List of countries by rail transport network size

This list of countries by rail transport network size based on International Union of Railways data ranks countries by length of rail lines worked at end of year updated with other reliable sources. These figures also include urban/suburban mass-transport systems, as well as lines which are not used for passenger services.[citation needed]

List

Country/Territory Length
(km)
Electrified length (km) % of the total electrified Historical peak
length (km)
Area (km2) per route km Population per route km Nationalised
or private[a]
Data year Notes
United States United States 220,480 2,025[1] 0.92% 408,833[2] 43.2 2,060 Freight services private.

Passenger operations primarily public. Infrastructure mostly privately owned.

2014 [3]
China China 150,000 100,000[4] 66.67% 150,000 (in 2021) 63.80[4] 9,570[4] Nationalised 2021 [4]
 Russia 85,600 43,800 51.17% 150,000 199.98 1,678 Nationalised 2022 [5]
 India 68,103 52,247 83.00% 48.23 20,424 Nationalised 2022 [6]
 Canada 49,422 129 0.20% 214.48 674 Freight services private,

Passenger operations primarily public. Infrastructure mostly privately owned.

2017 [7]
 Germany 40,625 22,500 55.38% 64,000 9.26 2,145 Nationalised, with private freight and passenger operators. 2017 [8]
 Argentina 36,966 190 0.51% 47,000 77.45 1,117 Both 2014 [7]
 Australia 33,168 3,393 10.23% 231.91 742 Both 2017 [9]
 Brazil 29,817 9,025 30.27% 299.6 7,225 Both[b] 2014 [10]
 France 29,273 15,687 53.59% 42,500 22.78 2,374 Nationalised 2017 [8]
 Japan 27,311 20,534 75.19% 16.10 5,451 Both 2015 [7]
 Mexico 23,389[11] 27 0.12% 26,914[11] 114.43 6,697 Private 2020 [12]
 South Africa 20,953 7,413 46.51% 58.28 2,577 Nationalised 2017 [13][14][15]
 Poland 19,954 12,165 65% 27,000 (1954)[16] 16.28 2,001 Nationalised[c] 2019 [8][17][18]
 Ukraine 19,787 9,319 46.78% 28.81 2,140 Nationalised 2019 [8][19]
 Iran 16,998 2,200 12.94% 148.41 6,816 Nationalised 2014 [20][21]
 Italy 16,779 13,106 49.45% 24,227 (at least)[d] 17.95 3,614 Nationalised, with private freight and passenger operators. 2016 [8]
 Spain 16,355 11,127 68.03% 18,000+ (in 1950s)[23] 31.73 2,920 Nationalised, with private freight and passenger operators. 2017 [e]
 United Kingdom 15,935 6,048 [27] 38% 34,000 (before
Beeching Axe)
14.86 4,047 Public infrastructure ownership

operations subject to franchising, majority privatized.

