News[532] and Franchise Times.[532] Some other magazines published in the city are American Craft,[533] Artful Living,[534] and Mpls. St. Paul;[535] business publications Enterprise Minnesota,[536] and Twin Cities Business;[535] the literary journal Rain Taxi;[537] university student publications Great River Review,[538] Minnesota Journal of International Law,[539] and Minnesota Law Review;[540] and professional magazines Architecture Minnesota,[541] Bench & Bar,[542] and Minnesota Medicine.[543]

In 2023, Nielsen found the Minneapolis–Saint Paul area to be the 15th largest designated market area, down from 14th in 2022.[544] About 75 radio stations may be heard in the Minneapolis market, some of them distantly.[545] The Twin Cities have 1,742,530 TV homes.[546] TV Guide lists 151 TV channels for Minneapolis.[547]

Krista Tippett, awarded a Peabody and the National Humanities Medal, produced the On Being project from her Minneapolis studio.[548]

Infrastructure

Transportation

Yellow and blue light rail train travels downhill across a grade crossing; a pedestrian bridge is behind
A Metro Blue Line train traveling from the Lake Street/Midtown station

The 2020 census found that the average commute to work for the Minneapolis population was 22 minutes.[549] The most common means of transportation to work was driving alone (45 percent), the least common was bicycling (1.7 percent), and others were carpooling (6.5 percent), taking public transit (5.6 percent), and walking (4.8 percent).[549]

A division of the Metropolitan Council, Metro operates public transportation in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area.[550] The system has two light rail lines, one commuter rail line, about six bus rapid transit (BRT) lines,[551] and about 90 bus lines with over 8,000 stops.[552] As of 2021, riders of Metro Transit system-wide were 44 percent persons of color.[553] Bus ridership in the Twin Cities was 91.6 million in 2019, a three-percent decline over the previous year and part of a national trend in falling local bus ridership, while commuter rides were down, and ridership on light rail and BRTs remained steady or grew slightly.[554]

The Metro Blue Line light rail line connects the Mall of America and Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport in Bloomington to downtown, and the Green Line travels from downtown through the University of Minnesota campus to downtown Saint Paul. A Blue Line extension to the northwest suburbs re-entered the planning stages for a new route alignment in 2020.[555] A Green Line extension is planned to connect downtown with the southwestern suburbs.[o] BRT lines are 25 percent faster than regular bus lines because riders pay before boarding, stops are limited, and sometimes they employ signal prioritization.[557] The newest BRT line, the D Line, runs along one of Minnesota's most used bus lines, the 18-mile (29 km) route 5, where a quarter of households do not have access to a car.[557] The 40-mile (64 km) Northstar Commuter rail runs from Big Lake, Minnesota, to downtown Minneapolis. Commuter rides decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, and as of 2023, service cut back to four from 12 daily trips.[558]

Hundreds of homeless people nightly sought shelter on Green Line trains until overnight service was cut back in 2019.[559] Short more than a hundred police officers, in 2022, the Metro Council hired community groups to help police light rail stations; these non-profits can guide passengers to mental health services and shelters.[560] In 2023, crime in the Metro Transit system spiked 32% over the previous January, but for the year, ridership was up 15% to about 60% of the pre-pandemic level.[560]

Evie Carshare, owned by Minneapolis and Saint Paul since 2022, is a fleet of 145 electric cars available for one-way trips in a 35-square-mile (91 km2) area of the Twin Cities.[561]

Person on a bike waiting at a stoplight in the snow.
A cyclist in winter

Minneapolis has 16 miles (26 km) of on-street protected bikeways, 98 miles (158 km) of bike lanes and 101 miles (163 km) of off-street bikeways and trails.[562] Off-street facilities include the Grand Rounds National Scenic Byway, Midtown Greenway, Little Earth Trail, Hiawatha LRT Trail, Kenilworth Trail, and Cedar Lake Trail.[563] Replacing Nice Ride in 2023, for part of the year Lime, Spin and Veo had bicycles and scooters for rent with an app.[564]

In 2007, the Interstate 35W bridge over the Mississippi, which was overloaded with 300 short tons (270,000 kg) of repair materials, collapsed, killing 13 people and injuring 145. The bridge was rebuilt in 14 months.[565]

