Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan as portrayed in a 14th-century Yuan era album; now located in the National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan. The original version was in black and white; produced by the Mongol painter Ho-li-hosun in 1278 under the commission of Kublai Khan.
Great Khan of the Mongol Empire
ReignSpring 1206 – August 25, 1227
CoronationSpring 1206 in a Kurultai at the Onon River, in modern-day Mongolia
SuccessorTolui (as regent)
Ögedei Khan
BornTemüjin[note 1]
c. 1162[2]
Khentii Mountains, Khamag Mongol
Died(1227-08-25)August 25, 1227[3]
Xingqing, Western Xia
Genghis Khan
Mongol: Чингис хаан Chinggis Khaan
[t͡ʃʰiŋɡɪs xaːŋ]
Mongol script: ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ
Chinggis Qa(gh)an/ Chinggis Khagan[note 3]
Posthumous name
Emperor Fatian Qiyun Shengwu (法天啟運聖武皇帝)[4][5]
Temple name
Taizu (太祖)[4][6][7]

Genghis Khan[note 4] (born Temüjin;[note 1] c. 1162 – August 25, 1227)[2] was the founder and first Great Khan (Emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of the Mongol steppe and being proclaimed the universal ruler of the Mongols, or Genghis Khan. With the tribes of Northeast Asia largely under his control, he set in motion the Mongol invasions, which ultimately witnessed the conquest of much of Eurasia, and incursions by Mongol raiding parties as far west as Legnica in western Poland and as far south as Gaza. He personally led campaigns against the Qara Khitai, Khwarezmia, the Western Xia and Jin dynasty, while his generals raided into medieval Georgia, Circassia, the Kievan Rus', and Volga Bulgaria. By the end of the Genghis Khan's life, the Mongol Empire occupied a large part of Central Asia and present-day China.[11]

His exceptional military successes made Genghis Khan one of the most significant conquerors of all time, and left a fearsome reputation in local histories.[12] Medieval chroniclers and modern historians describe the Mongol conquests as resulting in destruction of such scale that it drastically reduced the population in some regions. Anywhere from about four million to sixty million people died by means of war, disease and famine as a consequence of the Genghis Khan's military campaigns.[13][14][15] The legacy of Genghis Khan has also been portrayed positively by commentators ranging from medieval and renaissance scholars in Europe to modern historians due to the spread of technological and artistic ideas under Mongol rule and influence.[16]

Beyond his military successes, Genghis Khan's achievements included the establishment of Mongol law, which promoted meritocracy and religious tolerance, and the adoption of the Uyghur script across his empire. Present-day Mongolians regard him as the founding father of Mongolia for unifying the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia.[17] By bringing the Silk Road under one cohesive political environment, he also considerably eased communication and trade between Northeast Asia, Muslim Southwest Asia, and Christian Europe, boosting global commerce and expanding the cultural horizons of all the Eurasian civilizations of the day.[18]

Names and titles

According to The Secret History of the Mongols, Genghis Khan's birth name Temüjin (Chinese: 鐵木眞; pinyin: Tiěmùzhēn) came from the Tatar chief Temüjin-üge whom his father had just captured. The name Temüjin is also equated with the Turco-Mongol temürči(n), "blacksmith", and there existed a tradition that viewed Genghis Khan as a smith, according to Paul Pelliot, which, though unfounded, was well established by the middle of the 13th century.[19]

Genghis Khan is an honorary title meaning "universal ruler" that represents an aggrandization of the pre-existing title of Khan that is used to denote a clan chief in Mongolian. The appellation of "Genghis" to the term is thought to derive from the Turkic word "tengiz", meaning sea, making the honorary title literally "oceanic ruler", but understood more broadly as a metaphor for the universality or totality of Temüjin's rule from a Mongol perspective.[20][21]

When Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty in 1271, he had his grandfather Genghis Khan placed in official records and accorded him the temple name Taizu (Chinese: 太祖)[6][7] and the posthumous name Emperor Shengwu (Chinese: 聖武皇帝). Genghis Khan is thus also referred to as Yuan Taizu (Emperor Taizu of Yuan; Chinese: 元太祖) in Chinese historiography. Külüg Khan later expanded Genghis Khan's title to Emperor Fatian Qiyun Shengwu (Chinese: 法天啟運聖武皇帝).[5]

Early life

Lineage and birth

Burkhan Khaldun mountain
Autumn at the Onon River, Mongolia, the region where Temüjin was born and grew up