2020 [8]
 Sweden 15,543 12,152 78.18% 16,900 (around 1938)[28] 29 672 Nationalised, with private freight and passenger operators. Most services subject to franchising. 2021 [29]
 Kazakhstan 15,530 4,200 27.04% 175 1,146 Nationalised 2016 [8]
 Turkey 12,740 5,467 42.91% 76 7,821 Nationalised 2018 [8][30]
 Myanmar 11,025 0 0% 171.07 12,127 Nationalised 2006 [7]
 Romania 10,774 3,292 30.56% 11,348 (at least)[f] 22.13 1,823 Nationalised, with private freight and passenger operators. 2017 [8]
 Czech Republic 9,567 3,237[32] 33.84% 8.24 1,106 Nationalised, with private freight and passenger operators. 2017 [8]
 Pakistan 8,100 286
(currently inactive)
0.00%(electric lines closed) 8,122 102.18 22759 Nationalised 2015
 Hungary 7,945 2,889 36.36% 11.71 1,233 Nationalised, with private freight and passenger operators. 2017 [8]
 Indonesia 7,032 471 8.77% 7,464 223.31 27853 Nationalised 2022 [33][34]
 Egypt 7,024 62 0.88% 144 13,888 Nationalised 2017 [35]
 Chile 6,634 0.00% 128.2 2,931 Nationalised 2006
 Sudan 6,084 0.00% 339.81 5,640 Nationalised 2006
 Finland 5,926 3,270 55.18% 57.06 929 Nationalised 2017 [8]
 North Korea 5,735 3893.5 61.03% 23.03 4,595 Nationalised 2006 [7]
 Saudi Arabia 5,590 453 8.10% 384.56 6,254 Nationalised 2019 [36]
 Austria 5,527 3,826 69.22% 15.18 1,587 Nationalised, with private freight and passenger operators. 2017 [8]
 Cuba 5,476 0.00% 21.84 2,215 Nationalised 2007
 Belarus 5,459 874 16.01% 38.03 1,741 Nationalised 2016 [8]
 Switzerland 5,196 5,196 100.00% 5,632 7.95 1,585 Nationalised 2015 [8]
 Turkmenistan 5,080 0.00% 153.44 1,585 Nationalised 2014
 South Korea 4,837 3,787 78.29% 20.76 10,716 Nationalised 2020 [37][38]
 Uzbekistan 7,400 2500 38.65% 6,950 94.8 6,969 Nationalised 2020 [39]
 Algeria 4,560 480 10.53% 522.31 9,061 Nationalised 2022 [40]
 New Zealand 4,128 506 12.26% 5,689 64.64 1,070 Nationalised 2018 [7]
 DR Congo 4,096 0.00% 585.19 16,463 2008
 Thailand 4,044 107 2.18% 126.04 16,084 Nationalised 2017 [7]
 Bulgaria 4,030 2,880 71.46% 6507 27.54 1,762 Nationalised 2017 [8]
 Norway 3,848 2,622 68.14% 83.12 1,350 Nationalised, with private freight and passenger operators. 2017 [8]
 Serbia 3,764 1,279 33.98% 23.48 1,866 Nationalised 2017 [8]
 Slovakia 3,626 1,587 43.77% 13.52 1,499 Nationalised 2017 [8]
 Portugal 3,622 1,794 71% 3,592 (Around 1949) 36.13 4,049 Nationalised 2022 [8]
 Belgium 3,607 2,960 82.06% 10,000 including
Vicinal tramways
8.48 3,140 Nationalised 2018 [7][41]
 Nigeria 3,600 0.00% 261.84 44,904 Nationalised 2006
 Vietnam 3,364 0.00% 141.12 27,765 Nationalised 2007
 Mozambique 3,249 0.00% 256.54 6,604 2008
 Zimbabwe 3,136 313 9.98% 130.25 4,190 Nationalised 2010
 Netherlands 3,055 2,314 75.74% 13.59 5,591 Nationalised, with private freight and passenger operators. Rural lines subject to franchising. 2017 [8]
 Uruguay 2,993 0.00% 58.88 1,121 Nationalised 2006
 Bolivia 2,866 0.00% 383.32 3,638 Nationalised 2007
 Bangladesh 2,835 0.00% 50.79 53,392 Nationalised 2008
 Malaysia 2,783 767 27.56% 118.52 11,732 Nationalised 2018 [7]
 Angola 2,761 0.00% 2,764 451.54 6,911 Nationalised 2006 [7]
 Syria 2,750 0.00% 86.57 11,078 Nationalised 2010
 Tanzania 2,722 0.00% 348.02 15,866 Nationalised 2006
 Croatia 2,604 985 37.83% 21.71 1,595 Nationalised 2017 [8]
 Kenya 2,541 0.00% 228.4 17,643 Nationalised 2013 [42]
