Michelin Guide

Michelin Guide
CategoriesGastronomy, tourism
FounderÉdouard Michelin
André Michelin
First issue1900

The Michelin Guides (French: Guide Michelin [ɡid miʃlɛ̃]) are a series of guide books that have been published by the French tyre company Michelin since 1900. The Guide awards up to three Michelin stars for excellence to a select few establishments. The acquisition or loss of a star or stars can have dramatic effects on the success of a restaurant. Michelin also publishes the Green Guides, a series of general guides to cities, regions, and countries.


The first Michelin Guide, published in 1900
The 1911 Michelin Guide for the British Isles

In 1900, there were fewer than 3,000 cars on the roads of France. To increase the demand for cars and, accordingly, car tyres, car tyre manufacturers and brothers Édouard and André Michelin published a guide for French motorists, the Michelin Guide.[1] Nearly 35,000 copies of this first, free edition of the guide were distributed. It provided information to motorists, such as maps, tyre repair and replacement instructions, car mechanics listings, hotels, and petrol stations throughout France.

In 1904, the brothers published a guide for Belgium similar to the Michelin Guide.[2] Michelin subsequently introduced guides for Algeria and Tunisia (1907); the Alps and the Rhine (northern Italy, Switzerland, Bavaria, and the Netherlands) (1908); Germany, Spain, and Portugal (1910); the British Isles (1911); and "The Countries of the Sun" (Les Pays du Soleil) (Northern Africa, Southern Italy and Corsica) (1911). In 1909, an English-language version of the guide to France was published.[3]

During World War I, publication of the guide was suspended. After the war, revised editions of the guide continued to be given away until 1920. It is said that André Michelin, whilst visiting a tyre merchant, noticed copies of the guide being used to prop up a workbench. Based on the principle that "man only truly respects what he pays for", Michelin decided to charge a price for the guide, which was about 750 francs or $2.15 in 1922.[4] They also made several changes, notably listing restaurants by specific categories, adding hotel listings (initially only for Paris), and removing advertisements in the guide.[2] Recognizing the growing popularity of the restaurant section of the guide, the brothers recruited a team of inspectors to visit and review restaurants, who were always anonymous.[5]

Following the usage of the Murray's and Baedeker guides, the guide began to award stars for fine dining establishments in 1926. Initially, there was only a single star awarded. Then, in 1931, the hierarchy of zero, one, two, and three stars was introduced. Finally, in 1936, the criteria for the starred rankings were published:[2]

  • 1 star : "A very good restaurant in its category" (Une très bonne table dans sa catégorie)
  • 2 stars : "Excellent cooking, worth a detour" (Table excellente, mérite un détour)
  • 3 stars : "Exceptional cuisine, worth a special journey" (Une des meilleures tables, vaut le voyage).[5]

In 1931 the cover of the guide was changed from blue to red and has remained so in all subsequent editions.[5] During World War II, publication was again suspended. In 1944, at the request of the Allied Forces, the 1939 guide to France was specially reprinted for military use; its maps were judged the best and most up-to-date available. Publication of the annual guide resumed on 16 May 1945, a week after VE Day.[2]

In the early post-war years, the lingering effects of wartime shortages led Michelin to impose an upper limit of two stars; by 1950 the French edition listed 38 establishments judged to meet this standard.[6] The first Michelin Guide to Italy was published in 1956. It awarded no stars in the first edition. In 1974, the first guide to Britain since 1931 was published. Twenty-five stars were awarded.[7]

In 2005, Michelin published its first American guide, covering 500 restaurants in the five boroughs of New York City and 50 hotels in Manhattan. In 2007, a Tokyo Michelin Guide was launched. In the same year, the guide introduced a magazine, Étoile. In 2008, a Hong Kong and Macau volume was added.[2] As of 2013, the guide is published in 14 editions covering 23 countries.[2]

In 2008, German restaurateur Juliane Caspar was appointed editor-in-chief of the French edition of the guide. She had previously been responsible for the Michelin guides to Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. She became the first woman and first non-French national to occupy the French position. The German newspaper Die Welt commented on the appointment, "In view of the fact German cuisine is regarded as a lethal weapon in most parts of France, this decision is like Mercedes announcing that its new director of product development is a Martian."[8][9]

In 2022 the guide expanded to Canada, featuring two cities; Toronto and Vancouver.[citation needed]

The guide announced its first list of restaurants in the state of Florida on 9 June 2022, after striking a deal the year prior with tourism boards in the state.[10][11] The guide gave out a single two-star ranking and fourteen one-star rankings, as well as 29 Bib Gourmands.[12][13]

