Jet (fluid)

Jets from a pump-jet on a ferry.
A relativistic jet emitted from galaxy M87, as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope.

A jet is a stream of fluid that is projected into a surrounding medium, usually from some kind of a nozzle, aperture or orifice.[1] Jets can travel long distances[quantify] without dissipating.

Jet fluid has higher momentum compared to the surrounding fluid medium. In the case that the surrounding medium is assumed to be made up of the same fluid as the jet, and this fluid has a viscosity, the surrounding fluid is carried along with the jet in a process called entrainment.[2]

Some animals, notably cephalopods, move by jet propulsion, as do rocket engines and jet engines.


Liquid jets are used in many different areas. In everyday life, you can find them for instance coming from the water tap, the showerhead, and from spray cans. In agriculture, they play a role in irrigation and in the application of crop protection products. In the field of medicine, you can find liquid jets for example in injection procedures or inhalers. Industry uses liquid jets for waterjet cutting, for coating materials or in cooling towers. Atomized liquid jets are essential for the efficiency of internal combustion engines. But they also play a crucial role in research, for example in the study of proteins,[3] phase transitions,[4] extreme states of matter,[5] laser plasmas,[6] High harmonic generation,[7] and also in particle physics experiments.[8] Also some animals, notably cephalopods, move by jet propulsion. Gas jets are found in rocket engines and jet engines.

See also


  1. ^ "Definition of JET". Retrieved 2022-01-13.
  2. ^ Swain, Prakash Chandra (2016). "Fluid Dynamics Lecture Notes" (PDF). Retrieved 26 July 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. ^ Frauke Bierau; et al. (2010), "Catching Proteins in Liquid Helium Droplets", Physical Review Letters, vol. 105, no. 13, p. 133402, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.133402
  4. ^ Matthias Kühnel; et al. (2011), "Time-Resolved Study of Crystallization in Deeply Cooled Liquid Parahydrogen", Physical Review Letters, vol. 106, p. 245301, doi:10.1103/physrevlett.106.245301
  5. ^ Neumayer, P; et al. (2012), "Evidence for ultra-fast heating in intense-laser irradiated reduced-mass targets", Physics of Plasmas, vol. 19, p. 122708, doi:10.1063/1.4772773
  6. ^ R. A. Costa Fraga; et al. (2012), "Compact cryogenic source of periodic hydrogen and argon droplet beams for relativistic laser-plasma generation", Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 83, p. 025102, doi:10.1063/1.3681940
  7. ^ T.T. Luu; Z. Yin; et al. (2018), "Extreme–ultraviolet high–harmonic generation in liquids", Nature Communication, vol. 19, p. 3723, doi:10.1038/s41467-018-06040-4{{citation}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ Gianluigi Boca (2014), "The PANDA experiment: physics goals and experimental setup", EPJ Web of Conferences, vol. 72, p. 00002, doi:10.1051/epjconf/20147200002
  • Pijush K. Kundu and Ira M. Cohen, "Fluid mechanics, Volume 10", Elsevier, Burlington, MA,USA (2008), ISBN 978-0-12-373735-9
  • Falkovich, G. (2011). Fluid Mechanics, a short course for physicists. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-00575-4.
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