Lake Matano

Matano
Matano Sunset.jpg
Lake Matano at sunset
Matano is located in Indonesia
Matano
Matano
Matano is located in Sulawesi
Matano
Matano
LocationSouth Sulawesi, Indonesia
Coordinates2°29′7″S 121°20′0″E / 2.48528°S 121.33333°E / -2.48528; 121.33333Coordinates: 2°29′7″S 121°20′0″E / 2.48528°S 121.33333°E / -2.48528; 121.33333
TypeTectonic
Native nameDanau Matano (Indonesian)
Primary outflowsPenten River
Basin countriesIndonesia
Max. length28 km (17 mi)[1]
Max. width8 km (5.0 mi)[1]
Surface area164.1 km2 (63.4 sq mi)
Max. depth590 m (1,940 ft)[1]
Surface elevation382 m (1,253 ft)[1]

Lake Matano (Indonesian: Danau Matano), also known as Matana, is a natural lake in East Luwu Regency, South Sulawesi province, Indonesia. With a depth of 590 m (1,940 ft), it is the deepest lake in Indonesia (ranked by maximum depth), the 10th deepest lake in the world and the deepest lake on an island by maximum depth. The surface elevation from mean sea level is only 382 m (1,253 ft), which means that the deepest portion of the lake is below sea level (cryptodepression). It is one of the two major lakes (the other being Lake Towuti) in the Malili Lake system.

Endemic animals and plants

Lake Matano is home to many species of endemic fish and other animals (e.g. Caridina shrimps,[2] Parathelphusid crabs[3] and Tylomelania snails[4]) as well as many plants. The endemic fishes of Matano have been compared to the species swarms of the Rift Valley Lakes of Africa. While not as diverse, they are thought to have all arisen from a single ancestor species and diversified into numerous different species, which now fill many of the previously vacant ecological niches, as can be seen in the family Telmatherinidae.[5] Endemic and near-endemic fishes from other families include Glossogobius matanensis, Mugilogobius adeia, Nomorhamphus weberi and Oryzias matanensis. Many of the endemics are seriously threatened due to pollution and predation/competition from a wide range of introduced fishes, including flowerhorn cichlids.[6]

The water snake Enhydris matannensis is only known from the vicinity of Lake Matano and on Muna Island.[7]

Chemistry

Below the top layer of oxygenated water, Lake Matano's depths are anoxic, free of sulfates, and rich in iron.[8] These conditions make Lake Matano an analog for Earth's oceans during the Archean Eon,[9] which is useful for studying relationships between anoxygenic phototrophs and banded iron formations.[10] The lake contains a population of green sulfur bacteria that conducts photosynthesis with bacteriochlorophyll e.[10]

Lake Matano Festival

To lure foreign tourists of the beauty of Lake Matano and surrounding as a new icon of South Sulawesi, the first annually Lake Matano Festival was held in May 2015 with some attractions such as competition of running, cycling and swimming.[11]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Crowe, Sean A. (2008), "The biogeochemistry of tropical lakes: A case study from Lake Matano, Indonesia", Limnology and Oceanography, 53 (1): 319–331, doi:10.4319/lo.2008.53.1.0319
  2. ^ von Rintelen, K., and Y. Cai (2009). Radiation of endemic species flocks in ancient lakes: systematic revision of the freshwater shrimp Caridina H. Milne Edwards, 1837 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae) from the ancient lakes Of Sulawesi, Indonesia, with the description of eight new species. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 57: 343-452.
  3. ^ Chia, O. C. K. and Ng, P. K. L. (2006). The freshwater crabs of Sulawesi, with descriptions of two new genera and four new species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Parathelphusidae). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Singapore 54: 381–428.
  4. ^ von Rintelen , T., K. von Rintelen, and M. Glaubrecht (2010). The species flock of the viviparous freshwater gastropod Tylomelania (Mollusca: Cerithioidea: Pachychilidae) in the ancient lakes of Sulawesi, Indonesia: the role of geography, trophic morphology and colour as driving forces in adaptive radiation. pp. 485-512 in: Glaubrecht, M., and H. Schneider, eds. (2010). Evolution in Action: Adaptive Radiations and the Origins of Biodiversity. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany.
  5. ^ Herder, F., J. Pfaender, and U.K. Schliewen (2008). Adaptive sympatric speciation of polychromatic "roundfin" sailfin silverside fish in Lake Matano (Sulawesi). Evolution 62(9): 2178-95
  6. ^ Herder, F., U.K. Schliewen, M.F. Geiger, R.K. Hadiaty, S.M. Gray, J.S. McKinnon, R.P. Walter and J. Pfaender (2012) Alien invasion in Wallace's Dreamponds: records of the hybridogenic “flowerhorn” cichlid in Lake Matano, with an annotated checklist of fish species introduced to the Malili Lakes system in Sulawesi. Aquatic Invasions 7(4): 521–535
  7. ^ Murphy, J. (2010). "Enhydris matannensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2010: e.T176696A7285471. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T176696A7285471.en.
  8. ^ Perkins, Sid (2009), "The iron record of Earth's oxygen", Science News (published 20 June 2009), vol. 175, no. 13, pp. 24–28, doi:10.1002/scin.5591751321, ISSN 0036-8423, retrieved 30 June 2009
  9. ^ Crowe, Sean (2008), Biogeochemical cycling in iron-rich Lake Matano, Indonesia: An early ocean analogue, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, retrieved 30 June 2009
  10. ^ a b Crowe, Sean; Jones, CarriAyne; Katsev, Sergei; Magen, Cédric; O'Neill, AH; Sturm, A; Canfield, DE; Haffner, GD; et al. (2008), "Photoferrotrophs thrive in an Archean Ocean analogue", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (published 14 October 2008), vol. 105, no. 41, pp. 15938–43, doi:10.1073/pnas.0805313105, ISSN 0148-0227, PMC 2572968, PMID 18838679
  11. ^ IIN NURFAHRAENI DEWIPUTI (22 February 2015). "Lake Matano Festival to be South Sulawesi's Cultural Attraction".
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