In late 2022 the guide expanded to Vietnam and Malaysia. By 2023 there were plans to release new guides in Atlanta and the US state of Colorado.[citation needed]

Methods and layout

Dishes made by Michelin-starred restaurants

Red Guides have historically listed many more restaurants than rival guides, relying on an extensive system of symbols to describe each one in as little as two lines. Reviews of starred restaurants also include two to three culinary specialties. Short summaries (2–3 lines) were added in 2002/2003 to enhance descriptions of many establishments. These summaries are written in the language of the country for which the guide is published (though the Spain and Portugal volume is in Spanish only) but the symbols are the same throughout all editions.[14]


Michelin inspectors (reviewers) visit restaurants anonymously, and they award one, two, or three stars for those considered at least very good:

  • 1 star : "High-quality cooking, worth a stop" (Cuisine de qualité, mérite une halte)
  • 2 stars : "Excellent cooking, worth a detour" (Table excellente, mérite un détour)
  • 3 stars : "Exceptional cuisine, worth a special journey" (Une des meilleures tables, vaut le voyage).[5]

Inspectors' meals and expenses are paid for by Michelin, never by a restaurant being reviewed:

Michelin has gone to extraordinary lengths to maintain the anonymity of its inspectors. Many of the company's top executives have never met an inspector; inspectors themselves are advised not to disclose their line of work, even to their parents (who might be tempted to boast about it); and, in all the years that it has been putting out the guide, Michelin has refused to allow its inspectors to speak to journalists. The inspectors write reports that are distilled, in annual "stars meetings" at the guide's various national offices, into the ranking of three stars, two stars, or one star—or no stars (establishments that Michelin deems unworthy of a visit are not included in the guide).[15]

The French chef Paul Bocuse, one of the pioneers of nouvelle cuisine in the 1960s, said, "Michelin is the only guide that counts."[16] In France, when the guide is published each year, it sparks a media frenzy which has been compared to that for annual Academy Awards for films.[15] Media and others debate likely winners, speculation is rife, and TV and newspapers discuss which restaurant might lose and which might gain a Michelin star.[17][18][19][20]

The Michelin Guide also awards "Rising Stars", an indication that a restaurant has the potential to qualify for a star, or an additional star.

Green stars

Green Star
Green Star

In 2020, the Michelin Guide launched a sustainability emblem to symbolise excellence in sustainable gastronomy.[21] An establishment awarded this green star is given space on the Guide's website for the chef to describe the restaurant's vision.[21]

Bib Gourmand

Michelin Bib Gourmand

Since 1997,[22] the guide has also highlighted restaurants offering "exceptionally good food at moderate prices", a feature now called "Bib Gourmand". They must offer menu items priced below a maximum determined by local economic standards. Bib (Bibendum) is the company's nickname for the Michelin Man, its corporate logo for over a century.

The Plate

In 2016, a new symbol, the Plate, was added to recognize restaurants that "simply serve good food".[23]


For each country/combination of countries

Country/Region[24] Release date 3 Michelin stars 2 Michelin stars 1 Michelin star Total 1 Michelin star Bib Gourmand Establishments
Canada 2022 Edition 0 1 17 18 29
France 2023 Edition[25] 29 75 526 630 415
(€32, €36 in Paris area)[26]
over 3,222 hotels and guest houses,
4,362 restaurants
Japan 2023 Edition[27] 23 82 442 547 492
1,501 restaurants
Italy 2023 Edition[29] 12 38 335 385 257 (€35) 2,007 restaurants
Germany 2023 Edition[30] 10 50 274 334 274
(€35 or less)
over 4,200 hotels and guest houses,
2,100 restaurants, 4,287 hotels
Spain and Portugal 2023 Edition[31] 13 41 235 289 281
(€35 or less)
1,401 restaurants
United States 2023 Edition[32] 13 33 177 223 374
($49 or less)[33]
1,509 restaurants
Great Britain and Ireland 2023 Edition[34] 8 25 173 206 116
(£28 or €40)
1,143 restaurants
Belgium and Luxembourg 2023 Edition[35] 3 22 124 149 22 (€45 or less) over 700 hotels and guest houses,
1,100 restaurants
Switzerland 2023 Edition[36][1] 4 25 109 138 139
(CHF70 or less)[37]
458 hotels and guest houses,
777 restaurants
China 2023 Edition[38] 4 16 102 122 106
Nordic Countries 2023 Edition[39] 4 14 63 81 34 271 restaurants
Taiwan 2023 Edition[40] 3 6 35 44 139 321 restaurants
Netherlands 2023 Edition[41] 2 20 103 125 91 (€39)[42] 504 restaurants
Malaysia 2023 Edition[43] 0 0 4 4 32[44]
Poland 2023 Edition [45] 0 1 2 3 6 558 restaurants
Estonia 2023 Edition[46] 0 1 1 2 6 34 restaurants