 Namibia 2,382 0.00% 346.05 877 Nationalised 2006 [7]
 Greece 2,240 764 34.11% 58.91 4,808 Semi-Privatized 2017 [8]
 Ethiopia 2,185 1,401 64.12% 1,675.72 150,935 Nationalised 2016 [43]
 Tunisia 2,165 0.00% 75.57 5,326 Nationalised 2018 [35]
 Morocco 2,109 1,022 48.46% 211.74 16,946 Nationalised 2017 [35]
 Azerbaijan 2,068 1,278 61.80% 41.88 4,666 Nationalised 2015 [8]
 Iraq 2,032 0.00% 215.71 15,587 Nationalised 2006
 Peru 2,020 0.00% 636.25 14,585 Private 2008
 Denmark 1,987 640 32.21% 5,290[44] 21.69 2,893 Nationalised, rural lines franchised 2017 [8]
 Ireland 1,931 53 2.74% 5,600 36.39 2,477 Nationalised 2017 [8]
 Lithuania 1,910 156 6.38% 33.8 1,490 Nationalised 2021 [8][45]
 Latvia 1,860 257[46] 13.82% 35.11 1,048 Nationalised 2017 [8]
 Mongolia 1,810 0.00% 864.15 1,560 Nationalised 2008
 Taiwan 1,782 1,300 72.95% 5,000 21.25 13638 Nationalised (Conventional network), Private (High-Speed network) 2018 [47]
 Colombia 1,663 0.00% 648.85 27,770 Private 2007
 Georgia 1,576 1,288 81.73% 44.23 2,360 Nationalised 2016 [8]
 Sri Lanka 1,508 0.00% 43.51 13,696 Nationalised 2010
 Israel 1,486 112[48][needs update] 4.05% 14.76 6,313 Nationalised 2020 [35][49] excludes urban rail
 Uganda 1,244 0.00% 930.65 122,780 Nationalised 2002
 Zambia 1,237 0.00% 608.42 10,547 2006
 Slovenia 1,209 503 41.60% 16.75 1,709 Nationalised 2017 [8]
 Estonia 1,161 132 11.37% 3,000 38.96 1,134 Both 2017 [8]
 Moldova 1,151 0.00% 29.4 3,084 Nationalised 2017 [8]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,018 565 55.50% 50.29 3,445 Nationalised 2017 [8]
 Cameroon 977 0.00% 1,104 486.63 23,367 2015 [50]
 Ecuador 966 0.00% 293.54 14,810 2006 [7]
 Ghana 953 0.00% 250.30 25,429 2006
 Senegal 906 0.00% 217.12 16,534 2015 [42]
 Botswana 888 0.00% 655.1 2,488 2014
 Guatemala 885 0.00% 123.04 16,228 Private 2004 Service halted since 2006
 Madagascar 848 0.00% 692.27 28,573 2015 [42]
 Guinea 837 0.00% 293.74 11,926 2006 [7]
 Gabon 810 0.00% 330.45 1,858 2007
 Malawi 797 0.00% 148.66 18,696 2007
 Congo 795 0.00% 430.19 5086 Nationalised 2006
 Benin 758 0.00% 148.58 11,581 2006
 Mali 729 0.00% 1,701.22 22,606 2013
 Mauritania 728 0.00% 1,415.80 4,753 Nationalised 2008
 Armenia 703 703 100.00% 42.31 4,168 Nationalised 2016 [8]
 Honduras 699 0.00% 160.36 11,753 2006 [7]
 North Macedonia 683 313 45.83% 37.65 3,037 Nationalised 2017 [8]
 Cambodia 650 0.00% 278.52 24,994 Nationalised 2018 [51]
 Ivory Coast 639 0.00% 504.64 30,889 2007
 Burkina Faso 622 0.00% 440.84 25,291 2006
 Jordan 622 0.00% 143.64 15,598 2017 [35]
 Tajikistan 616 0.00% 232.31 11,167 Nationalised 2007
 Fiji 597 0.00% 30.61 1,442 2006 [7]
 Togo 567.5 0.00% 100 10,613 2006 [7]
 El Salvador 562 0.00% 37.44 10,221 2007
 Philippines 532.3 53.3 10.01% 1,100 560.15[52] 211,800[53] Nationalised 2021 [54]
 Dominican Republic 517 0.00% 94.14 18,141 2006 [7]
 Liberia 490 0.00% 227.28 8,151 Private 2006 [7]
 Laos 424 414 97.64% 561.2 17,587 2021
 Kyrgyzstan 417 0.00% 479.38 13,446 2012 [8]
 Panama 355 0.00% 212.45 9,594 2006 [7]
 Venezuela 336 0.00% 2,714.43 87,458 2006
 Albania 334 0.00% 86.07 8,602 Nationalised with private freight operators 2016 [8]
 Eritrea 306 0.00% 384.31 17,170 Nationalised 2006 [7]
 Eswatini 301 0.00% 57.69 3,940 2008
 Costa Rica 278 0.00% 183.81 16,416 2007 [7]
 Luxembourg 275 275 100.00% 9.4 2,148 Nationalised 2017 [8]