The Minneapolis Skyway System, 9.5 miles (15.3 km) of enclosed pedestrian bridges called skyways, links 80 city blocks downtown with access to second-floor restaurants, retailers, government, sports facilities, doctor's offices and other businesses that are open on weekdays.[566]

Fifteen commercial passenger airlines serve Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport (MSP).[567] MSP is the headquarters of Sun Country Airlines.[568] After it merged with Northwest Airlines in 2009, Delta Air Lines flew 80% of the airport's traffic,[569] and MSP was Delta's second-largest US hub.[570]

Services and utilities

Waist high portrait of young woman wearing electric green shirt and navy blue baseball cap standing on Marquette Av downtown
Downtown Improvement District ambassador

Xcel Energy supplies electricity,[571] and CenterPoint Energy provides gas.[571] The water supply is managed by four watershed districts that correspond with the Mississippi and three streams that are river tributaries.[572]

The city has 19 fire stations.[573] Requests for non-emergency information or service requests can be made through Minneapolis 311. The call center operates in English, Spanish, Hmong, and Somali, and offers 220 language options.[574] Email, TTY, text, voice, and a mobile app can access the center.[575]

The Minneapolis Department of Public Works is responsible for services including snow plowing, solid waste removal, traffic and parking, water treatment, transportation planning and maintenance, and fleet services for the city.[576] Among its engineering functions, the department was increasing the capacity of a 4,200-foot (1,300 m) storm water tunnel system 80 feet (24 m) under Washington to Chicago Avenues, and had completed 97 percent of the excavation phase and 41 percent of the lining phase as of August 2023.[577] Designed for downtown's concrete landscape, the system will drain runoff into the Mississippi in case of a 100-year storm.[578]

Downtown Improvement District ambassadors, who are identified by their blue-and-green-yellow fluorescent jackets, daily patrol a 120-block area of downtown to greet and assist visitors, remove trash, monitor property, and call police when they are needed. The ambassador program is a public-private partnership that is paid for by a special downtown tax district.[579]

Health care

Four story cement colored pillars frame building with black windows, seen from across the street, three cars in front
Hennepin County Medical Center has the state's busiest emergency room.[580]

Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Children's Minnesota, Hennepin Healthcare, M Health Fairview University of Minnesota Masonic Children's Hospital, M Health Fairview University of Minnesota Medical Center, M Health Fairview University of Minnesota Medical Center, Minneapolis VA Medical Center, and Phillips Eye Institute serve the city.[581]

Cardiac surgery was developed at the university's Variety Club Heart Hospital,[582] where by 1957, more than 200 patients—most of whom were children—had survived open-heart operations.[583] Working with surgeon C. Walton Lillehei, Medtronic began to build portable and implantable cardiac pacemakers about this time.[584]

Hennepin Healthcare, a public teaching hospital and Level I trauma center,[585] opened in 1887 as City Hospital, and has been known as Minneapolis General Hospital, Hennepin County General Hospital, and Hennepin County Medical Center or HCMC.[586]

In 2021, opioid overdoses killed 197 people in Minneapolis.[587] For the state in 2021, Black persons were three times and Native American persons were ten times more likely to die from an opioid overdose than White persons.[588] The mayor's proposed 2024 budget adds funds for the Turning Point treatment center, that provides care specifically for African Americans.[589] The Red Lake Band of Chippewa is building a culturally sensitive treatment center for opioid and fentanyl addiction. Minneapolis transferred two city-owned properties to the Red Lake Nation for the facility.[590][591]

The Mashkiki Waakaa'igan Pharmacy—funded by the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa—dispenses free prescription drugs and culturally sensitive care to members of any federally recognized tribes living in Hennepin and Ramsey counties, regardless of insurance status.[592]