Regions and cities

City[24] Release date 3 Michelin stars 2 Michelin stars 1 Michelin star Bib Gourmand Establishments
Paris 2023 Edition[47] 9 15 106 46 (€35) 488 restaurants[48]
Atlanta 2023 Edition[49] TBD TBD TBD TBD
Bangkok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Chiang Mai, Phuket, Phang-nga 2020 Edition[50] 0 6 26 133
361 restaurants, 22 hotels
Beijing 2021 Edition[51] 2 2 26 17
Chengdu 2022 Edition[52] 0 1 8 13
Chicago 2022 Edition[53] 1 4 18 54 ($40)[54] 400 restaurants[55]
California [Note 1] 2023 Edition[56] 6 12 69 143
Colorado 2023 Edition[57] 0 0 5 9 44 restaurants recognized
Florida 2022 Edition[12] 0 1 14 29 ($49) 118 restaurants
Guangzhou 2021 Edition[58] 0 3 14 33 (¥200 or less)
Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City 2023 Edition[59] 0 0 4 29 103 restaurants
Hong Kong and Macau 2019 Edition[60] 10 17 55 80 (HK$350 or MOP$350) 297 restaurants, 61 hotels[61]
Istanbul 2022 Edition[62] 0 1 4 10 (TL300) 53 restaurants, 30 hotels[63]
Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe, Nara 2012 Edition[64] 15 61 224 40
(coins, ¥5000)[65]
296 restaurants, 48 hotels, 41 ryokans
Kuala Lumpur 2023 Edition[43] 0 0 2 15[44]
Las Vegas (suspended) 21 October 2008[66] 1 3 13 127 restaurants, 30 hotels (2007)
London 2012 Edition[67] 2 7 46 45 (£28) 450 restaurants, 50 hotels
Main Cities of Europe 17 March 2010[68] 15 55 271 231 1,715 restaurants, 1,542 hotels
Moscow (suspended)[69] 2021 Edition[70] 0 2 7 15
New York City 2022 Edition[71] 5 12 55 105 ($49)
Penang 2023 Edition[43] 0 0 2 17[44]
Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo 2018 edition[72] 0 3 15 33 (R$ 90)[73]
Seoul 2023 Edition 1 8 25 57 (₩ 35,000 or less) 188 restaurants
Shanghai 2023 Edition[74] 2 9 39 24 (300 or less)[75] TBC
Singapore 2022 Edition[76] 3 7 41 22
Taipei 2023 Edition[77] 3 6 35 139 (NT$1,500)
Toronto 2022 Edition[78] 0 1 9 17
Tokyo, Yokohama
and Shonan
2012 Edition[79] 17 57 219 95
(coins, ¥5000)[80]
292 restaurants, 54 hotels and 10 ryokans
Vancouver 2023 Edition[81] 0 0 8 12 69 restaurants
Washington, D.C. 2022 Edition[82] 1 3 20 36
182 restaurants

Non-restaurant food

In 2014, Michelin introduced a separate listing for gastropubs in Ireland.[84] In 2016, the Michelin Guide for Hong Kong and Macau introduced an overview of notable street-food establishments.[85][86] In the same year, the Singapore guide introduced the first Michelin stars for street-food locations, for Hong Kong Soya Sauce Chicken Rice and Noodle and Hill Street Tai Hwa Pork Noodle.[87]

Other ratings

Michelin Guide "fork and spoon" red designation at Miodova Restaurant in Kraków, Poland, for 2017 and 2018

All listed restaurants, regardless of their star, Bib Gourmand, or Plate status, also receive a "fork and spoon" designation, as a subjective reflection of the overall comfort and quality of the restaurant.[88] Rankings range from one to five: one fork and spoon represents a "comfortable restaurant" and five signifies a "luxurious restaurant". Forks and spoons colored red designate a restaurant that is considered "pleasant" as well.

