Manado

Manado
City of Manado
Kota Manado
Panoramic view of Manado during sunset
Kalasey Beach
Manado Town Square
Sukarno Bridge
Coat of arms of Manado
Nickname(s): 
Kota 1001 Gereja
(City of 1001 Churches)
Motto(s): 
Si Tou Timou Tumou Tou
(Men live to help others live)
(Minahasan)
Location within North Sulawesi
Location within North Sulawesi
OpenStreetMap
Manado is located in Manado
Manado
Manado
Location in Downtown Manado, Sulawesi, and Southeast Asia
Manado is located in Sulawesi
Manado
Manado
Manado (Sulawesi)
Manado is located in Indonesia
Manado
Manado
Manado (Indonesia)
Manado is located in Southeast Asia
Manado
Manado
Manado (Southeast Asia)
Coordinates: 1°29′35″N 124°50′28.54″E / 1.49306°N 124.8412611°E / 1.49306; 124.8412611
Country Indonesia
RegionSulawesi
Province North Sulawesi
Founded14 July 1623; 400 years ago (1623-07-14)
Government
 • MayorAndrei Angouw
 • Vice MayorRichard Sualang
Area
[1]
 • Total157.26 km2 (60.72 sq mi)
Elevation
5 m (16 ft)
Population
 (mid 2022 estimate)[1]
 • Total454,606
 • Density2,900/km2 (7,500/sq mi)
DemonymManadonese
Time zoneUTC+8 (ICST)
Area code+62 431
Vehicle registrationDB
WebsiteManadoKota.go.id

Manado (Indonesian pronunciation: [maˈnado], Tombulu: Wenang) is the capital city of the Indonesian province of North Sulawesi. It is the second largest city in Sulawesi after Makassar, with the 2020 census giving a population of 451,916,[2] and the official estimates for mid 2022 showing 454,606 inhabitants (228,011 males and 226,595 females),[1] distributed over a land area of 157.26 km2.[1] The Manado metropolitan area had a population of 1,365,237 as of mid 2022.[1] The city is situated on the Bay of Manado, and is surrounded by a mountainous area.[3]

Manado is among Indonesia's top-five tourism priorities[4] and Bunaken National Park is one of the city's most famous tourist attractions. The city is served by Sam Ratulangi International Airport, which connects Manado with various domestic destinations, as well as international destinations in East Asia and Southeast Asia. The city is also known for its Christian-majority population, and holds the country's biggest Christmas celebration annually. It is also recognised as one of the most tolerant and peaceful cities in Indonesia.[5]

Etymology

The name Manado is derived from the Sangir language word manaro, meaning 'on the far coast' or 'in the distance', and originally referred to the further of two islands which can be seen from the mainland. When the settlement on this island was relocated to the mainland, the name Manado was brought with it, after which the island itself became referred to as Manado Tua (Old Manado).[6] The name for Manado in the Sangir language is Manaro.

History

The first mention of Manado comes from a world map by French cartographer Nicolas Desliens, which shows the island of Manarow (today's Manado Tua). Before Europeans arrived in North Sulawesi, the area was under the rule of the Sultan of Ternate, who exacted tribute and introduced Islam to its inhabitants. The Portuguese made the Sultan their vassal, ruling over the Minahasa people, and establishing a factory in Wenang.

Meanwhile, the Spanish had already set themselves up in the Philippines and Minahasa was used to plant coffee because of its rich soil. Manado was further developed by Spain as a centre of commerce for the Chinese traders who traded the coffee in China. With the help of native allies, the Spanish took over the Portuguese fortress in Amurang in the 1550s, and Spanish settlers also established a fort at Manado, so that eventually, Spain controlled all of the Minahasa. It was in Manado where one of the first Indo-Eurasian (Mestizo) communities in the archipelago developed during the 16th century.[7] The first King of Manado (1630) named Muntu Untu was in fact the son of a Spanish Mestizo.[8]

Map of Manado in 1679

Spain renounced its possessions in Minahasa by means of a treaty with the Portuguese in return for a payment of 350,000 ducats.[9] Minahasan natives made an alliance treaty with the Dutch, and expelled the last of the Portuguese from Manado a few years later.