Temüjin was born the first son of Hoelun, second wife of his father Yesügei, who was the chief of the Borjigin clan in the nomadic Khamag Mongol confederation,[21] nephew to Ambaghai and Hotula Khan,[22][23] and an ally of Toghrul of the Keraite tribe.[24] Temüjin was related on his father's side to Khabul Khan, Ambaghai, and Hotula Khan, who had headed the Khamag Mongol confederation and were descendants of Bodonchar Munkhag (c. 900),[25][26] while his mother Hoelun was from the Olkhunut sub-lineage of the Khongirad tribe.[27][28] Temüjin's noble background made it easier for him, later in life, to solicit help from and eventually consolidate the other Mongol tribes.[29]

There is considerable uncertainty surrounding both the date and location of Temüjin's birth, with historical accounts assigning dates of birth ranging from 1155 to 1182 and a wide variety of possible birth locations. The Arab historian Rashid al-Din asserted that Temüjin was born in 1155, while the History of Yuan records his year of birth as 1162 and Tibetan sources implausibly present 1182 as the correct date.[2] Modern historical studies have largely attested the 1162 date presented by the Chinese history as the most realistic, given the significant problems associated with how either the 1155 or 1182 dates would reflect on other events in Temüjin's timeline.[25] Accepting a birth in 1155, for instance, would render Temüjin a father at the age of 30 and would imply that he personally commanded the expedition against the Tanguts at the age of 72.[25] The Secret History of the Mongols relates that Temüjin was an infant during the attack by the Merkits, when a birth date of 1155 would have made him 18 years old.[25] The 1162 date has meanwhile been attested by various sources, including a 1992 study of the Mongol calendar commissioned by UNESCO that suggested the specific date of 1 May 1162.[2]

The location of Temüjin's birth is largely shrouded in mystery, with a wide range of locations proposed, many in the vicinity of the mountain Burkhan Khaldun. One such location is Delüün Boldog, which lies near the rivers Onon and Kherlen.[25]

Tribal upbringing

Temüjin grew up with three brothers, Qasar, Hachiun, and Temüge; one sister, Temülen; and two half-brothers, Behter and Belgutei. As was common to nomads in Mongolia, Temüjin's early life was marked by difficulties.[30]

At age nine, his father arranged a marriage for him and delivered him to the family of his future wife Börte of the tribe Khongirad. Temüjin was to live there serving the head of the household Dai Setsen until the marriageable age of 12.[31][32] While heading home, his father ran into the neighboring Tatars, who had long been Mongol enemies, and they offered his father food under the guise of hospitality, but instead poisoned him. Upon learning this, Temüjin returned home to claim his father's position as chief, but the tribe refused him and abandoned the family, leaving it without protection.[33]

For the next several years, the family lived in poverty, surviving mostly on wild fruits, ox carcasses, marmots, and other small game killed by Temüjin and his brothers.[34] During this time, Temüjin's mother, Hoelun, taught him about Mongol politics, including the lack of unity between the different clans and the need for arranged marriages to solidify temporary alliances, and strong alliances to ultimately ensure the stability of Mongolia.[35] Indeed, he was later successful, in part, because of his mother's role as a warrior in battle.[36]

Over time, Temüjin's older half-brother Behter began to exercise power as the eldest male in the family,[34] creating tension in the family that boiled over during one hunting excursion by the men of the family and resulted in the death of Behter at the hands of Temüjin and his brother Qasar.[34]

Later, in a raid around 1177, Temüjin was captured by his father's former allies, the Tayichi'ud, enslaved, and, reportedly humiliated by being shacked in a cangue (a form of portable stocks). With the help of a sympathetic guard, he escaped from the ger (yurt) at night by hiding in a river crevice.[37] The escape earned Temüjin a reputation. Soon, Jelme and Bo'orchu joined forces with him, and they and the guard's son Chilaun eventually became generals of Genghis Khan.[38]

Wives and concubines

As was common for powerful Mongol men, Temüjin had many wives and concubines.[39] These women were often queens or princesses that were taken captive from the territories he conquered or gifted to him by allies, vassals, or other tribal acquaintances.[40] His principal or most famous wives and concubines included: Börte, Yesugen, Yesui, Khulan Khatun, Möge Khatun, Juerbiesu, and Ibaqa Beki.

He gave several of his high-status wives their own ordos or camps to live in and manage. Each camp also contained junior wives, concubines, and children. It was the job of the Kheshig (Mongol imperial guard) to protect the yurts of Temüjin's wives. The guards had to pay particular attention to the individual yurt and camp in which Temüjin slept, which could change every night as he visited different wives.[41] When he set out on his military conquests, he usually took one wife with him and left the rest of his wives and concubines to manage the empire in his absence.[42]

Unification of the Mongols, 1184–1206

The locations of the Mongolian tribes during the Khitan Liao dynasty (907–1125)

In the early 12th century, the Central Asian plateau north of China was divided into several prominent tribal confederations, including Naimans, Merkits, Tatars, Khamag Mongols, and Keraites, that were often unfriendly towards each other, as evidenced by random raids, revenge attacks, and plundering.

