List of national capitals
The capitals included on this list are those associated with states or territories listed by the international standard ISO 3166-1, or that are included in the list of states with limited recognition.
Sovereign states and observer states within the United Nations are shown in bold text.
|Abidjan (former capital; still hosts some government offices)||Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire)||Abidjan is the largest city in Ivory Coast and is officially designated as the economic capital.|
|Yamoussoukro (de jure)|
|Abu Dhabi||United Arab Emirates|
|Abuja||Nigeria||Lagos was the capital from 1914 to 1991.|
|Adamstown||Pitcairn Islands||British Overseas Territory.|
|Aden (de facto, temporary)||Yemen||Due to the Yemeni civil war (2014–present), Sanaa has been occupied by Houthi rebels since September 2014. Aden, the former capital of South Yemen, is Yemen's acting capital.|
|Sanaa (de jure)|
|Alofi||Niue||Self-governing in free association with New Zealand. Government offices are spread across both Alofi North and Alofi South.|
|Amsterdam (official)||Netherlands||The Dutch government is located in The Hague, which also hosts the monarch, government ministries, judiciary and diplomatic missions. See also: Capital of the Netherlands.|
|The Hague (de facto)|
|Andorra la Vella||Andorra|
|Ankara||Turkey||Ankara became the capital of the newly-formed Republic of Turkey in 1923, after the Turkish War of Independence. Istanbul was the capital of Turkey's predecessor, the Ottoman Empire.|
|Astana||Kazakhstan||Astana was named Nur-Sultan from 2019 to 2022. Almaty was the capital from 1929 to 1997.|
|Avarua||Cook Islands||Self-governing in free association with New Zealand. The capital is sometimes incorrectly stated as Rarotonga, the island on which Avarua is located.|
|Bandar Seri Begawan||Brunei|
|Bangui||Central African Republic|
|Basseterre||Saint Kitts and Nevis|
|Beijing||China||See also: Historical capitals of China.|
|Belmopan||Belize||Belize City was the capital of Belize's predecessor, British Honduras.|
|Berlin||Germany||Bonn was the capital of West Germany and remained the seat of government for reunified Germany until 1999, and is still the primary seat of six ministries. See also: Capital of Germany.|
|Bern (de facto)||Switzerland|
|Bloemfontein (judicial)||South Africa|
|Cape Town (legislative)|
|Brades (de facto)||Montserrat||British Overseas Territory. Plymouth was abandoned after the eruption of the Soufrière Hills volcano in 1997. Government offices since then have been moved to Brades, which is in the northwestern part of Montserrat.|
|Plymouth (de jure)|
|Brasília||Brazil||Rio de Janeiro was the capital until 1960. See also: Capitals of Brazil.|
|Budapest||Hungary||See also: List of historical capitals of Hungary.|
|Cairo||Egypt||A new capital is being built at the New Administrative Capital. It might be named Egypt. See also: List of historical capitals of Egypt.|
|Canberra||Australia||Planned city built to overcome the rivalry between Melbourne (de facto capital at the time) and Sydney (economic capital and largest population center), which were both put forward as potential capitals for the nation in the Australasia Federation Conventions of the 1890s. Section 125 of the Constitution gives basic details about the location of the capital, size of the encompassing territory and so forth, while the Seat of Government Act 1908 specified its precise location.|
|Charlotte Amalie||United States Virgin Islands||Territory of the United States.|
|Cockburn Town||Turks and Caicos Islands||British Overseas Territory.|
|Colombo (executive, judicial)||Sri Lanka||Until the 1982, the capital was Colombo, where many governmental institutions still remain, and which is still designated as the commercial capital of Sri Lanka. See also: Capital of Sri Lanka.|
|Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte (official)||Also known as Kotte, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte is a suburb of Colombo.|
|Cotonou (de facto)||Benin|
|Dodoma||Tanzania||Dar es Salaam, the former capital and largest city, continues to host some government ministries, the judiciary, and diplomatic missions.|
|Douglas||Isle of Man||British Crown Dependency.|
|Flying Fish Cove||Christmas Island||External territory of Australia.|
|George Town||Cayman Islands||British Overseas Territory.|
|Georgetown||Ascension Island||Part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.|
|Gibraltar||Gibraltar||British Overseas Territory, city-state.|
|Gitega (de jure)||Burundi||Bujumbura was the capital from 1962 to 2018.|
|Bujumbura (de facto)|
|Gustavia||Saint Barthélemy||Overseas collectivity of France.|
|Hagåtña||Guam||Territory of the United States.|
|Hamilton||Bermuda||British Overseas Territory.|
|Hanoi||Vietnam||See also: List of historical capitals of Vietnam.|
|Hargeisa||Somaliland||Unrecognized and self-declared state, de jure part of Somalia.|
|Honiara||Solomon Islands||Honiara is a settlement on the island of Guadalcanal.|
|Islamabad||Pakistan||Karachi was selected as the first capital of Pakistan and served as such from 1948 until the capital was shifted to Rawalpindi in 1958. Rawalpindi served as an interim capital for almost a decade until the construction of Islamabad was complete; the capital became Islamabad in 1967.|
|Jakarta||Indonesia||A new purpose-built city named Nusantara in Kalimantan is planned to replace Jakarta as the national capital from the mid-2020s.|
|Jamestown||Saint Helena||Part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.|