The Dutch East India Company or Verenigde Oost Indische Compagnie (VOC) built a fortress in Manado named Fort Amsterdam in 1658. As with regions in eastern Indonesia, Manado has undergone Christianisation by Dutch missionaries, including Riedel and John Gottlieb Schwarz. The Dutch missionaries built the first Christian church in Manado called Oude Kerk (Old church), which still stands, and is now called Gereja Sentrum. HMS Dover captured Manado in June 1810. The Javanese prince Diponegoro was exiled to Manado by the Dutch government in 1830 for leading a war of rebellion against the Dutch. In 1859, the English biologist Alfred Wallace visited Manado and praised the town for its beauty.

Coat of Arms of Manado during Dutch colonial era, granted in 1931.

In 1919, the Apostolic Prefecture of Celebes was established in the city. In 1961, it was promoted to the Diocese of Manado.

The Japanese captured Manado in the Battle of Manado in January 1942.[10] The city was heavily damaged by Allied bombing during World War II.

In 1958, the headquarters of the rebel movement Permesta was moved to Manado. When Permesta confronted the central government with demands for political, economic and regional reform, Jakarta responded by bombing the city in February 1958, and then invading in June 1958.

In 1962, the People's Representative Council declared Manado as the official capital city of North Sulawesi Province.

Geography

Manado has a tropical rainforest climate (Af) according to the Köppen climate classification, as there is no real dry season. The wettest month is January, with an average rainfall of 465 millimetres (18.3 in), while the driest is September with an average rainfall of 121 millimetres (4.8 in).[11] The abundance of rain seems to be influenced by the monsoon. As its location is near the equator, the temperature seems constant throughout the year. The hottest month is August with an average temperature of 26.6 °C (79.9 °F), while the coolest months are January and February with an average temperature of 25.4 °C (77.7 °F).[12] Unlike other cities in Indonesia, the temperature seems to be cooler.[weasel words]

Climate data for Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia (1961-1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 29.4
(84.9)
29.5
(85.1)
30.0
(86.0)
31.4
(88.5)
31.4
(88.5)
31.2
(88.2)
31.3
(88.3)
32.0
(89.6)
32.3
(90.1)
31.7
(89.1)
30.9
(87.6)
30.1
(86.2)
30.9
(87.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.4
(77.7)
25.4
(77.7)
25.7
(78.3)
26.4
(79.5)
26.4
(79.5)
26.2
(79.2)
26.1
(79.0)
26.6
(79.9)
26.4
(79.5)
26.3
(79.3)
26.3
(79.3)
25.8
(78.4)
26.1
(79.0)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 22.3
(72.1)
22.2
(72.0)
22.3
(72.1)
22.4
(72.3)
22.4
(72.3)
22.3
(72.1)
21.8
(71.2)
21.9
(71.4)
21.2
(70.2)
21.8
(71.2)
22.3
(72.1)
22.5
(72.5)
22.1
(71.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 427
(16.8)
361
(14.2)
338
(13.3)
266
(10.5)
268
(10.6)
277
(10.9)
170
(6.7)
121
(4.8)
149
(5.9)
256
(10.1)
290
(11.4)
365
(14.4)
3,288
(129.6)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 129 119 155 168 168 144 176 210 179 172 157 152 1,929
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst[11][13][14][12][15]
Manado mean sea temperature[16]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
28 °C (82 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 27 °C (81 °F) 27 °C (81 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 28 °C (82 °F)

Administrative districts

Manado and its bay taken from Tinoor village
Fisherman village in Sindulang

The city is divided into eleven districts (kecamatan), including the new districts of Bunaken Kepulauan (Bunaken Islands) and Paal Dua established in 2012. These are all tabulated below with their areas and populations at the 2010 census[17] and 2020 census,[2] together with the official estimates as at mid 2022.[1] The table also includes the location of the district administrative centres, the number of urban villages (all rated as kelurahan) in each district, and its post codes.