 Hong Kong 268 268 100.00% 5.08 33,165 De-facto nationalised 2014 [55]
 United Arab Emirates 264 0.00% 316 21,893 Nationalised 2020
 Montenegro 250 225 90.00% 55.25 2,490 Nationalised 2017 [8]
 Singapore 240.1 240.1 100.00% 2.95[56] 24,776[57] De-facto nationalised 2021
 Suriname 166 0.00% 986.87 3,163 2001 [7]
 Guyana 127 0.00% 1,149.57 4,197 2001 est. [7]
 Djibouti 92 0.00% 80 252.17 9,203 2016 [58]
 Sierra Leone 84 0.00% 854.05 69,857 2001 [7]
 Afghanistan 75 0.00% 8,696.40 418,827 Nationalised (operated by neighbouring countries) 2011 [59]
 Jamaica 65 0.00% 40.41 9,948 2003 [7]
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 58 0.00% 5.22 1,040 2006 [7]
 Nepal 57 0.00% 2,582.12 514,035 2017 [60]
 Paraguay 38 0.00% 11,298.67 173,056 2006 [7]
 Puerto Rico 17 17 100.00% 370 143.65 38,810 2006 [7]
 Brunei 13 0.00% 443.46 30,692 2001 est. [7]
 Macau 11.5 11.5 100.00% 3,200.00 6,200 Nationalised 2019 LRT
 Liechtenstein 9.5 9.5 100.00% 17.78 4,017 Nationalised (operated by Switzerland and Austria) 2017 [7]
 Nauru 3.9 0.00% 4.20 2,000 2001 [7]
 Monaco 1.7 1.7 100.00% 1.18 20,588 Nationalised (operated by France) 2019 [7]
 Lesotho 1.6 0.00% 10,118.33 723,667 1995 [7]
 Vatican City 0.3 0.00% 0.3 1.47 3,333 Nationalised (operated by Italy) 2019
 European Union[g] 208,211 117,599 56.48% ~223,000[h] 20.46 2,347 Both 2017 [8]
World 1,370,782 372.12 4,814 2006 [7]
Notes
  1. ^ This refers to both track ownership and train operation
  2. ^ Freight transport operated by private companies on public tracks under concession. Commuter rail and metro systems mostly operated by state owned companies.
  3. ^ Most of the railway lines in Poland belong to state-owned or local government companies, which in the case of the latter have a smaller share for the entire country. In the case of narrow-gauge lines, after the restructuring in 2000, none of them belong to PKP anymore, and most of them were taken over by local governments, private companies or associations of railway enthusiasts. Some industrial lines and a short line to Świnoujście Centrum are managed by private managers.
  4. ^ The RFI cited that length as the total railway length in exercise in 2011,[22] but it could have been longer in previous years.
  5. ^ The Spanish railway network comprises the 11,934.3 km of the ADIF network (6,706.4 of them are electrified),[24] the 3,455.7 electrified km of the ADIF AV network,[25] the electrified Catalan FGC (253.4 km) and the electrified Metro networks of Madrid (293 km), Barcelona (166 km), Valencia (156.4 km), Bilbao (51 km), Seville (18 km), Palma (15.6 km) and Málaga (12 km).[26]
  6. ^ The figure is mentioned as the total network length in 1990,[31] but the total network length may have grown after 1990.
  7. ^ The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 27 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The EU is included as a separate entity because it has many attributes of independent nations, being much more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur.[61] Transport and trans-European networks are among shared competence between EU and member states. As the EU is not a country, the United States is the first ranked country on these lists.
  8. ^ The sum of all countries of the European Union appearing in this article.

