Metro (city)

Metro
City of Metro
Kota Metro
Other transcription(s)
 • LampungeseLampung script - Metro City.png
Metro's mayor's office
Metro's mayor's office
Coat of arms of Metro
Nickname: 
Metro Raya
Motto(s): 
Bumi Sai Wawai (Lampungese)
The Beautiful Land
Location within Lampung
Location within Lampung
Metro is located in Southern Sumatra
Metro
Metro
Location in Southern Sumatra, Sumatra and Indonesia
Metro is located in Sumatra
Metro
Metro
Metro (Sumatra)
Metro is located in Indonesia
Metro
Metro
Metro (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 5°7′S 105°18′E / 5.117°S 105.300°E / -5.117; 105.300Coordinates: 5°7′S 105°18′E / 5.117°S 105.300°E / -5.117; 105.300
Country Indonesia
Province Lampung
Settlement commenced1939
Administrative city14 August 1986
Autonomous city9 June 1999
Government
 • MayorWahdi
 • Vice MayorQomaru Zaman
Area
 • Total68.74 km2 (26.54 sq mi)
Elevation
30–60 m (98–197 ft)
Population
 (2020 Census)
 • Total168,575
 • Density2,500/km2 (6,400/sq mi)
 [1]
Time zoneUTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)
Area code(+62) 725
Vehicle registrationBE
Websitemetrokota.go.id

Metro (Indonesian pronunciation: [Me'tro]) is a city in the Indonesian province of Lampung. It is 52 km away from Bandar Lampung City (the provincial capital), and is the second largest city in Lampung province. This city is also the city that has the lowest congestion rate in Lampung Province. Metro City is included in the List of 10 cities in Indonesia with the 9th lowest cost of living in Indonesia and second on Sumatra Island based on the Indonesia Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) Survey in 2017. Now, Metro City is making improvements and developing a city that is more advanced towards its vision and mission as an education city and family tourism in Lampung Province by improving the education, security, hygiene and improving public facilities, optimizing green open spaces, and beautifying every corner of the city with the construction of small parks. Metro City is also a blueprint target of the Ministry of Public Works and Public Housing of the Republic of Indonesia as a strategic area and a metropolitan development target after Bandar Lampung.

Etymology

The first version of the name Metro comes from the word "Meterm" in Dutch which means "center" which means in the middle between Central Lampung and East Lampung, even in the middle (center) of Lampung Province. The second version of the name Metro comes from the word "Mitro" (Javanese) which means friends, partners, associations, this was motivated by colonization coming from various regions outside Sumatra that entered Lampung.[2][3] But the most relevant was Metro was from Dutch, it was strongly supported with its history and the establishment of a landmark in the form of a tower called the Meterm Tower in the Merdeka Park, Metro City Square.

History

Settlers arrive in Metro, c. 1939

Prior to 1936, Trimurjo was part of Gunungsugih onder district;[4] it was isolated, without much influence from the indigenous Lampungese people.[5] However, beginning in 1936 the Dutch colonial government sent Javanese migrants to colonise the area, which served to relieve overpopulation on Java, and mitigate the influence of Indonesian independence activists.[6] The first group arrived on 4 April 1936.[7]

On 9 June 1937, the name of the area was changed from Trimurjo to Metro[2] and that same year it was established as a separate onder district, with Raden Mas Sudarto as the first assistant district chief. During this same period the Dutch colonial government built more roads, as well as a clinic, police office, and administrative offices.[8] By 1941 a mosque, post office, large market, and inn had been built, and electricity and telephone lines had been installed.[9]

Development soon outpaced the natural irrigation capabilities of the area. To ensure proper healthy crops, the Dutch hired Ir. Swam to design an irrigation system. His design called for a levee as well as a 30 metres (98 ft) wide and 10 metres (33 ft) deep irrigation canal from Way Sekampung River to Metro. Labour was provided by the migrants, who were conscripted and worked in shifts. Construction began in 1937 and was finished in 1941.[10]

After the Japanese invasion of Indonesia in 1942, all Dutch personnel were evacuated or captured.[11] The migration program was continued under the name imin kakari,[12] and seventy Javanese migrants were used as forced labour in the construction of the nearby Natar and Astra Ksetra airstrips as well as numerous bunkers and other strategic assets; those who resisted were shot.[11]

The remaining citizens were malnourished, with their harvests being taken by the Japanese occupying forces. Diseases spread rampantly throughout the populace, carried by ticks. Deaths were common, as were women, including wives of the forced labourers, being taken as comfort women.[12]