|Jerusalem||Israel||The Jerusalem Law states that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel" and the city serves as the seat of the Israeli government and its institutions. United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 declared the Jerusalem Law "null and void" and called on member states to withdraw their diplomatic missions from Jerusalem. Most countries currently maintain their embassies in and around Tel Aviv. The United States recognized Jerusalem as the capital and moved its embassy there in May 2018. Many countries officially adhere to the proposal that Jerusalem have international status, as called for in the 1947 Partition Plan.|
|Ramallah (de facto)|
|King Edward Point||South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands||British Overseas Territory.|
|Kingston||Norfolk Island||External territory of Australia.|
|Kingstown||Saint Vincent and the Grenadines|
|Kinshasa||Democratic Republic of the Congo|
|Kuala Lumpur (de jure, legislative and royal)||Malaysia|
|Putrajaya (administrative and judicial)|
|La Paz (administrative)||Bolivia||La Paz is the highest administrative capital (3,650 m) in the world, higher than Quito.|
|Laayoune (declared)||Western Sahara||The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), recognized by 84 UN member states and South Ossetia, claims the mostly Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara. Moroccan-controlled territory includes Laayoune, and Morocco claims all Sahrawi-controlled territory. Tifariti is the current temporary capital of the SADR (formerly Bir Lehlou). Some government and military structures reside in exile in Tindouf, Algeria. See Also: Politics of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.|
|Tifariti (de facto)|
|Lima||Peru||Cusco is declared the "historical capital" (Spanish: capital histórica), a merely symbolic statement, by Article 49 of the Peruvian Constitution. Arequipa is dubbed the "legal capital" of Peru for being the seat of the Constitutional Court.|
|Lobamba (royal and legislative)||Eswatini|
|London||United Kingdom||Prior to the Acts of Union in 1707, London was the capital of England only; Edinburgh was the capital of the Kingdom of Scotland. The United Kingdom also includes the subdivisions of England (capital London), Scotland (capital Edinburgh), Wales (capital Cardiff), Northern Ireland (capital Belfast).|
|London (administration)||British Indian Ocean Territory||British Overseas Territory. Officially, the British Indian Ocean Territory is administered from London, though some consider the capital to be Diego Garcia.|
|Diego Garcia (de facto)|
|Majuro||Marshall Islands||Self-governing in free association with the United States. The seat of government is at Delap-Uliga-Djarrit, a settlement on the atoll of Majuro.|
|Malabo||Equatorial Guinea||Ciudad de la Paz is currently under construction and will become the new capital when complete.|
|Mariehamn||Åland Islands||Autonomous region of Finland.|
|Marigot||Saint Martin||Overseas collectivity of France.|
|Mata Utu||Wallis and Futuna||Overseas collectivity of France.|
|Monaco||Monaco||City-state. Monaco does not have an official capital designated in its constitution; however, the Commune of Monaco, the country's only commune, is coterminous with the nation, making it the de facto capital.|
|Naypyidaw||Myanmar||Yangon was the capital until 2006. See also: List of capitals of Myanmar.|
|New Delhi||India||Kolkata was the capital of India until 1911 during the British Raj.|
|Ngerulmud||Palau||Self-governing in free association with the United States. Koror City was the capital of Palau until 2006.|
||Nicosia is a divided capital, split between Cyprus, which claims the whole city, and the internationally unrecognized breakaway state of Northern Cyprus.|
|Nouméa||New Caledonia||Overseas territory of France.|
|Nuuk||Greenland||Self-governing country within the Kingdom of Denmark.|
|Oranjestad||Aruba||Self-governing country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.|
|Oslo||Norway||See also: List of historical capitals of Norway.|
|Pago Pago||American Samoa||Territory of the United States.|
|Palikir||Micronesia||Self-governing in free association with the United States. Kolonia is the former capital; and Australia, China, Japan and the United States retain embassies there.|
|Papeete||French Polynesia||Overseas collectivity of France.|
|Paris||France||See also: List of Capitals of France.|
|Philipsburg||Sint Maarten||Self-governing country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.|
|Podgorica||Montenegro||Cetinje has been designated the "Old Royal Capital" and is the present seat of the President.|
|Port Moresby||Papua New Guinea|
|Port of Spain||Trinidad and Tobago|
|Prague||Czech Republic||The Supreme Court of the Czech Republic is located in Brno.|
|Pristina||Kosovo||De facto independent state that is recognized by 114 UN member states, Taiwan, the Cook Islands and Niue.. Claimed in whole by Serbia as part of its Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija. Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.|
|Quito||Ecuador||Highest official capital (2,850 m).|
|Road Town||British Virgin Islands||British Overseas Territory.|
|Rothera||British Antarctic Territory||British Overseas Territory.|
|Saipan||Northern Mariana Islands||Territory of the United States. The seat of government is at Capitol Hill, a settlement on the island of Saipan.|
|San José||Costa Rica|
|San Juan||Puerto Rico||Territory of the United States.|
|San Marino||San Marino|
|San Salvador||El Salvador|
|Santiago||Chile||The National Congress of Chile is located in Valparaíso.|
|Santo Domingo||Dominican Republic|
|São Tomé||São Tomé and Príncipe|