Restaurants, independently of their other ratings in the guide, can also receive a number of other symbols next to their listing:

  • Coins indicate restaurants that serve a menu for a certain price or less, depending on the local monetary standard.[88] In 2010 France, 2011 US and Japan Red Guides, the maximum permitted "coin" prices were €19, $25, and ¥5000, respectively.
  • Interesting view or Magnificent view, designated by a black or red symbol, are given to restaurants offering those features.
  • Grapes, a sake set, or a cocktail glass indicate restaurants that offer, at minimum, a "somewhat interesting" selection of wines, sake, or cocktails, respectively.[88]

Green Guides

The Michelin Green Guides review and rate attractions other than restaurants. There is a Green Guide for France as a whole, and a more detailed one for each of ten regions within France. Other Green Guides cover many countries, regions, and cities outside France. Many Green Guides are published in several languages. They include background information and an alphabetical section describing points of interest. Like the Red Guides, they use a three-star system for recommending sites, ranging from "worth a trip" to "worth a detour", and "interesting".[citation needed]


Allegations of lax inspection standards and bias

Pascal Rémy, a veteran France-based Michelin inspector, and also a former Gault Millau employee, wrote a tell-all book, L'Inspecteur se met à table (The Inspector Sits Down at the Table), published in 2004. Rémy's employment was terminated in December 2003 when he informed Michelin of his plans to publish his book.[89] He brought a court case for unfair dismissal, which was unsuccessful.[90]

Rémy described the French Michelin inspector's life as lonely, underpaid drudgery, driving around France for weeks on end, dining alone, under intense pressure to file detailed reports on strict deadlines. He maintained that the guide had become lax in its standards. Though Michelin states that its inspectors visited all 4,000 reviewed restaurants in France every 18 months, and all starred restaurants several times a year, Rémy said only about one visit every 3+12 years was possible because there were only 11 inspectors in France when he was hired, rather than the 50 or more hinted by Michelin. That number, he said, had shrunk to five by the time he was fired in December 2003.[89]

Rémy also accused the guide of favouritism. He alleged that Michelin treated famous and influential chefs, such as Paul Bocuse and Alain Ducasse, as "untouchable" and not subject to the same rigorous standards as lesser-known chefs.[89] Michelin denied Rémy's charges, but refused to say how many inspectors it actually employed in France. In response to Rémy's statement that certain three-star chefs were sacrosanct, Michelin said, "There would be little sense in saying a restaurant was worth three stars if it weren't true, if for no other reason than that the customer would write and tell us."[91]

Allegations of prejudice favouring French cuisine

Some non-French food critics have alleged that the rating system is biased in favour of French cuisine or French dining standards. The UK The Guardian commented in 1997 that "some people maintain the guide's principal purpose is as a tool of Gallic cultural imperialism".[92] When Michelin published its first New York City Red Guide in 2005 Steven Kurutz of The New York Times noted that Danny Meyer's Union Square Cafe, a restaurant rated highly by The New York Times, Zagat Survey, and other prominent guides, received a no-star rating from Michelin (he did, however, acknowledge that the restaurant received positive mention for its ambiance, and that two other restaurants owned by Meyer received stars). Kurutz also said the guide appeared to favour restaurants that "emphasized formality and presentation" rather than a "casual approach to fine dining". He said over half of the restaurants that received one or two stars "could be considered French".[93] The Michelin Guide New York 2007 included 526 restaurants, compared to 2,014 in Zagat New York 2007; after The Four Seasons Restaurant received no stars in that edition, co-owner Julian Niccolini said Michelin "should stay in France, and they should keep their guide there".[94] The 2007 guide does, however, include menus, recipes, and photographs, and descriptions of the atmosphere of starred restaurants.[94]

Allegations of leniency with stars for Japanese cuisine

In 2007 Tokyo's restaurants were awarded with the most stars and in 2010 other Japanese cities like Kyoto and Osaka also received many stars. At the time this sparked questions from some over whether these high ratings were merited for Japanese restaurants, or whether the Michelin guide was too generous in giving out stars to gain an acceptance with Japanese customers and to enable the tyre-selling parent company to market itself in Japan. But the discrepancy is easily explained by the number of restaurants in total: Tokyo has 160,000 restaurants while Paris, for example, has just 40,000.[95][96] The Wall Street Journal reported in 2010 that some Japanese chefs were surprised at receiving a star and were reluctant to accept one because the publicity caused an unmanageable jump in booking, affecting their ability to serve their traditional customers without lowering their quality.[97]