During the Indonesian war of independence, the Dutch attempted to retake Metro. When they first arrived, they were unable to enter as the bridge to the city in Tempuran had been destroyed by a 26-man troop of the Indonesian army, under the command of Second Lieutenant Bursyah; the Dutch convoy was forced to retreat. However, the following day the Dutch returned in greater numbers and attacked from Tegineneng, eventually entering the city and killing three Indonesian soldiers.[13]

Upon entering the city, the Dutch forces were besieged by sabotage by 41 soldiers under the command of Second Lieutenant Raden Sudarto. After chasing Sudarto's forces throughout the area, the Dutch continued to Palembang. Despite an extended guerrilla campaign by the Indonesian military, the Dutch eventually retook Metro in 1949, surrendering it that same year.[14]

After the war, Metro continued to develop. In 1956, its government was stylized as a negeri based on Governor's Decree Number 153/D/1956. This led to adat lands being owned by the local government.[15]

In 1976 Metro became the capital of the newly formed Central Lampung Regency, which at the time included parts of present-day East Lampung Regency.[16]

This fountain is one of the additions to the town square and has now been replaced by the Magnificent Meterm Tower

Beginning in 1985, the local government began working to stimulate the economy. Retail chains began entering the city, a movie theatre and stadium was built, the town square was redesigned as a park, and Cendrawasih market was renovated.[17]

On 14 August 1986, Metro was designated an administrative city, in accordance with Government Decree Number 34 of 1986, with the formal ceremony taking place on 6 September 1987.[18]

Metro was established as an autonomous city (kota) with the passing of Law Number 12 of 1999 on 27 April 1999,[19] with Gunungsugih becoming the capital of Central Lampung.[20] The first mayor after Metro's establishment as an autonomous city was Mozes Herman, with Lukman Hakim as vice-mayor.[21]

Geography and climate

Metro is spread over an area of 68.74 square kilometres (26.54 sq mi),[22] with the built up area consisting of 24.57% of the city, or 16.88 square kilometres (6.52 sq mi).[23] As of 2010, it had a population of 145,346, with a density of 2,116.2 people per km2 (5,480.9/sq mi);[24] the 2020 Census resulted in a population of 168,676, giving a density of 2,453.8 people per km2 (6,355.5/sq mi).[25]

The city is built around the Dutch land use planning system. Its economic and political hub is in the center, in the area around the city park. All five provincial and national roads that transect Metro meet in this area.[26] Northern Metro is a residential area, while western Metro is used for commercial space, southern Metro for agriculture, and parts of southern and eastern Metro for educational and other public facilities.[27]

The land in Metro is relatively flat, with an elevation between 30 to 60 metres (98–197 ft).[28] When it was first settled, the area was heavily forested; there are still pockets of forest within the city limits.[7]

The climate in Metro is humid and tropical. The average air temperature is between 26 and 28 °C (79 and 82 °F), with an average humidity of 80 to 88% and an average yearly precipitation of 2,264 to 2,868 millimetres (89.1 to 112.9 in). The dry season usually lasts from September until May.[28]

Administrative divisions

District divisions of Metro

When Metro was originally made an autonomous city, it had two kecamatan, or administrative districts, Metro Raya and Metro Bantul.[19] However, it now is divided into five districts (kecamatan), tabulated below with their populations at the 2010 Census[29] and at the 2020 Census.[1]

District Area
in
km2
Population
2010 Census
Population
2020 Census
Metro Selatan
(South Metro)
14.33 14,144 17,385
Metro Barat
(West Metro)
11.28 25,246 28,424
Metro Timur
(East Metro)
11.78 34,966 38,154
Metro Pusat
(Central Metro)
11.71 46,170 52,635
Metro Utara
(North Metro)
19.64 24,945 32,078
Total city 68.74 145,346 168,676

The five districts are subdivided into 22 administrative urban villages (kelurahan), each listed with its population at the 2010 Census and its postal code.