Kode
Wilayah
Name of
District
(kecamatan)
Area
in
km2
Pop'n
census
2010
Pop'n
census
2020
Pop'n
estimate
mid 2022
Admin
centre
No.
of
villages
Post
codes
71.71.09 Malalayang 17.96 54,959 61,891 62,202 Malalayang Satu 9 95115 - 95163
71.71.06 Sario 1.99 23,198 21,740 21,724 Sario 7 95113 - 95116
71.71.07 Wanea 8.47 56,962 59,757 59,829 Wanea 9 95117 - 95119
71.71.04 Wenang 3.47 32,796 32,601 32,633 Tikala Kumaraka 12 95111 - 95124
71.71.05 Tikala 6.69 69,734 30,174 30,196 Tikala Baru 5 95124 - 95129
71.71.11 Paal Dua 9.38 (a) 44,015 44,180 Ranomuut 7 95127 - 95129
71.71.08 Mapanget 53.58 53,194 63,275 64,380 Paniki Bawah 10 95249 - 95259
71.71.03 Singkil 4.87 46,721 52,732 53,025 Singkil 9 95231 - 95234
71.71.02 Tuminting 5.26 52,089 53,759 53,984 Bitung Karang Ria 10 95238 - 95239
71.71.01 Bunaken 32.00 20,828 25,669 26,130 Molas 5 95231 - 95249
71.71.10 Bunaken Kepulauan (b) 18.88 (c) 6,303 6,323 Bunaken 4 95231 - 95246
Totals 162.53 410,481 451,916 454,606 87

Notes:
(a) the 2010 population of Paal Dua District is included in the figure for Tikala District, from which it was cut out in 2013.
(b) including the small offshore islands of Pulau Bunaken, Pulau Siladen, and Pulau Manado Tua.
(c) the 2010 population of Bunaken Kepulauan District is included in the figure for Bunaken District, from which it was cut out in 2013.

The boundaries of Manado city are as follows:

Demographics

Ethnicity and languages

Minahasa women, circa 1940s

Currently, the majority of Manado city residents are from the Minahasa ethnic group. The indigenous people of Manado are from the Tombulu people. The Tombulu language is considered one of the Minahasa languages and is spoken widely in several urban villages within Manado, for example: Wenang (Wenang / Mahawenang - kolintang), Tumumpa (down), Mahakeret (yelling), Tikala Ares (Walak Ares Tombulu, where the word 'ares' means punishable), Ranotana (ground water), Winangun (built), Wawonasa (wawoinasa - sharpened above), Pinaesaan (unity place), Pakowa (Tree of Treasure), Teling (fur / bamboo to make equipment), Titiwungen (excavated), Tuminting (from the word Ting-Ting: a bell, the inserted syllable -um- changing the noun to a verb, so Tuminting: ringing bell), Pondol (Edge), Wanea (from the word Wanua: meaning the country), etc. While the Malalayang area has residents mainly from the Bantik people, other indigenous groups in Manado today are from the Sangir, Gorontalo, Mongondow, Babontehu, Talaud, Tionudese, Siau, and Borgo peoples. There are also Arabian peranakan communities, mainly in the Kampung Arab area which is near Pasar '45 and has become a destination for religious tourism. Other ethnicities represented include Javanese, Chinese, Batak, Makassar, and Moluccans. A small Jewish community also exists.

Manado Malay is the main language spoken in Manado. It is a Malay-based creole. Some of the loan words in the Minahasan vernacular are derived from Dutch, Portuguese, and other foreign languages. There are many words in Manado Malay comes from foreign language.

Religion

Religion in Manado (2020)[18]

  Protestant (61.06%)
  Roman Catholic (6.21%)
  Islam (29.84%)
  Buddhism (2.65%)
  Hinduism (0.18%)
  Confucianism (0.06%)

Protestant Christianity is the major religion in Manado, constituting around 63 per cent of all residents, Islam comes second forming about 31 per cent, Catholicism comes in third forming around 5 per cent, and the rest follow Buddhism, Hinduism, and Confucianism, each coming in at less than 1 per cent each, according to the 2020 national census.[18] In addition, about 20 Indonesian Jews live in Manado.[19] The people of Manado identify as tolerant, harmonious, open and dynamic. Therefore, the city of Manado has a relatively conducive social environment, and is known as one of the safest cities in Indonesia. When Indonesia was vulnerable to political upheaval around 1999, and there were riots in other Indonesian cities, Manado was little affected. This is shown through the slogan of the people of Manado: Torang samua basudara, which means We are all family. And also through the words of Dr. Sam Ratulangi: "Sitou, Timou, Tumou, Tou", which roughly translates to 'Man lives to educate others'.