Temüjin began his ascent to power by offering himself as an ally to his father's anda, or sworn blood brother, Toghrul, who was Khan of the Keraites. This relationship was reinforced when Börte was kidnapped by Merkits in around 1184. To win her back, Temüjin called on the support of Toghrul, who offered 20,000 of his Keraite warriors and suggested that Temüjin involve his childhood friend Jamukha, who was Khan of his own tribe, the Jadaran.[43]

Rift with Jamukha and defeat

As Jamukha and Temüjin began consolidating power, they soon became rivals. Jamukha supported the traditional Mongolian aristocracy, while Temüjin followed a meritocratic method, and attracted a broader range and lower class of followers.[44] Following his earlier defeat of the Merkits, and a proclamation by the shaman Kokochu that the Eternal Blue Sky had set aside the world for him, Temüjin began rising to power.[45] In 1186, Temüjin was elected khan of the Mongols. Threatened by this rise, Jamukha attacked Temujin in 1187 with an army of 30,000 troops. Temüjin gathered his followers to defend against the attack, but was decisively beaten in the Battle of Dalan Balzhut.[45][46] However, Jamukha horrified and alienated potential followers by boiling 70 young male captives alive in cauldrons.[47] Toghrul, as Temüjin's patron, was exiled to the Qara Khitai.[48] The life of Temüjin for the next 10 years is unclear, as historical records are mostly silent on that period.[48]

Return to power

Jurchen inscription (1196) in Mongolia relating to Temüjin's alliance with the Jin against the Tatars

Around the year 1197, the Jin initiated an attack against their formal vassal, the Tatars, with help from the Keraites and Mongols. Temüjin commanded part of this attack, and after victory, he and Toghrul were restored by the Jin to positions of power.[48] The Jin bestowed Toghrul with the honorable title of Ong Khan, and Temüjin with a lesser title of j'aut quri.[49] By around 1200, the main rivals of the Mongol confederation were the Naimans to the west, the Merkits to the north, the Tanguts to the south, and the Jin to the east.

In his rule and his conquest of rival tribes, Temüjin broke with Mongol tradition in a few crucial ways, including by delegating authority based on merit and loyalty, rather than family ties.[50] As an incentive for absolute obedience and the Yassa code of law, Temüjin promised civilians and soldiers wealth from future war spoils. When he defeated rival tribes, he did not drive away their soldiers and abandon their civilians. Instead, he took the conquered tribe under his protection and integrated its members into his own tribe. He would even have his mother adopt orphans from the conquered tribe, bringing them into his family. These political innovations inspired loyalty among the conquered people, making Temüjin stronger with each victory.[50]

Rift with Toghrul

Genghis Khan and Toghrul Khan, illustration from a 15th-century Jami' al-tawarikh manuscript

Tensions between Temüjin and Toghrul first developed when Senggum, the son of Toghrul, envious of Temüjin's rising power, stirred tensions between the Temüjin and his father. Despite being saved multiple times by Temüjin, Toghrul was swayed by his son and became uncooperative with Temüjin. The rift deepened when Toghrul refused to give his daughter in marriage to Jochi, Temüjin's first son. This was disrespectful in Mongolian culture and led to open war, with Toghrul allying with Jamukha, who already opposed Temüjin. However, due to acrimony between Toghrul and Jamukha, as well as the desertion of some of their allies to Temüjin, Toghrul was defeated, while Jamukha escaped. This defeat was a catalyst for the eventual dissolution of the Keraites.[51]

Temüjin proceeded to conquer the Alchi Tatars, Keraites and Uhaz Merkits, before turning to the next threat on the steppe, the Turkic Naimans under the leadership of Tayang Khan with whom Jamukha and his followers had taken refuge.[52] In 1201, a Kurultai elected Jamukha as Gür Khan, a title used by the rulers of the Qara Khitai. Jamukha's assumption of this title was the final breach with Temüjin, and Jamukha formed a coalition of tribes to oppose him. Before the conflict, several generals abandoned Jamukha, including Subutai, Jelme's well-known younger brother. After several battles, Jamukha was captured in 1205.[53] According to The Secret History of the Mongols, Temüjin again offered his friendship to Jamukha. Temüjin had killed the men who betrayed Jamukha, stating that he did not want disloyal men in his army. Jamukha refused the offer, saying that there can only be one sun in the sky, and he asked for a noble death. The custom was to die without spilling blood, specifically by having one's back broken. According to one account, Jamukha was executed by suffocation.[54]

Early forays against the Western Xia

Genghis Khan proclaimed Khagan of all Mongols. Illustration from a 15th-century Jami' al-tawarikh manuscript.

