|Location||South Sulawesi, Indonesia|
|Native name||Danau Matano (Indonesian)|
|Primary outflows||Penten River|
|Max. length||28 km (17 mi)|
|Max. width||8 km (5.0 mi)|
|Surface area||164.1 km2 (63.4 sq mi)|
|Max. depth||590 m (1,940 ft)|
|Surface elevation||382 m (1,253 ft)|
Lake Matano (Indonesian: Danau Matano), also known as Matana, is a natural lake in East Luwu Regency, South Sulawesi province, Indonesia. With a depth of 590 m (1,940 ft), it is the deepest lake in Indonesia (ranked by maximum depth), the 10th deepest lake in the world and the deepest lake on an island by maximum depth. The surface elevation from mean sea level is only 382 m (1,253 ft), which means that the deepest portion of the lake is below sea level (cryptodepression). It is one of the two major lakes (the other being Lake Towuti) in the Malili Lake system.
Endemic animals and plants
Lake Matano is home to many species of endemic fish and other animals (e.g. Caridina shrimps, Parathelphusid crabs and Tylomelania snails) as well as many plants. The endemic fishes of Matano have been compared to the species swarms of the Rift Valley Lakes of Africa. While not as diverse, they are thought to have all arisen from a single ancestor species and diversified into numerous different species, which now fill many of the previously vacant ecological niches, as can be seen in the family Telmatherinidae. Endemic and near-endemic fishes from other families include Glossogobius matanensis, Mugilogobius adeia, Nomorhamphus weberi and Oryzias matanensis. Many of the endemics are seriously threatened due to pollution and predation/competition from a wide range of introduced fishes, including flowerhorn cichlids.
The water snake Enhydris matannensis is only known from the vicinity of Lake Matano and on Muna Island.
Below the top layer of oxygenated water, Lake Matano's depths are anoxic, free of sulfates, and rich in iron. These conditions make Lake Matano an analog for Earth's oceans during the Archean Eon, which is useful for studying relationships between anoxygenic phototrophs and banded iron formations. The lake contains a population of green sulfur bacteria that conducts photosynthesis with bacteriochlorophyll e.
Lake Matano Festival
To lure foreign tourists of the beauty of Lake Matano and surrounding as a new icon of South Sulawesi, the first annually Lake Matano Festival was held in May 2015 with some attractions such as competition of running, cycling and swimming.
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- IIN NURFAHRAENI DEWIPUTI (22 February 2015). "Lake Matano Festival to be South Sulawesi's Cultural Attraction".