Kecamatan Kelurahan Pop'n
Census
2010[29]
Post
code
Metro Selatan Sumbersari 2,881 34122
" Rejomulyo 4,302 34123
" Margodadi 2,574 34119
" Margorejo 4,387 34121
Metro Barat Mulyojati 8,035 34125
" Mulyosari 2,798 34125
" Ganjar Agung 6,136 34114
" Ganjar Asdi 8,277 34125
Metro Timur Tejosari 2,738 34124
" Tejo Agung 5,346 34112
" Iringmulyo 12,425 34112
" Yosorejo 6,672 34112
" Yosodadi 7,785 34111
Metro Pusat Metro 13,425 34111
" Imopuro 6,616 34111
" Hadimulyo Barat 11,696 34113
" Hadimulyo Timur 7,333 34113
" Yosomulyo 7,100 35111
Metro Utara Banjarsari 9,309 34117
" Purwosari 4,860 34118
" Purwoasri 3,356 34117
" Karangrejo 7,420 34119

Economy

In 2002, Metro had a budget of Rp 336 billion (US$37.3 million).[30] The largest contributor to Metro's economy is the service sector, contributing 22.94% of the city's income in 2002.[31]

The second largest contributor to Metro's economy is retail, contributing 19.77% of the city's 2002 income.[31] In 2004, there were 13 markets, 1,881 stores, and 682 food kiosks, as well as numerous street vendors.[32]

The third largest economic sector is agriculture, contributing 17.31% of the 2002 income.[31] Within the city boundaries there are 3,342 hectares of rice fields, capable of producing up to 16,598 tons of rice per growing season.[33]

Numerous banks have branches in Metro, including Bank Mandiri, Bank Lampung, Bank Danamon, Bank Eka, Bank Central Asia, Bank Rakyat Indonesia, Bank Maybank Indonesia, and as well as Bank Negara Indonesia.[32]

Healthcare

Metro is served by three hospitals: Ahmad Yani General Hospital, Mardi Waluyo Hospital, and Metro Islamic Hospital. As of 2003, the total number of health care practitioners in Metro is 382, including 13 specialists, 30 general practitioners, 36 midwives, 121 nurses, and 8 dentists. There are also 19 pharmacies and 8 drug stores.[34]

Education

Metro is served by numerous public and private schools. There are 63 elementary schools, 25 junior high schools (eight public and seventeen private), two junior high schools for special-needs children, 16 senior high schools, and 15 vocational schools.[35]

Public universities

  • Metro State Islamic Institute (IAIN Metro)
  • Lampung University (Faculty of Primary School Teacher Education)
  • Polytechnic of Health Ministry of Health Tanjung Karang (Majoring Midwifery)

Private colleges and academies

  • Muhammadiyah University Metro
  • Tarbiyah College of Sciences Agus Salim
  • NU Ma'arif Islamic Institute (IAIMNU)
  • Dharma Wacana College of Agriculture
  • Dharma Wacana Academy of Agriculture
  • Dharma Wacana College
  • Wirabuana Metro Midwifery Academy
  • Dharma Wacana Nursing Academy

References

  1. ^ a b Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  2. ^ a b Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, p. 28
  3. ^ Prahana 1997, p. 20
  4. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, p. 18
  5. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, p. 2
  6. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, p. 25
  7. ^ a b Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, p. 20
  8. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, pp. 29–30
  9. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, p. 30
  10. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, pp. 31–39
  11. ^ a b Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, pp. 48–50
  12. ^ a b Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, p. 54
  13. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, pp. 58–59
  14. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, pp. 62–67
  15. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, p. 71
  16. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, p. 72
  17. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, pp. 76–79
  18. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, p. 82
  19. ^ a b Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, p. 93
  20. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, p. 4
  21. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, p. 84
  22. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, p. 137
  23. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, p. 120
  24. ^ "Jumlah Penduduk, Rumah Tangga dan Rata2 Jiwa/Rumah Tangga, 2010" (PDF) (in Indonesian). Badan Pusat Statistik Lampung. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
  25. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2020.
  26. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, p. 142
  27. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, pp. 144–145
  28. ^ a b "Metro selayang pandang". Metro City Government. 2010. Archived from the original on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
  29. ^ a b Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  30. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, p. 149
  31. ^ a b c Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, p. 134
  32. ^ a b Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, p. 153
  33. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, p. 124
  34. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, pp. 137–139
  35. ^ Sudarmono & Edi Ribut Harwanto 2004, pp. 129–130

Bibliography

  • Prahana, Naim Empel (1997). Cerita rakyat dari Lampung [Folklore from Lampung] (in Indonesian). Vol. 2. Jakarta: Gramedia Widiasarana Indonesia. ISBN 979-669-015-2.
  • Sudarmono; Edi Ribut Harwanto, eds. (2004). Metro: Desa Kolonis Menuju Metropolis [Metro: A Colonial Village Becoming Metropolitan] (in Indonesian). Metro, Indonesia: Bagian Humas dan Protokol Setda Kota Metro.

External links

  • Official website
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