During the political rise of Genghis Khan, the Mongol Empire shared its western borders with the Western Xia dynasty. Though militarily inferior to the neighboring Jin dynasty, it still exerted a significant influence upon the adjacent northern steppes.[55] In 1203, the leader of the Keraites, Ong Khan, was defeated by the emerging Mongol Empire led by Temüjin. One of the Keraite leaders, Nilqa Senggum, sought refuge in Western Xia before being expelled.[55] Using the extension of temporary refuge to a Keraite as a pretext, Temüjin launched a raid into the Edsin region in 1205.[55]

Proclamation as ruler of the Mongol steppe

The next year, in 1206, Temüjin was formally proclaimed Genghis Khan, marking the official start of the Mongol Empire. By this point, Temüjin had managed to unite or subdue the Merkits, Naimans, Mongols, Keraites, Tatars, Uyghurs, and other disparate smaller tribes under his rule, transforming previously warring tribes into a single political and military force. The union became known as the Mongols. At a Khuruldai, a council of Mongol chiefs, Temüjin was acknowledged as Khan of the consolidated tribes and took the new title "Genghis Khan". According to The Secret History of the Mongols, the chieftains of the conquered tribes pledged to Genghis Khan by proclaiming:

"We will make you Khan; you shall ride at our head, against our foes. We will throw ourselves like lightning on your enemies. We will bring you their finest women and girls, their rich tents like palaces."[56][57]

Main Mongol military campaigns, 1207–1227

Western Xia, 1207–1209

Mongol Empire c. 1207

The same year as Temüjin was proclaimed Khan, Emperor Huanzong of Western Xia was deposed by Li Anquan, leaving the territory in a weakened state. In 1207, Genghis Khan led another raid into Western Xia, invading the Ordos region and sacking Wuhai, the main garrison along the Yellow River, before withdrawing in 1208. Genghis then began preparing for a full-scale invasion.[58] By invading Western Xia, Genghis sought to gain a tribute-paying vassal and control of the caravan routes along the Silk Road.[59]

Mongol invasion of Western Xia in 1209

In 1209, Genghis Khan launched a campaign to conquer Western Xia. Li Anquan requested aid from the Jin dynasty, but the new Jin emperor, Wanyan Yongji, refused to send help, stating that it was to the Jin's advantage for the Mongols and Western Xia to fight each other.[60] Genghis captured several cities along the Yellow River, including Wulahai, and reached the fortress Kiemen which guarded the only pass through the Helan Mountains to the capital, Yinchuan.[60] The fortress proved too difficult to capture, but after a two-month stand-off the Mongols feinted a retreat, lured the garrison out and destroying it.[60] With the path now open, Genghis advanced to the capital, which held a garrison of about 150,000 soldiers, nearly twice the size and the Mongol army.[61] The Mongols arrived in May, but were not equipped or experienced enough to take the city, and by October were still unsuccessful.[55] Genghis attempted to flood the capital by diverting the river, but the plan failed.[55] Despite this setback, the Mongols still posed a threat to Western Xia, and with the state's crops destroyed and no relief coming from the Jin, Li Anquan agreed to submit to Mongol rule by giving a daughter, Chaka, in marriage to Genghis and paying a tribute of camels, falcons, and textiles.[62]

Jin dynasty, 1211–1215

Genghis Khan entering Beijing.

In 1211, after the conquest of Western Xia, Genghis Khan planned to conquer the Jin dynasty. The Jin army made several early tactical mistakes, including not attacking the Mongols early on when it had overwhelming numerical superiority, and instead initially fortifying behind the Great Wall. At the subsequent Battle of Yehuling, the Jin emissary Shimo Ming'an defected and divulged intelligence to the Mongols that allowed them to outmaneuver the Jin army, resulting in hundreds of thousands of Jin casualties. In 1215, Genghis besieged the Jin capital of Zhongdu (modern-day Beijing) and the inhabitants resorted to firing gold and silver cannon shot on the Mongols with their muzzle-loading cannons when their supply of metal for ammunition ran out.[63][64][65] The city was ultimately captured and sacked, forcing Emperor Xuanzong of Jin to move his capital south to Kaifeng, abandoning the northern half of his empire. Under Genghis's successor Ögedei Khan, Kaifeng fell to the Mongols in 1233. The Jin dynasty collapsed a year later in 1234.