Notable people

Sister cities

Minneapolis's sister cities are:[593]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Pronounced /ˌmɪniˈæpəlɪs/ MIN-ee-AP-ə-lis)[12]
  2. ^ Tom Weber gives five nations: Dakota, Ojibway, Ho-Chunk, Cheyenne, Báxoje (Ioway).[19] Randy Furst of the Star Tribune gives seven: Dakota, Ojibway, Ho-Chunk, Cheyenne, Ioway, Cree, Assiniboine.[20] The League of Women Voters counts eleven tribes (rather than nations).[21]
  3. ^ The Dakota have multiple origin stories. One centers on Mille Lacs Lake, another on Bdóte.[27]
  4. ^ The University of Minnesota Dakota Dictionary Online requires a Dakota font to read special characters.[29] Here, Dakota to Latin alphabet transliteration is borrowed from Lerner Publishing in Minneapolis.[30]
  5. ^ Because President Thomas Jefferson had not authorized Pike's trip, which was made at the behest of James Wilkinson, the new governor of the Louisiana territory, Pike did not have the authority to make a treaty.[35] Pike valued the land at $200,000 in his journal but omitted the value in Article 2 of the treaty. Pike gave the chiefs 60 US gallons (230 L) of liquor and $200 in gifts at the signing.[36] In 1808, the US Senate authorized one hundredth of Pike's estimate and added acreage,[36] paying $2,000 for the land in 1819.[37]
  6. ^ In the 1851 Treaty of Traverse des Sioux and Treaty of Mendota, the US took all Dakota land west of the Mississippi,[46] about 24 million acres (97,000 km2),[47] in exchange for a 10-mile (16 km) wide reservation on the Minnesota River[48] and about $3 million ($106 million in 2022). Ater expenses, the Dakota were promised fifty years of annuities in goods[49] and interest on $1,360,000 and $1,410,000; the US kept the principal.[50] The Dakota could not read English, and their interpreters worked for the US.[45] In Mendota, negotiator Wakute said he feared signing a treaty because the prior treaty was changed from the one he had signed.[51] Indeed, the US Congress ratified amendments after the fact, and refused to consider payment unless the Dakota agreed to their new terms—in 1852 Congress struck the reservation from the final treaty.[52] Negotiators Luke Lea and Alexander Ramsey had promised the Dakota they would prosper, and rushed the transaction.[53] The chiefs were asked to sign a third paper in 1851—onlookers assumed it was a third copy of the treaty[54]—that Ramsey later declared was a "solemn acknowledgment" of the Dakota's debt to traders.[55] Ramsey, as territorial governor, enforced the trader's paper, distributing the monies to himself, Henry Sibley, and their friends.[56]
  7. ^ Part of the delay was a month's indecision in the US Treasury about appropriating gold or greenbacks and in Congress, which was preoccupied with Civil War finance. Gold arrived in the region just a few hours after settlers had been killed and war had begun.[67]
  8. ^ In Atwater's history, Baldwin gives the Sioux word as Minne.[82] Riggs gives mini.[83] Williamson who was most familiar with Santee has Mini, and in the Yankton dialect, mni.[84] Here, mni is from the University of Minnesota Dakota Dictionary Online.[85]
  9. ^ "Minneapolis would be the nation's flour capital for 50 years." and "Begun in 1848, timber milling had lasted for almost 50 years."[91]
  10. ^ These mills were the first built for commerce. Earlier, soldiers from Fort Snelling built a sawmill in 1820, and a grist mill in 1823, on the west bank near the falls.[93][94]
  11. ^ The computer industry in Minnesota began in 1946, when work in Washington, DC, and Ohio transferred to Saint Paul, where Engineering Research Associates was founded.[151]
  12. ^ Control Data moved office in 1962, at the request of chief designer Seymour Cray, to Cray's hometown of Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin, to give fewer distractions[154] as he and colleagues built the CDC 6600, generally called the first supercomputer. Corporate offices remained in Minneapolis until 1960 when they moved to the suburbs.[155]
  13. ^ Separately, Myers describes how the Minneapolis police department's adoption of CODEFOR in 1998 increased policing in areas of Minneapolis that were disproportionately nonwhite, with dual results: "Minority residents are afforded improved safety and law enforcement services; minority offenders unsurprisingly may be disproportionately apprehended for relatively minor transgressions in order to achieve the higher levels of safety."[215]
  14. ^ In a 1975 article, reporter John Carman said the city's highest point is 967 feet (295 m) at Deming Heights Park in the Waite Park neighborhood.[229] The US Geological Survey lists the highest elevation as 980 feet (300 m) but does not give a location.[228] Geography professor John Tichy said the highest point is the site of Waite Park Elementary School at approximately 985 feet (300 m) above sea level.[230] All of the cited sources that list locations say the highest point is within the Northeast section of the city.
  15. ^ About a decade late, the Southwest line is expected to open in 2027, and has cost $1.8 billion as of 2022.[556]