Countries currently without a rail network

See also

References

Primary source

UIC data

Citations
  1. ^ Freeman, Richard; Cooper, Hal (Summer 2005). "Why Electrified Rail Is Superior" (PDF). 21st Century. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  2. ^ Rodrigue, Dr. Jean-Paul. "The Geography of Transport Systems". New York: Routledge. Archived from the original on 17 February 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
  3. ^ 2014 "U.S. Railroad Route Miles and Revenue". Rail Serve. {{cite web}}: Check |url= value (help)
  4. ^ a b c d "2021年全国铁路营业里程突破15万公里 高铁超4万公里" [The national railway operating mileage has exceeded 150,000 kilometers in 2021]. China News (in Chinese). 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  5. ^ "Russian Railways". Archived from the original on 14 April 2020.
  6. ^ "Indian Railways Year Book 2020-21" (PDF).
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah "The World Bank". data.worldbank.org. The World Bank. 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an "Rede Ferroviária | Infraestruturas de Portugal". United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  9. ^ Trainline 5 (PDF). Canberra: Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics. November 2017. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-925531-80-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  10. ^ "Ferrovias Brasileiras". gov.br (in Portuguese). Ministério da Infraestrutura. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  11. ^ a b Ferroviario, Agencia Reguladora del Transporte. "Sistema Ferroviario Mexicano". gob.mx (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  12. ^ Ferroviario, Agencia Reguladora del Transporte. "Sistema Ferroviario Mexicano". gob.mx (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  13. ^ "South Africa: Transnet Freight rail 2017" (PDF). Transnet. 18 February 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
  14. ^ "South Africa Length of rail lines, 1960-2021". knoema.com. 2 June 2022. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  15. ^ "South Africa's railways: How thieves have destroyed the network". BBC News. February 2022.
  16. ^ Falkowski, Mariusz; Pytel, Marek (25 March 2015). "Analiza geopolityczna aktualnego stanu sieci kolejowej w Polsce" [Geopolitical analysis of the current state of the railway network in Poland]. Geopolitical (in Polish). Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  17. ^ "Stan techniczny infrastruktury kolejowej a inwestycje w 2019 R".
  18. ^ "Koleje wąskotorowe w Polsce w 2020 r. Jak pandemia wpłynęła na ruch turystyczny? - Aktualności - Portal statystyczny UTK". Dane.utk.gov.pl. 27 October 2021. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  19. ^ "Статистичні дані про Українські залізниці".
  20. ^ "Islamic Republic Of Iran Railways :: راه آهن جمهوري اسلامي ايران". Rai.ir. Archived from the original on 15 August 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
  21. ^ The figure includes passenger, commercial and industrial railroads; More information can be found at Islamic Republic of Iran Railways
  22. ^ "La rete oggi" (in Italian). Archived from the original on 4 December 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  23. ^ "Las líneas férreas desmanteladas en Andalucía: Diagnóstico para su uso como itinerarios no monotorizados" (in Spanish). Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  24. ^ "Declaración sobre la Red Adif 2020 (Documento Completo) V.0. Edición 4 de junio 2020" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  25. ^ "Declaración sobre la Red ADIF Alta Velocidad 2020 (Documento Completo) V.1. Edición 5 de agosto de 2020" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  26. ^ "World Metro Database". Metrobits. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  27. ^ "Rail Infrastructure and Assets 2019-20 Annual Statistical Release" (PDF). Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  28. ^ "Banguiden. Kort svensk järnvägshistoria" [Brief Swedish railway history]. järnväg.net [Railways]- the guide to Sweden's trains and railways (in Swedish). Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  29. ^ "Bantrafik 2021". 23 June 2022. p. Table 2.1. Retrieved 2 December 2022.