|Sarajevo||Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|Seoul||South Korea||On 2 July 2012, some functions of government moved to Sejong City, which became the de facto administrative capital of South Korea.|
|South Tarawa||Kiribati||South Tarawa is a settlement on the atoll of Tarawa.|
|St. Helier||Jersey||British Crown Dependency.|
|St. John's||Antigua and Barbuda|
|St. Peter Port||Guernsey||British Crown Dependency.|
|St. Pierre||Saint Pierre and Miquelon||Overseas collectivity of France.|
|Stanley||Falkland Islands||British Overseas Territory.|
|Stepanakert||Artsakh||The self-declared country remains diplomatically unrecognized by UN member states, though Transnistria, South Ossetia, and Abkhazia all recognize it. Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan.|
|Sukhumi||Abkhazia||De facto independent state recognized by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Venezuela, and Syria. Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.|
|Taipei||Taiwan||Officially the Republic of China, it has been competing for recognition with the People's Republic of China as the sole Chinese government since 1949. Taiwan controls the island of Taiwan and its associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas, and part of the Spratly Islands.[Note 1] Its territory is claimed in whole by the People's Republic of China.[Note 2] The Republic of China participates in the World Health Organization and a number of non-UN international organizations such as the World Trade Organization, the International Olympic Committee and others under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly Chinese Taipei.|
|Tbilisi||Georgia||From 2012 to 2018, Kutaisi served as Georgia's legislative capital. Additionally, Mtskheta is sometimes called an "ancient capital" of Georgia.|
|Tegucigalpa||Honduras||Comayagüela is declared in the Honduran Constitution as co-official capital with Tegucigalpa. They have since merged into a single urban area.|
|Tiraspol||Transnistria||De facto independent state, not recognized by any UN-member, but by Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and Artsakh. Claimed in whole by Moldova as the autonomous territorial unit of Administrative-Territorial Units of the Left Bank of the Dniester|
|Tokyo||Japan||See also: Capital of Japan.|
|Tórshavn||Faroe Islands||Self-governing country within the Kingdom of Denmark.|
|Tskhinvali||South Ossetia||De facto independent state recognized by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Venezuela, and Syria. Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Provisional Administration of South Ossetia.|
|The Valley||Anguilla||British Overseas Territory.|
|Vatican City||Vatican City||City-state.|
|Warsaw||Poland||Former capitals listed in: Template:Historical capitals of Poland.|
|Washington, D.C.||United States||The capital of the United States has moved multiple times. See also: National capitals of the United States.|
|Wellington||New Zealand||Since 1865. Wellington is New Zealand's third capital. See also: Capital of New Zealand.|
|West Island||Cocos (Keeling) Islands||External territory of Australia.|
|Willemstad||Curaçao||Self-governing country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.|
|Yaren (de facto)||Nauru||Nauru has no official capital; however, the government offices are in Yaren.|
- Sovereignty over the Spratly Islands is disputed by the PRC, the ROC, Vietnam, the Philippines (part), Malaysia (part), and Brunei (part). Except Brunei, each of these countries occupies part of the islands (see List of territorial disputes).
- In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CCP established the People's Republic. As such, the political status of the ROC and the legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC instead of the ROC: most states recognize the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
- "Indonesia announces site of capital city to replace sinking Jakarta". The Guardian. 26 August 2019.
- "Indonesia names new capital that will replace Jakarta". BBC News. 2022-01-18. Retrieved 2022-05-29.
- See the CIA Factbook and Map of Israel
- Sharkansky, Ira (1996). Governing Jerusalem: Again on the world's agenda. Wayne State University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-8143-2592-0.
- Jacobs, Frank (19 June 2012). "Amazonia or Bust!". New York Times. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
- "CIA - The World Factbook -- Western Sahara". June 12, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-06-12.
- "Governance | British Indian Ocean Territory". www.biot.gov.io. Retrieved 2023-09-03.
- "British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT)" (PDF). Island Studies. University of Prince Edward Island.
- Fortin, Jacey (19 December 2012). "Poverty-Stricken Equatorial Guinea Builds Expensive Capital City In The Middle Of Nowhere". International Business Times.
- "Constitution of the Principality". Gouvernement Princier Principauté de Monaco. Principauté de Monaco. 17 December 1962. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
- "Monaco". Britannica. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
- "Nay Pyi Taw | national capital, Myanmar | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2022-05-29.
- "Countries With More Than One Capital City". WorldAtlas. 2022-10-30. Retrieved 2023-09-03.
- "Mtskheta | Ancient Capital, UNESCO Site | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2023-09-03.
- "Georgia marks day of ancient capital Mtskheta, Svetitskhoveli UNESCO monument". Agenda.ge. Retrieved 2023-09-03.
- "Constitution of Honduras" (PDF) (in Spanish). 2010-07-05. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-07-05. Retrieved 2022-11-17.