Unwanted stars

Some restaurateurs have asked Michelin to revoke a star, because they felt that it created undesirable customer expectations or pressure to spend more on service and decor.[98] Notable cases include:

  • Casa Julio (Fontanars dels Alforins, Spain): After receiving a star for a perfumed cuisine in 2009, the restaurant chef Julio Biosca felt the award was granted to dishes that he did not like and which restricted his creativity. He tried to remove his star, and in December 2013 he discontinued his tasting menu. The removal took place in the 2015 guide.[99][100]
  • Petersham Nurseries Café (London): After receiving a star in 2011, founder and chef Skye Gyngell received complaints from customers expecting formal dining, leading to her attempt to remove the star, and her subsequent retirement from the restaurant. She has since said she regrets her remarks and would welcome a star.[99][101][102]
  • 't Huis van Lede (Belgium): After receiving a star in 2014, chef Frederick Dhooge said he did not want his Michelin star or his points in the Gault-Millau restaurant guide because some customers were not interested in simple food from a Michelin-starred restaurant.[103]


  • In 2017, the Bouche à Oreille café in Bourges was accidentally given a star when it was confused with a restaurant of the same name in Boutervilliers, near Paris.[104][105]

See also


  1. ^ Beginning in 2019, Los Angeles and San Francisco areas were no longer separate publications and one guide was issued for the entire state of California.