Qara Khitai, 1218

After his defeat by Genghis Khan, Kuchlug, the former Khan of the Naimans, fled west and usurped the khanate of Qara Khitai. Since the Mongol army was exhausted after ten years of continuous campaigning against the Western Xia and Jin dynasty, Genghis Khan sent just two tumen (20,000 soldiers) under his general Jebe, known as "the Arrow", to pursue Kuchlug. With such a small force, the invading Mongols were forced to change strategies and resort to inciting internal revolt among Kuchlug's supporters to weaken the Qara Khitai. Kuchlug's army was eventually defeated west of Kashgar, and Kuchlug fled again, but was soon hunted down and executed. By 1218, as a result of the defeat of Qara Khitai, the Mongol Empire extended its control as far west as Lake Balkhash and the borders of Khwarezmia, a Muslim state that reached the Caspian Sea to the west and Persian Gulf to the south.[66]

Khwarazmian Empire, 1219–1221

Genghis Khan's invasion of Central Asia from 1216-1224

In the early 13th century, the Khwarazmian dynasty was governed by Shah Muhammad II of Khwarezm. Genghis Khan saw the potential advantage in Khwarazmia as a commercial trading partner using the Silk Road, and he initially sent a 500-man caravan to establish official trade ties with the empire. Genghis Khan, his family and commanders invested in the caravan, loading it with gold, silver, silk, various kinds of textiles and fabrics and pelts to trade with the Muslim traders in the Khwarazmian lands.[67] However, Inalchuq, the governor of the Khwarazmian city of Otrar, attacked the caravan, claiming that the caravan contained spies. Later, when Genghis Khan sent a group of three ambassadors (two Mongols and a Muslim) to complain to the Shah, Muhammad II had all the men shaved and the Muslim beheaded. Outraged, Genghis Khan began planned one of his largest invasion campaigns and gathered around 100,000 soldiers (10 tumens), his most capable generals and some of his sons. He left a commander and number of troops in China, designated his family members as his successors and headed for Khwarazmia.

When war was declared, Genghis Khan maneuvered his forces over the treacherous Altai Mountains. The crossing was made even more difficult by being achieved in the middle of winter when there was over 5 feet of snow. The march has been compared to Hannibal's crossing of the Alps, and had similarly devastating effects. Despite suffering losses and exhaustion, the Mongols were able to surprise the Khwarezm leadership and permanently steal the initiative. Once over the mountains, Genghis Khan dispatched a detachment of 20,000-30,000 men led by his son Jochi and elite general Jebe to raid into the fertile Fergana Valley in the eastern part of the Khwarezmian Empire. The Shah, unsure if this Mongol army was a diversion or their main force, dispatched his elite cavalry reserve to intervene. However, Jebe and Jochi were able to keep their army in good shape, plundering the valley while avoiding defeat by the much superior force.[68]

Meanwhile, another Mongol force under Chagatai and Ogedei descended on Otrar and immediately laid siege to it. Genghis kept his main force further back near the mountain ranges and stayed out of contact. Frank McLynn argues that this disposition can only be explained as Genghis laying a trap for the Shah, enticing him to march his army up from Samarkand to attack the besiegers of Otrar so that Genghis could encircle. However, the Shah avoided the trap, and Genghis had to change his plans.[69] The siege ultimately lasted for five months without results, until a traitor within the walls opened the gates, allowing th Mongols to storm the city and slaughter the majority of the garrison.[70] The citadel held out for another month and was only taken after heavy Mongol casualties. Genghis Khan proceeded to kill many of the inhabitants, enslave the rest and execute the governor Inalchuq.[71][72]

Genghis Khan watches in amazement as the Khwarezmi Jalal ad-Din prepares to ford the Indus.

Next, Genghis Khan besieged the city of Bukhara, which was not heavily fortified, with just a moat and a single wall. The city leaders opened the gates to the Mongols, though a unit of Turkish defenders held the city's citadel for another twelve days. The survivors from the citadel were executed, artisans and craftsmen were sent back to Mongolia, while young men who had not fought were drafted into the Mongolian army and the rest of the population was sent into slavery.[73] After the surrender of Bukhara, Genghis Khan also took the unprecedented step of personally entering the city, after which he had the city's aristocrats and elites brought to the mosque, where, through interpreters, he lectured them on their misdeeds, saying: "If you had not committed great sins, God would not have sent a punishment like me upon you."[74]

With the capture of Bukhara, the way was clear for the Mongols to advance on the capital of Samarkand, which possessed significantly better fortifications and a larger garrison compared to Bukhara. To overcome the city, the Mongols engaged in intensive psychological warfare, including the use of captured Khwarazmian prisoners as body shields. After several days only a few remaining soldiers, loyal supporters of the Shah, held out in the citadel. After the fortress fell, Genghis executed every soldier that had taken arms against him.