Transportation

Sam Ratulangi International Airport

Sam Ratulangi International Airport of Manado is one of the main ports of entry to Indonesia. In 2005, more than 15,000 international passengers entered Indonesia via Manada airport, connected with other cities like Jakarta, Surabaya and Makassar etc.

Other public transportation in Manado are:

  1. Local minibuses known as "Mikrolet"
  2. Perum DAMRI buses serving airport to Manado
  3. Other buses serving Manado to other cities in North Sulawesi as well as other cities in the island of Sulawesi

Manado–Bitung Toll Road connects the city with Bitung. Terminal Malalayang, or Malalayang Bus Terminal serves as the main gateway for long-distance buses in Manado.

Main sights

Panoramic view of Manado

Manado is home to some of the biggest and most influential churches in the province, with many of them located along the iconic Sam Ratulangi Street.[20]

Tourism

Snorkeling around Bunaken
  • Ban Hin Kiong Temple is the oldest temple in the city of Manado, which was established in 1819. It is also a popular tourism spot in the city, especially during the Chinese New Year celebration.
  • Citraland, a wealthy suburb of Manado, is home to Asia's second tallest and the world's fourth tallest statue of Christ (Christ Blessing Statue), and perhaps the world's first statue in the flying posture.[21]
  • Manado Boulevard Carnaval (MBC) is a fashion carnival annually every 16 July, aligned with Manado City Birthday.[22]
  • Other places of interest include nearby Lake Tondano, Lake Linow,[23] Lokon Volcano, Klabat Volcano and Mahawu Volcano, Bukit Kasih (hill of love), and Watu Pinabetengan.
  • Scuba diving and snorkelling are practised in the nearby Bunaken National Park, including the island of Bunaken.[24][25][26]
  • Several shopping malls in the city are: Manado Town Square, Star Square, and Grand Kawanua City

Cuisine

Fish Woku

Food typical of Manado include tinutuan, a porridge consisting of various kinds of vegetables. In addition to tinutuan, there is cakalang fufu, a smoked skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), roa fish (exocoetidae or torani) Parexocoetus brachypterus, kawok which is based on the meat of the forest rodent white rat Maxomys hellwandii; paniki, bat meat-based dishes; such as (Pteropus pumilus) and rinte wuuk (abbreviated to RW) which is a local name of dog meat, pork (a pig is cooked rotating over embers, usually served at parties), and babi putar (made from pork mixed with Manado spices, rolled and burned in bamboo).

There is also a typical drink from the area of Manado and its surroundings are saguer which is a kind of wine or palm wine derived from enau / aren tree (Arenga pinnata), which is then fermented. Saguer is a cap tikus (spirits with an average of 40% alcohol content). The exact amount of alcohol depends on the technique of distillation, which varies among different Minahasa villages).

Manado styled Nasi Kuning

Woku is a type of bumbu (spice mixture) found in Manado cuisine of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. It has rich aroma and spicy taste. Woku consist of ground spices paste; red ginger, turmeric, candlenut, and red chili pepper, mixed with chopped shallot, scallion, tomato, lemon or citrus leaf, and turmeric leaf, lemon basil leaf, and bruised lemongrass. Rub main ingredients (chicken or fish) with salt and lime juices, and marinate for 30 minutes. All spices are cooked in coconut oil until the aroma came up and mixed together with the main ingredients, water, and a pinch of salt, well until all cooked well.