  1. ^ Mayyasi, Alex (23 June 2016). "Why Does a Tire Company Publish the Michelin Guide?". Priceonomics. Archived from the original on 16 October 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "The Michelin Guide: 100 editions and over a century of history". ViaMichelin.co.uk. 2 March 2009. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  3. ^ "Le guide Michelin en quelques dates". Association des Collectionneurs de Guides et Cartes Michelin (in French). 13 May 2010. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2013.
  4. ^ Wertenbaker, Charles (5 June 1954). "The Testing of M. Thuilier". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 29 June 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  5. ^ a b c d "Michelin Guide History, restaurant and dining guides". Provence and Beyond. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2013.
  6. ^ "The Michelin Guide". The Manchester Guardian. No. 32275. 28 March 1950. p. 4. Retrieved 17 March 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  7. ^ Dawson, Helen (24 March 1974). "British Michelin revived". The Observer. No. 9530. London. p. 40 – via Newspapers.com.
  8. ^ Paterson, Tony (17 December 2008). "French find German's role hard to swallow". The Independent. Archived from the original on 14 May 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  9. ^ Paterson, Tony. "French shock at Michelin guide's first foreign chief", The Independent, 18 December 2008
  10. ^ Freund, Helen (1 November 2021). "Tampa, Orlando and Miami restaurants can now earn Michelin stars". Tampa Bay Times.
  11. ^ Frías, Carlos (16 May 2022). "Mark your calendars. We finally know when Florida restaurants will get Michelin stars". Miami Herald – via Bradenton Herald.
  12. ^ a b "MICHELIN Guide 2022 – Florida". michelin.com. Archived from the original on 7 October 2022. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  13. ^ Kara, Faiyaz. "The Michelin Guide handed out its stars tonight. Here are the Florida restaurants that earned them". Orlando Weekly.
  14. ^ Michelin Guide Great Britain & Ireland (2000), Netherlands (2007), Benelux (2003)
  15. ^ a b Colapinta, John. "Lunch with M – Undercover with a Michelin inspector" Archived 19 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine, The New Yorker, 23 November 2009
  16. ^ Ragavan, Surekha (23 October 2012). "Taste test: Menu by three-star Michelin chef Philippe Marc". Time Out Kuala Lumpur. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013.
  17. ^ Reddy, Sumathi (4 October 2011). "Michelin Stars Align for Seven NYC Restaurants". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 9 November 2016.
  18. ^ Fabricant, Florence (4 October 2011). "Off the Menu". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 February 2016.
  19. ^ "Tokyo retains title as Michelin's gourmet capital". Asahi Shimbun. Reuters. 29 November 2011. Archived from the original on 4 December 2011.
  20. ^ Cheney, Catherine (9 September 2011). "Taking the Pop-Up Restaurant to New Heights". Spiegel Online. Archived from the original on 31 December 2011.
  21. ^ a b "Michelin Guide 2020: The New Sustainability Emblem". News & Views. Michelin Guide. 17 February 2020. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  22. ^ "What Is The MICHELIN Bib Gourmand Award?". Michelin Guide.
  23. ^ "To the Stars and Beyond". Michelin Guide.
  24. ^ a b "Accueil | Guides & Cartes | Guides d'Hôtels et de Restaurants | Europe". Michelin. Archived from the original on 7 February 2016.
  25. ^ "MICHELIN Guide France 2023: All The Highlights!". Michelin. 6 March 2023.
  26. ^ Filloon, Whitney (5 January 2017). "Michelin Unveils France's Bib Gourmands for 2017". Eater. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  27. ^ "2023 Michelin Guide 2023". MICHELIN Guide.
  28. ^ "Bib Gourmand – the MICHELIN Guide Japan". MICHELIN Guide.
  29. ^ "Michelin Guide 2023 Italy". michelin.com.
  30. ^ "MICHELIN Guide Germany 2023 Selection". Michelin Guide. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  31. ^ "Michelin - MICHELIN Guide 2023 – Spain and Portugal". Michelin. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  32. ^ "2023 USA Michelin Guide". MICHELIN Guide.
  33. ^ "Bib Gourmand – the MICHELIN Guide USA". MICHELIN Guide.
  34. ^ "All Current UK and Ireland Michelin Star Restaurants". 28 March 2023. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2023.
  35. ^ "De volledige lijst van de sterren in de MICHELIN Gids België en Luxemburg 2023". Michelin Guide (in Dutch). Retrieved 8 July 2023.
  36. ^ "Guide Michelin: 2 Sterne für Mahler & Eperon | GaultMillau – Channel". Gault Millau (in German). Archived from the original on 7 February 2019. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  37. ^ "Michelin Stars Rain Down on Switzerland Archived 4 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine", Michelin, 16 November 2010.
  38. ^ "3 Stars Michelin". Michelin Guide. Archived from the original on 25 June 2023.
  39. ^ "MICHELIN Guide Nordic Countries 2023 Selection". Retrieved 19 June 2023.
  40. ^ "Taiwan MICHELIN Restaurants – The MICHELIN Guide". MICHELIN Guide. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
  41. ^ "Michelin Guide Netherlands 2023". MICHELIN Guide (in Dutch). Retrieved 19 April 2023.
  42. ^ Bluiminck, Nathalie (11 November 2019). "Prijs Bib Gourmand menu van 37 naar 39 euro". Misset Horeca (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 17 January 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  43. ^ a b c "MICHELIN Restaurants – the MICHELIN Guide". MICHELIN Guide. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  44. ^ a b c "MICHELIN Restaurants – the MICHELIN Guide". MICHELIN Guide. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  45. ^ "The MICHELIN Guide Poland 2023 Is Out!". MICHELIN Guide. Retrieved 28 July 2023.
  46. ^ "MICHELIN Guide 2023 – Estonia". 25 May 2023. Retrieved 18 June 2023.
  47. ^ "2023 Michelin Guide Paris". michelin.com. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012.
  48. ^ "The Michelin Guide France 2010 Selection". Michelin North America. 1 March 2010. Archived from the original on 31 October 2010.
  49. ^ https://atlanta.eater.com/2023/7/11/23790928/michelin-dining-guide-coming-atlanta
  50. ^ "Michelin Guide Thailand Archived 10 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine", Michelin Guide Thailand, 12 November 2019
  51. ^ "Michelin Guide Beijing 2021 Selection". guide.michelin.com. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  52. ^ "Michelin Guide 2022 – Chengdu". Michelin Guide. Retrieved 27 January 2022.
  53. ^ Waxman, Naomi (5 April 2022). "Chicago's Michelin Star List Adds Four New Restaurants for 2022". Eater Chicago. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  54. ^ Levitt, Aimee (5 April 2022). "Michelin Announces 2022 Chicago Bib Gourmand List". Eater Chicago. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  55. ^ "Michelin Guide Chicago 2015 - Michelin Travel & Lifestyle". michelintravel.com. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  56. ^ "California Michelin restaurants - the Michelin Guide United States".
  57. ^ MICHELIN Guide https://guide.michelin.com/us/en/colorado/boulder_1261512/restaurants. Retrieved 16 July 2023. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  58. ^ "Results: The Inaugural Michelin Guide Guangzhou Released". guide.michelin.com. Archived from the original on 17 February 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  59. ^ "103 Restaurants Shine In The Inaugural Edition Of The MICHELIN Guide Hanoi & Ho Chi Minh City, Including 4 MICHELIN Stars", 6 June 2023