According to the Persian historian Ata-Malik Juvayni, the people of Samarkand were then ordered to evacuate and assemble in a plain outside the city, where they were killed and pyramids of severed heads raised as a symbol of victory.[75] Similarly, Juvayni wrote that in the city Termez, to the south of Samarkand, "all the people, both men and women, were driven out onto the plain, and divided in accordance with their usual custom, then they were all slain".[75] Juvayni's account of mass killings at these sites is not corroborated by modern archaeology. Instead of killing local populations, the Mongols tended to enslave the conquered and either send them to Mongolia to act as menial labor or retain them for use in the war effort. The effect was still mass depopulation.[74] The account of a "pyramid of severed heads" happened not at Samarkand, but at Nishapur, where Genghis Khan's son-in-law Toquchar was killed by an arrow shot from the city walls after the residents revolted. The Khan then allowed his widowed daughter, who was pregnant at the time, to decide the fate of the city, and she decreed that the entire population be killed. She also supposedly ordered that every dog, cat and any other animals in the city by slaughtered, "so that no living thing would survive the murder of her husband".[74] The sentence was duly carried out by the Khan's youngest son Tolui.[76] According to widely circulated but unverified stories, the severed heads were then erected in separate piles for the men, women and children.[74]

Near to the end of the battle for Samarkand, the Shah fled to a small island in the Caspian Sea rather than surrender to the Mongols, but died the same year, leaving his son, Jalal al-Din Mangburni to resist the invaders. Genghis Khan subsequently ordered two of his generals, Subutai and Jebe, to destroy the remnants of the Khwarazmian Empire, giving them 20,000 men and two years to do this.

At this point, the wealthy trading city of Urgench remained in the hands of Khwarazmian forces. The assault on Urgench proved to be the most difficult battle of the Mongol invasion and the city fell only after the defenders put up a stout defense, fighting block for block. Mongolian casualties were higher than normal, due to the difficulty of adapting Mongolian tactics to ubran fighting. As usual, the artisans were sent back to Mongolia, young women and children were given to the Mongol soldiers as slaves, and the rest of the population was massacred. The Persian scholar Juvayni states that 50,000 Mongol soldiers were given the task of executing twenty-four Urgench citizens each, which would mean that 1.2 million people were killed. These numbers are considered logistically implausible by modern scholars, but the sacking of Urgench was no doubt a bloody affair.[74]

Georgia, Crimea, Kievan Rus and Volga Bulgaria, 1220–1225

Significant conquests and movements of Genghis Khan and his generals
Gold dinar of Genghis Khan, struck at the Ghazna (Ghazni) mint, dated 1221/2

After the defeat of the Khwarazmian Empire in 1220, Genghis Khan gathered his forces in Persia and Armenia to return to the Mongolian steppes. Under the suggestion of Subutai, the Mongol army was split into two forces. Genghis Khan led the main army on a raid through Afghanistan and northern India towards Mongolia, while another 20,000 (two tumen) contingent marched through the Caucasus and into Russia under generals Jebe and Subutai. They pushed deep into Armenia and Azerbaijan. The Mongols defeated the kingdom of Georgia, sacked the Genoese trade-fortress of Caffa in Crimea and overwintered near the Black Sea. Heading home, Subutai's forces attacked the allied forces of the CumanKipchaks and the poorly coordinated 80,000 Kievan Rus' troops led by Mstislav the Bold of Halych and Mstislav III of Kiev who went out to stop the Mongols' actions in the area. Subutai sent emissaries to the Slavic princes calling for a separate peace, but the emissaries were executed. At the Battle of Kalka River in 1223, Subutai's forces defeated the larger Kievan force. They may have been defeated by the neighbouring Volga Bulgars at the Battle of Samara Bend. There is no historical record except a short account by the Arab historian Ibn al-Athir, writing in Mosul some 1,800 kilometres (1,100 miles) away from the event.[77] Various historical secondary sources – Morgan, Chambers, Grousset – state that the Mongols actually defeated the Bulgars, Chambers even going so far as to say that the Bulgars had made up stories to tell the (recently crushed) Russians that they had beaten the Mongols and driven them from their territory.[77] The Russian princes then sued for peace. Subutai agreed but was in no mood to pardon the princes. Not only had the Rus put up strong resistance, but also Jebe – with whom Subutai had campaigned for years – had been killed just prior to the Battle of Kalka River.[78] As was customary in Mongol society for nobility, the Russian princes were given a bloodless death. Subutai had a large wooden platform constructed on which he ate his meals along with his other generals. Six Russian princes, including Mstislav III of Kiev, were put under this platform and crushed to death.