References

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  2. ^ "Minneapolis St. Paul". American Automobile Association. Archived from the original on October 18, 2023. Retrieved October 12, 2023.
  3. ^ "Official Seal of the City of Minneapolis". City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on October 18, 2023. Retrieved October 12, 2023.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Minneapolis, Minnesota", Geographic Names Information System, United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, retrieved May 1, 2023
  5. ^ Swanson, Kirsten (November 5, 2021). "Voters approve charter amendment to change Minneapolis government structure". KSTP-TV. Hubbard Broadcasting. Archived from the original on December 2, 2021. Retrieved December 2, 2021.
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  18. ^ Weber 2022, p. 4, "The overarching goal is to take what may be the most significant issue facing contemporary Minneapolis—the crippling disparities among its people, exposed to the world in 2020, after the murder of George Floyd—and present a history that examines why those disparities exist, even as the city makes a legitimate argument for itself as a must-see or must-live kind of place.".
  19. ^ Weber 2022, p. 5.
  20. ^ a b Furst, Randy (October 8, 2021). "Which Indigenous tribes first called Minnesota home?". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on November 3, 2023. Retrieved November 3, 2023.
  21. ^ Graves & Ebbott 2006, p. ix.
  22. ^ Lass 2000, p. 40.
  23. ^ Wingerd 2010, p. 365n.
  24. ^ Treuer 2010, p. 3.
  25. ^ Weber 2022, p. 6.
  26. ^ Westerman & White 2012, pp. 3–4, "William H. Keating, a geologist who came to the Minnesota area on an exploratory expedition in 1823, observed, 'The Dacotas have no tradition of having ever emigrated, from any other place, to the spot on which they now reside...'.
  27. ^ a b Westerman & White 2012, p. 15.
  28. ^ Treuer 2010, pp. 14–15.
  29. ^ "Bdeota O™uåwe". University of Minnesota Dakota Dictionary Online. University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on October 13, 2022. Retrieved October 13, 2022.
  30. ^ Kimmerer & Smith 2022, p. 302.
  31. ^ "Contact Period". Office of the State Archaeologist. Archived from the original on November 21, 2023. Retrieved November 21, 2023.
  32. ^ Westerman & White 2012, p. 174.
  33. ^ Wingerd 2010, pp. 18, xv–xvi.
  34. ^ Wingerd 2010, p. xvi, "...this intercultural fur trade society flourished, shifting only gradually, over generations, from reciprocity to exploitation. ...hard-pressed traders increasingly discarded long-respected customs of generosity with Indian hunters for more exploitive practices. ...In no time, land and timber replaced pelts as the region's most valuable resources".
  35. ^ Weber 2022, p. 14.
  36. ^ a b Westerman & White 2012, p. 141.
  37. ^ Weber 2022, p. 13.
  38. ^ Stipanovich 1982, p. 4.
  39. ^ Wingerd 2010, p. 77.
  40. ^ Watson, Catherine (September 16, 2012). "Ft. Snelling: Citadel on a Minnesota bluff". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on May 7, 2021. Retrieved December 27, 2019.
  41. ^ Wingerd 2010, p. 82.
  42. ^ a b "Historic Fort Snelling: The US Indian Agency (1820–1853)". Minnesota Historical Society. Archived from the original on August 14, 2021. Retrieved December 27, 2019.
  43. ^ Westerman & White 2012, p. 4, "government officials put great pressure on Dakota leaders to be quick about signing a treaty...".
  44. ^ Westerman & White 2012, p. 133.
  45. ^ a b c "Minnesota Treaties". Minnesota Historical Society. August 14, 2012. Archived from the original on August 25, 2019. Retrieved November 16, 2023.
  46. ^ Lass 2000, p. 108.
  47. ^ Westerman & White 2012, p. 182.
  48. ^ Folwell 1921, p. 216.
  49. ^ Westerman & White 2012, p. 171.
  50. ^ Anderson 2019, p. 30.
  51. ^ Westerman & White 2012, pp. 5, 188.
  52. ^ Wingerd 2010, p. 197.
  53. ^ Wingerd 2010, pp. 189–192.
  54. ^ Westerman & White 2012, p. 180–181.
  55. ^ Westerman & White 2012, p. 191.
  56. ^ Anderson 2019, pp. 32–33. Anderson examined the Dousman Papers to formulate estimates of the funds that were diverted to White officials.
  57. ^ Wingerd 2010, pp. 89, 176.
  58. ^ Wingerd 2010, p. 104.
  59. ^ Wingerd 2010, pp. 187, 193.
  60. ^ Anderson 2019, p. x, "...research led to the discovery that the founding fathers of Minnesota were in fact thieves who took hundreds of thousands of dollars from the Dakota people, money that Indian leaders knew was being stolen".
  61. ^ Anderson 2019, p. 73, "The scams often went like this".
  62. ^ Wingerd 2010, p. 203, "Ramsey's great project to open Minnesota had ended in a sorry spectacle of deceit, coercion, and promises broken almost before they were recorded".
  63. ^ "Treaties". Minnesota Historical Society. July 31, 2012. Archived from the original on August 15, 2021. Retrieved June 1, 2021. These treaties, which were almost wholly dishonored by the U.S. government...
  64. ^ Vue, Katelyn (July 7, 2020). "Over 150 years ago, tribal land revived the University. Now, American Indian leaders, students and faculty want this history addressed". Minnesota Daily. Archived from the original on November 25, 2023. Retrieved November 25, 2023.
  65. ^ Bhattacharya, Ananya (July 10, 2023). "Native Americans are struggling to put a dollar value on how much "land-grab" universities owe them". Quartz. Archived from the original on November 25, 2023. Retrieved November 25, 2023.
  66. ^ Blegen 1975, p. 265–267.
  67. ^ Folwell 1921, pp. 237–238.
  68. ^ Anderson 2019, p. 55: "...they had to beg for food from the settlers or starve".
  69. ^ Wingerd 2010, p. 307, The uprising involved at most 1,000 of the Dakota population of more than 7,000.
  70. ^ Wingerd 2010, p. 309.
  71. ^ Wingerd 2010, pp. 309, 314.
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  83. ^ Riggs 1992, p. 314.
  84. ^ Williamson 1992, p. 257.
  85. ^ "mni". University of Minnesota Dakota Dictionary Online. University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on October 13, 2022. Retrieved October 13, 2022.
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Works cited