  60. ^ "Discover Michelin Restaurants in Hong Kong Macau Hong Kong Macau". guide.michelin.com. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  61. ^ "https://guide.michelin.com/hk/en/hong-kong-macau/bib-gourmand/restaurants Archived 6 March 2019 at the Wayback Machine", Michelin Hong Kong and Macau, 18 December 2018.
  62. ^ "Michelin Restaurants". guide.michelin.com. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  63. ^ "Istanbul Hotels - Find your hotel in Istanbul - the MICHELIN Guide". 18 October 2019.
  64. ^ "Michelin news: all recent news from the Group - Michelin" (PDF). michelin.com.au. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  65. ^ (in Japanese) "「ミシュランガイド京都・大阪・神戸2011」12 軒のレストランが三つ星 44軒のレストランと2軒の旅館 が二つ星 183軒のレストランと2軒の旅館が一つ星" Archived 6 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Michelin Japan, 19 October 2010.
  66. ^ Jinae West "Michelin: Bad economy means no 2010 guide in Las Vegas" Archived 14 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Las Vegas Sun, 26 June 2009.
  67. ^ "Restaurants go for Gold as 2012 Michelin Stars are announced". londonandpartners.com. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
  68. ^ "Michelin Guide Main Cities of Europe 2010 to go on sale on March 17 Archived 29 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine", Michelin, 16 March 2010. covering Austria (Vienna, Salzburg) – Belgium (Brussels, Antwerp) – Czech Republic (Prague) – Denmark (Copenhagen) – Finland (Helsinki) – France (Paris, Lyons, Strasbourg, Toulouse) – Germany (Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, Stuttgart) – Greece (Athens) – Hungary (Budapest) – Ireland (Dublin) – Italy (Rome, Milan, Turin, Florence) – Luxembourg (Luxembourg) – Netherlands (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague) – Norway (Oslo) – Poland (Warsaw, Cracow) – Portugal (Lisbon) – Spain (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia) – Sweden (Stockholm, Gothenburg) – Switzerland (Bern, Geneva, Zurich) – United Kingdom (London, Birmingham, Edinburgh, Glasgow)
  69. ^ "Michelin Guide suspends restaurant recommendations in Russia". Reuters. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 16 July 2023.
  70. ^ "Рестораны Michelin - Гид Michelin". Michelin Guide (in Russian). Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  71. ^ "New York MICHELIN Restaurants - the MICHELIN Guide USA". MICHELIN Guide.
  72. ^ "Michelin Guide to Brazil 2018 – the Full List". Fine Dining Lovers. Archived from the original on 25 August 2018. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  73. ^ Flores, Magê (18 May 2017). "8 casas boas e baratas do Rio e de SP ganham menção no Guia Michelin". Folha de S. Paulo. Archived from the original on 2 March 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
  74. ^ "4 New Stars In The MICHELIN Guide Shanghai 2023". Michelin Guide. 16 December 2022. Retrieved 6 August 2023.
  75. ^ "Shanghai 2020 Selection". Michelin Guide. 20 September 2019. Archived from the original on 23 October 2019.
  76. ^ "MICHELIN Guide Singapore 2022: Newly-starred Restaurants Announced". MICHELIN Guide. 12 July 2022. Retrieved 6 August 2023.
  77. ^ "Taiwan MICHELIN Restaurants – The MICHELIN Guide". MICHELIN Guide. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
  78. ^ "2022 Toronto MICHELIN Stars". MICHELIN Guide. Retrieved 16 July 2023.
  79. ^ "Les publications Michelin pour les investisseurs institutionnels" (PDF). michelin.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 December 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  80. ^ (in Japanese) "「ミシュランガイド東京・横浜・鎌倉2011」を発行 三つ星が14軒、二つ星が54軒、一つ星が198軒に" Archived 29 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Michelin Japan, 24 November 2010.
  81. ^ "2023 Vancouver MICHELIN Stars". MICHELIN Guide. Retrieved 16 July 2023.
  82. ^ "Washington, D.C. Michelin Restaurants - the Michelin Guide". michelin.com. Retrieved 15 February 2023.
  83. ^ "Michelin Accidentally Leaks Its List of 2020 DC Bib Gourmand Awards Early" Archived 7 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Washingtonian, 23 September 2019.
  84. ^ "Four Clare pubs listed in 2014 Michelin Guide". Clare Champion. 19 May 2014. Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  85. ^ Callaghan, Adam H. (5 November 2015). "Michelin Recognizes Street Food for the First Time in Its Hong Kong Guide". Eater. Archived from the original on 23 January 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  86. ^ "Michelin includes street food for first time in Hong Kong guide". The Guardian. 5 November 2015. Archived from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  87. ^ Kim, Soo (25 July 2016). "Singapore street food stalls get Michelin stars". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 22 September 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  88. ^ a b c How to Use This Guide Archived 3 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Michelin, accessed 20 May 2013
  89. ^ a b c Sage, Adam. "J'Accuse: Michelin cooks the books", The Times, 31 May 2004
  90. ^ Henley, John. "Michelin bean-spiller loses court battle", The Guardian, 15 December 2004
  91. ^ "Michelin Man Jolts French Food World" Archived 1 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, 25 February 2004
  92. ^ "Pass Notes", The Guardian, 23 January 1997, p. A3
  93. ^ Kurutz, Steven. "She's a Belle of the City, but the French are Blasé" Archived 27 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, 13 November 2005
  94. ^ a b Ferguson, Priscilla Parkhurst (1 February 2008). "Michelin in America". Gastronomica: The Journal of Critical Food Studies. 8 (1): 49–55. doi:10.1525/gfc.2008.8.1.49. ISSN 1529-3262.
  95. ^ Robinson, Gwen. "Michelin serves up stars and stirs envy in Japan" Archived 13 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine, The Financial Times, 14 October 2009; and Robinson, Gwen. "Michelin sprinkles stars on Tokyo" Archived 8 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine, The Financial Times, 19 November 2007
  96. ^ "Tokyo 'world's best place to eat'". BBC. 17 November 2009. Archived from the original on 13 December 2019. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  97. ^ Sanchanta, Mariko, Katy Mclaughlin and Max Colchester. "Michelin Stars Draw Shots" Archived 10 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The Wall Street Journal, 25 October 2010
  98. ^ Gergaud, Olivier; Storchmann, Karl; Verardi, Vincenzo (22 May 2012). "Expert Opinion and Quality Perception of Consumers: Evidence from New York City Restaurants". SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2064554. ISSN 1556-5068.
  99. ^ a b Mount, Ian (11 December 2014). "The curse of the Michelin-star restaurant rating". Fortune. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  100. ^ "The chef who gave up his Michelin star". El País. 2 December 2014. Archived from the original on 11 January 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  101. ^ "Skye Gyngell: curse of the Michelin star has driven me out of the kitchen". The Daily Telegraph. 21 February 2012. Archived from the original on 11 January 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  102. ^ "摘星變詛咒 難耐食客投訴不絕 女廚棄米芝蓮榮耀 - 蘋果日報 - 兩岸國際 - 20120222". Apple Daily 蘋果日報. Archived from the original on 11 January 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  103. ^ Dixler, Hillary (13 March 2014). "Chef in Belgium Gives Back His Michelin Star". Eater. Archived from the original on 11 January 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  104. ^ "Workmen's cafe overwhelmed with customers after it is accidentally awarded a Michelin star". The Daily Telegraph. 18 February 2017. Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
  105. ^ "Quand un bistrot de quartier reçoit par erreur une étoile au Michelin". Konbini. 17 February 2017. Archived from the original on 20 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.