The Mongols learned from captives of the abundant green pastures beyond the Bulgar territory, allowing for the planning for conquest of Hungary and Europe. Genghis Khan recalled Subutai back to Mongolia soon afterwards. The famous cavalry expedition led by Subutai and Jebe, in which they encircled the entire Caspian Sea defeating all armies in their path, remains unparalleled to this day, and word of the Mongol triumphs began to trickle to other nations, particularly in Europe. These two campaigns are generally regarded as reconnaissance campaigns that tried to get the feel of the political and cultural elements of the regions. In 1225 both divisions returned to Mongolia. These invasions added Transoxiana and Persia to an already formidable empire while destroying any resistance along the way. Later under Genghis Khan's grandson Batu and the Golden Horde, the Mongols returned to conquer Volga Bulgaria and Kievan Rus' in 1237, concluding the campaign in 1240.

Western Xia and Jin dynasty, 1226–1227

The vassal emperor of the Tanguts (Western Xia) had earlier refused to take part in the Mongol war against the Khwarezmid Empire. Western Xia and the defeated Jin dynasty formed a coalition to resist the Mongols, counting on the campaign against the Khwarazmians to preclude the Mongols from responding effectively.

In 1226, immediately after returning from the west, Genghis Khan began a retaliatory attack on the Tanguts. His armies quickly took Heisui, Ganzhou, and Suzhou (not the Suzhou in Jiangsu province), and in the autumn he took Xiliang-fu. One of the Tangut generals challenged the Mongols to a battle near Helan Mountains but was defeated. In November, Genghis laid siege to the Tangut city Lingzhou and crossed the Yellow River, defeating the Tangut relief army. According to legend, it was here that Genghis Khan reportedly saw a line of five stars arranged in the sky and interpreted it as an omen of his victory.

In 1227, Genghis Khan's army attacked and destroyed the Tangut capital of Ning Hia and continued to advance, seizing Lintiao-fu, Xining province, Xindu-fu, and Deshun province in quick succession in the spring. At Deshun, the Tangut general Ma Jianlong put up a fierce resistance for several days and personally led charges against the invaders outside the city gate. Ma Jianlong later died from wounds received from arrows in battle. Genghis Khan, after conquering Deshun, went to Liupanshan (Qingshui County, Gansu Province) to escape the severe summer. The new Tangut emperor quickly surrendered to the Mongols, and the rest of the Tanguts officially surrendered soon after. Not happy with their betrayal and resistance, Genghis Khan ordered the entire imperial family to be executed, effectively ending the Tangut royal lineage.

Death and succession

Mongol Empire in 1227 at Genghis Khan's death

According to the official History of Yuan commissioned during China's Ming dynasty, Genghis Khan died during his final campaign against the Western Xia, falling ill on 18 August 1227 and passing away on 25 August 1227.[3][79] The exact cause of his death remains a mystery, and is variously attributed to illness, being killed in action or from wounds sustained in hunting or battle.[80][81][82] According to The Secret History of the Mongols, Genghis Khan fell from his horse while hunting and died because of the injury. The Galician–Volhynian Chronicle alleges he was killed by the Western Xia in battle, while Marco Polo wrote that he died after the infection of an arrow wound he received during his final campaign.[83] Later Mongol chronicles connect Genghis's death with a Western Xia princess taken as war booty. One chronicle from the early 17th century even relates the legend that the princess hid a small dagger and stabbed or castrated him.[84] All of these legends were invented well after Genghis Khan's death, however.[79] In contrast, a 2021 study found that the he likely died from bubonic plague, after investigating reports of the clinical signs exhibited by both the Khan and his army, which in turn matched the symptoms associated with the strain of plague present in Western Xia at that time.[85]

Genghis Khan (center) at the coronation of his son Ögedei, Rashid al-Din, early 14th century

Years before his death, Genghis Khan asked to be buried without markings, according to the customs of his tribe.[86] After he died, his body was returned to Mongolia and presumably to his birthplace in Khentii Aimag, where many assume he is buried somewhere close to the Onon River and the Burkhan Khaldun mountain (part of the Khentii mountain range). According to legend, the funeral escort killed anyone and anything across their path to conceal where he was finally buried. The Genghis Khan Mausoleum, constructed many years after his death, is his memorial, but not his burial site.

Before Genghis Khan died, he assigned Ögedei Khan as his successor. Genghis Khan left behind an army of more than 129,000 men; 28,000 were given to his various brothers and his sons. Tolui, his youngest son, inherited more than 100,000 men. This force contained the bulk of the elite Mongolian cavalry. By tradition, the youngest son inherits his father's property. Jochi, Chagatai, Ögedei Khan, and Kulan's son Gelejian received armies of 4,000 men each. His mother and the descendants of his three brothers received 3,000 men each. The title of Great Khan passed to Ögedei, the third son of Genghis Khan, making him the second Great Khan (Khagan) of the Mongol Empire. Genghis Khan's eldest son, Jochi, died in 1226, during his father's lifetime. Chagatai, Genghis Khan's second son was meanwhile passed over, according to The Secret History of the Mongols, over a row just before the invasion of the Khwarezmid Empire in which Chagatai declared before his father and brothers that he would never accept Jochi as Genghis Khan's successor due to questions about his elder brother's parentage. In response to this tension and possibly for other reasons, Ögedei was appointed as successor.[87]

Later, his grandsons split his empire into khanates.[88] His descendants extended the Mongol Empire across most of Eurasia by conquering or creating vassal states in all of modern-day China, Korea, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and substantial portions of Eastern Europe and Southwest Asia. Many of these invasions repeated the earlier large-scale slaughters of local populations.