Books

  • Anderson, Gary Clayton (2019). Massacre in Minnesota: The Dakota War of 1862, the Most Violent Ethnic Conflict in American History. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-6434-2.
  • Anfinson, John O.; Madigan, Thomas; Forsberg, Drew M.; Nunnally, Patrick (2003). "St. Anthony Falls: Timber, Flour and Electricity". River of history: a historic resources study. St. Paul District, U.S. Corps of Engineers. Retrieved April 21, 2023 – via US National Park Service.
  • Atwater, Isaac, ed. (1893). History of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Vol. 1. Munsell & Company. OCLC 22047580 – via Internet Archive.
  • Baldwin, Rufus J. (1893). "Early Settlement". History of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 29–48.
  • Taylor, David Vassar (1981). "The Blacks". They Chose Minnesota: A Survey of the States Ethnic Groups. pp. 73–91.
  • Vecoli, Rudolph J. (1981). "The Italians". They Chose Minnesota: A Survey of the States Ethnic Groups. pp. 449–471.
  • Saloutos, Theodore (1981). "The Greeks". They Chose Minnesota: A Survey of the States Ethnic Groups. pp. 472–488.
  • Mason, Sarah R. (1981). "The Chinese". They Chose Minnesota: A Survey of the States Ethnic Groups. pp. 531–545.
  • Mason, Sarah R. (1981). "The Filipinos". They Chose Minnesota: A Survey of the States Ethnic Groups. pp. 546–557.
  • Albert, Michael (1981). "The Japanese". They Chose Minnesota: A Survey of the States Ethnic Groups. pp. 558–571.
  • Mason, Sarah R. (1981). "The Koreans". They Chose Minnesota: A Survey of the States Ethnic Groups. pp. 572–579.
  • Mason, Sarah R. (1981). "The Indochinese". They Chose Minnesota: A Survey of the States Ethnic Groups. pp. 580–592.