Other typical food of Manado city which is also quite famous is nasi kuning which taste and looks different from yellow rice in other area because it is spiked with abon of cakalang rica fish and presented in a parcel using sugar palm leaves. There is also grilled fish roasted head. Dabu-dabu is a very popular typical Manado sauce, made from a mixture of red chilies, cayenne pepper, sliced red onion, and freshly diced tomatoes, and finally given a mixture of soy sauce.

Sister cities

Language

The local language spoken in Manado and the surrounding area is a creole of the Malay language called Manado Malay. It exhibits significant influence of Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch, for example:

  • "But" in Indonesian is "tapi", in Manado it is called "mar" (maar- Dutch word for but).
  • Chair in Indonesian is "kursi", in Minahasa it is called "kadera" (cadeira - Portuguese for chair).
  • Horse in Indonesian is "kuda", a word of Sanskrit origin. In the town of Tomohon, a horse is called "kafalio" ("cavalo" - Portuguese, "caballo" - Spanish).

While there is not much known about the origin of ideogramatical Minahasa writing system, currently the orthography used for indigenous Minahasan languages closely matches that used for Indonesian.


Notable people

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2023, Kota Manado Dalam Angka 2023 (Katalog-BPS 1102001.7171)
  2. ^ a b Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  3. ^ "In the shadows of volcanoes: Manado Bay and its harbour". Archived from the original on 10 January 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  4. ^ Kusumawardhani, Amanda (21 November 2019). "Kembangkan 5 Destinasi Prioritas, Jokowi Tekankan Soal Kebersihan". Ekonomi.
  5. ^ Onker, Michelle de. "Wali Kota Kaget Manado Jadi Kota Paling Toleran di Indonesia". detiknews (in Indonesian). Retrieved 23 March 2023.
  6. ^ Makaliwe, Willem Hendrik (1981). "A preliminary note on genealogy and intermarriage in the Minahasa regency, North Sulawesi". Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia. 137 (2–3): 244–258. doi:10.1163/22134379-90003499. ISSN 0006-2294.
  7. ^ Wahr, C.R. Minahasa (history) Website Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Wahr, C. R. Minahasa (history) Website Archived 21 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Milburn, William (1813). Oriental commerce: containing a geographical description of the principal places in the East Indies, China, and Japan, with their produce, manufactures, and trade. New York: Black, Parry & Co. pp. 406.
  10. ^ L, Klemen (1999–2000). "The Fall of Menado, January 1942". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942.
  11. ^ a b "Station 97014". Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Retrieved 29 July 2017.[permanent dead link]
  12. ^ a b "Station 97014". Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Retrieved 29 July 2017.[permanent dead link]
  13. ^ "Station 97014". Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 29 July 2017.
  14. ^ "Station 97014". Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Retrieved 29 July 2017.[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ "Station 97014". Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Retrieved 29 July 2017.
  16. ^ "Klimatafel von Manado / Nord-Celebes (Sulawesi) / Indonesien" (PDF). Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
  17. ^ Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  18. ^ a b "Visualisasi Data Kependuduakan - Kementerian Dalam Negeri 2020" (visual). www.dukcapil.kemendagri.go.id. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  19. ^ Brieger, Peter; Buol, Ronny. "On remote island in Muslim-majority Indonesia, Jewish community lives in shadows". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 23 March 2023.
  20. ^ "Great Churches of Manado". Archived from the original on 10 January 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  21. ^ "Christ Blessing and the Waruga". Archived from the original on 10 January 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  22. ^ "Manado Boulevard Carnaval - Digelar Rutin". 18 July 2011. Archived from the original on 18 August 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
  23. ^ "The lakes of Sulut: Danau Tondano and Linow". Archived from the original on 12 August 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  24. ^ "Off to Bunaken". Archived from the original on 10 January 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  25. ^ "Livin' la vida Bunaken's way". Archived from the original on 10 January 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  26. ^ "Bunaken's blue, blue seas". Archived from the original on 10 January 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  27. ^ "Arthur Frets Assa". liga-indonesia.co.id. Archived from the original on 8 January 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2012.

External links

  • "Menado" . New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
  • Manado travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Huge Waves Cause Flooding in Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia - Jan. 17, 2021
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Manado&oldid=1206222317"