Further reading

Published in the 20th century

  • Michelin Guide to the British Isles, London: Michelin Tyre Company, 1913, OL 14022740M (+ List of excursions)
  • Amiens before and during the war, Clermont-Ferrand: Michelin and Cie, 1919, OCLC 887914, OL 13521961M
  • Michelin Guide to the Battlefields of the World War, Milltown, N.J.: Michelin, 1919, OL 24432211M
  • Strasbourg (in French), Clermont-Ferrand: Michelin & Cie, 1919, OL 24638163M
  • St. Quentin-Cambrai (in French), Clermont-Ferrand: Michelin & cie, 1921, OL 24786012M

Published in the 21st century

  • Trois étoiles au Michelin: Une histoire de la haute gastronomie française et européenne, by Jean-François Mesplède and Alain Ducasse, 2004. ISBN 2-7000-2468-0. Follows the 60-odd chefs who have been awarded three stars.
  • The Perfectionist: Life and Death in Haute Cuisine, by Rudolph Chelminski, 2006. ISBN 978-0-14-102193-5. The story of Bernard Loiseau.
  • From behind the wall: Danish Newspaper Berlingske Employee 'Awards'

External links

  • Media related to Guide Michelin at Wikimedia Commons
  • Official website
  • Vía Michelin
  • Michelin Travel Guides
  • Ogushi's 3 Stars Restaurants List of France (Past & Now)
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Michelin_Guide&oldid=1175371098"