Journal articles

  • Anfinson, Scott F. (1990). "Archaeology of the Central Minneapolis Riverfront Part 2: Archaeological Explorations and Interpretive Potentials". The Minnesota Archaeologist. 49 (1–2): i–143. Archived from the original on August 23, 2009. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
  • Bly, Mark; Schechter, Joel (November 1, 1979). "The Guthrie: An Interview with Alvin Epstein and Michael Feingold". Theater. Duke University Press. 10 (3): 33–39. doi:10.1215/00440167-10-3-33. ISSN 1527-196X.
  • Danbom, David B. (2003). "Flour power: the significance of flour milling at the falls" (PDF). Minnesota History. 58 (5–6): 270–285. JSTOR 20188363. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 1, 2013.
  • Delegard, Kirsten; Ehrman-Solberg, Kevin (Spring 2017). "'Playground of the People'? Mapping Racial Covenants in Twentieth-Century Minneapolis". Open Rivers: Rethinking the Mississippi. University of Minnesota (6): 72–79. doi:10.24926/2471190X.2820.
  • Hatle, Elizabeth Dorsey; Vaillancourt, Nancy M. (Winter 2009–2010). "One Flag, One School, One Language: Minnesota's Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s" (PDF). Minnesota History. 61 (8): 360–371. JSTOR 40543955. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2021. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
  • Hispanic Advocacy and Community Empowerment through Research (HACER) (June 1998). "Realidades Latinas: Una Comunidad Vibrante Emerge en el Sur de Minneapolis". HACER. hdl:11299/3628. Retrieved March 27, 2023 – via University of Minnesota Digital Conservancy.
  • Ladd-Taylor, Molly (Summer 2005). "Coping with a 'Public Menace': Eugenic Sterilization in Minnesota" (PDF). Minnesota History. 59 (6): 237–248. JSTOR 20188483. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 10, 2021. Retrieved March 5, 2023.
  • Mitchell, Tania D. (Spring 2022). "In the Wake of Multiple Pandemics". Liberal Education. Vol. 108, no. 2. American Association of Colleges and Universities. pp. 42–47. Retrieved March 12, 2023.
  • Myers, Samuel L. (2002). "Analysis of Racial Profiling as Policy Analysis". Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. 21 (2): 287–300. doi:10.1002/pam.10030. JSTOR 3325638. S2CID 154452510.
  • Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (October 2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 11 (5): 1633–1644. Bibcode:2007HESS...11.1633P. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007.
  • Reichard, Gary W. (Summer 1998). "Mayor Hubert H. Humphrey" (PDF). Minnesota History. 56 (2): 50–67. JSTOR 20188091. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved March 10, 2023.
  • Vogel, Howard J. (2013). "Rethinking the Effect of the Abrogation of the Dakota Treaties and the Authority for the Removal of the Dakota People from their Homeland". William Mitchell Law Review. 39 (2).
  • Vollmar, Alice M. (2003). "Medical Mechanic". World & I. 18 (12): 146. ISSN 0887-9346.
  • Walker, Rebecca H.; Ramer, Hannah; Derickson, Kate D.; Keeler, Bonnie L. (2023). "Making the City of Lakes: Whiteness, Nature, and Urban Development in Minneapolis". Annals of the American Association of Geographers. 113 (7): 1615–1629. Bibcode:2023AAAG..113.1615W. doi:10.1080/24694452.2022.2155606. S2CID 256754104.
  • Watts, Alison (Summer 2000). "The technology that launched a city: scientific and technological innovations in flour milling during the 1870s in Minneapolis" (PDF). Minnesota History. 57 (2): 86–97. JSTOR 20188202. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 1, 2013. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
  • Weber, Laura E. (Spring 1991). "'Gentiles Preferred': Minneapolis Jews and Employment 1920–1950" (PDF). Minnesota History. 52 (5): 166–182. JSTOR 20179243. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2023.
  • Whitmore, Janet (Autumn 2004). "Presentation Strategies in the American Gilded Age: One Case Study". Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide. 3 (2): 113–130. ISSN 1543-1002. Retrieved April 14, 2023.
  • Wright, H. E. Jr. (1990). "Geologic History of Minnesota Rivers" (PDF). Minnesota Geological Survey Educational Series. 7: iii–20. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 20, 2021. Retrieved November 16, 2020 – via South Washington Watershed District.

Further reading

External links

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