  30. ^ "TCDD Annual Report 2018". Turkish Railways. 14 August 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  31. ^ "Romania's Railway Development 1950–1989: Changing Priorities for Socialist Construction" (PDF). Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  32. ^ "Provozní délka elektrizovaných tratí (km)" [Operating length of electrified lines (km) (Source Eurostat)]. Transport Yearbook (in Czech). 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  33. ^ Liputan6.com (6 July 2022). "Indonesia Target Punya 10.524 Km Jaringan Kereta Api hingga 2030". liputan6.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  34. ^ "SEJARAH PERKERETAAPIAN INDONESIA" [HISTORY OF INDONESIAN RAILWAYS (1864 - 2017)]. Ministry of Transportation (in Malay). Retrieved 27 June 2021. Indonesia is the second country in Asia (after India) to have the oldest railway network. China and Japan only followed later.
  35. ^ a b c d e "Rail infrastructure: length of network". Eurostat. 6 February 2019. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  36. ^ AlMalik, Bashar, "Saudi Railway Company." International Rail Congress 2019, Zwölf-Apostolkeller,Wien, Austria, March 18, 2019.
  37. ^ https://www.kric.go.kr/KricFileDownload.do?file=M010307_199[bare URL]
  38. ^ https://www.kric.go.kr/KricFileDownload.do?file=M010307_198[bare URL]
  39. ^ "Mamlakatda elektrlashtirilgan temir yo'l uchastkalarining ulushi ortib bormoqda". www.stat.uz. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  40. ^ "Chiffres clés". sntf.dz. Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  41. ^ Regul. "Marktmonitoing Spoor 2018" (PDF) (in Dutch). Regul. p. 6. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  42. ^ a b c "Rail Infrastructure in Africa: Financing Policy Options" (PDF). African Development Bank Group. 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  43. ^ "Chinese, Ethiopian firms sign railway project deal|Africa|chinadaily.com.cn". usa.chinadaily.com.cn. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  44. ^ "Danmarks jernbaner | lex.dk". Den Store Danske (in Danish). Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  45. ^ https://ltginfra.lt/documents/12778/114099/2021_2022m._TTT_Infrastrukturos_tinklo_nuostatai2_2021_05_21.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  46. ^ "Latvia's plans to electrify its network". Reilway Pro. 21 December 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  47. ^ "Statistical Abstract of Transportation & Communications – Mileage of Railways in Taiwan Area". MOTC, ROC(Taiwan). Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  48. ^ "Jerusalem - Tel Aviv fast rail link finally begins operations". Globes. 22 December 2019. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  49. ^ "Table 19.3 – Railway Services" (PDF). Statistical Abstract of Israel 72. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 21 July 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  50. ^ "Case Sudy: Camrail" (PDF). The World Bank. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  51. ^ "Railway Services". Cambodia Ministry of Public Works and Transport. 3 November 2018. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  52. ^ "Land area (sq. km) - Philippines | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  53. ^ "Philippines Population (2022) - Worldometer". www.worldometers.info. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  54. ^ "Sad saga of PNR". Opinion. Philippine Daily Inquirer. 13 May 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  55. ^ "Railway Development Strategy" (PDF). Hong Kong Transport and Housing Bureau. September 2014. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  56. ^ "Land area (sq. km) - Singapore | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  57. ^ "Singapore Population (2022) - Worldometer". www.worldometers.info. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  58. ^ Mahdi Miad. "Ethiopia-Djibouti Railway Line to Start Early 2016 | DP World – Doraleh Website". dpworld-doraleh.com. Archived from the original on 31 July 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  59. ^ "Afghanistan opens first ever train route". Telegraph.co.uk. 21 December 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  60. ^ Poonam Neupane (28 December 2017). "Railways in Nepal with History, Research, Present Condition & Future Plan". imnepal.com. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  61. ^ CIA (2014). "The World Factbook". Retrieved 15 March 2015. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook.
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