Organizational philosophy

Political, economic and social governance

Expansion of the Mongol Empire 1206–1294

The Mongol Empire was governed by a civilian and military code, called the Yassa, created by Genghis Khan. The Mongol Empire did not emphasize the importance of ethnicity and race in the administrative realm, instead adopting an approach grounded in meritocracy.[89] The Mongol Empire was one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse empires in history, as befitted its size. Many of the empire's nomadic inhabitants considered themselves Mongols in military and civilian life, including the Mongol people, Turkic peoples, and others. There were Khans of various non-Mongolian ethnicities such as Muhammad Khan.

There were tax exemptions for religious figures and, to some extent, teachers and doctors. The Mongol Empire practiced religious tolerance because Mongol tradition had long held that religion was a personal concept, and not subject to law or interference.[90] Genghis Khan was a Tengrist, but was religiously tolerant and interested in learning philosophical and moral lessons from other religions. He consulted Buddhist monks (including the Zen monk Haiyun), Muslims, Christian missionaries, and the Daoist monk Qiu Chuji.[91] Sometime before the rise of Genghis Khan, Ong Khan, his mentor and eventual rival, had converted to Nestorian Christianity. Various Mongol tribes were Shamanist, Buddhist or Christian. Religious tolerance was thus a well established concept on the Asian steppe.

Genghis Khan, the founder of the Mongol Empire, is said to have attempted to create a civil state under the Great Yassa that would have established legal equality for all individuals, including women.[92] However, there is no clear evidence of this. Women did play a relatively important role in the Mongol Empire and in the family, such as Töregene Khatun who briefly held power while the next leader was being chosen. The alleged policy of encouraging trade and communication is referred to as the Pax Mongolica. Genghis Khan also recognized the need for administrators to govern cities and states conquered by him, and so invited a Khitan prince, Chu'Tsai, who had experience governing cities and worked for the Jin dynasty before being captured by the Mongol army. Chu'Tsai went on to administer parts of the empire and become a confidant to successive Mongol Khans.[citation needed]

Mongol military tactics

Mural of siege warfare, Genghis Khan Exhibit in San Jose, California, US
Reenactment of Mongol battle

Genghis Khan put absolute trust in his generals, such as Muqali, Jebe, and Subutai, and regarded them as close advisors, often extending them the same privileges and trust normally reserved for close family members. He allowed them to make decisions on their own when they embarked on campaigns far from the Mongol Empire capital Karakorum. Muqali, a trusted lieutenant, was given command of the Mongol forces against the Jin dynasty while Genghis Khan was fighting in Central Asia, and Subutai and Jebe were allowed to pursue the Great Raid into the Caucasus and Kievan Rus', an idea they had presented to the Khagan on their own initiative. While granting his generals a great deal of autonomy in making command decisions, Genghis Khan also expected unwavering loyalty from them.

The Mongol military was also successful in siege warfare, cutting off resources for cities and towns by diverting certain rivers, taking enemy prisoners and driving them in front of the army, and adopting new ideas, techniques and tools from the people they conquered, particularly in employing Muslim and Chinese siege engines and engineers to aid the Mongol cavalry in capturing cities. Another standard tactic of the Mongol military was the commonly practiced feigned retreat to break enemy formations and to lure small enemy groups away from the larger group and defended position for ambush and counterattack.

Another important aspect of the military organization of Genghis Khan was the communications and supply route or Yam, adapted from previous Chinese models. Genghis Khan dedicated special attention to this in order to speed up the gathering of military intelligence and official communications. To this end, Yam waystations were established all over the empire.[93]



Genghis Khan on the reverse of a Kazakh 100 tenge collectible coin.

Genghis Khan is credited with bringing the Silk Road under one cohesive political environment. This allowed increased communication and trade between the West, Middle East and Asia, thus expanding the horizons of all three cultural areas. Some historians have noted that Genghis Khan instituted certain levels of meritocracy in his rule, was tolerant of religions and explained his policies clearly to all his soldiers.[94] Genghis Khan had a notably positive reputation among some western European authors in the Middle Ages, who knew little concrete information about his empire in Asia.[95] The Italian explorer Marco Polo said that Genghis Khan "was a man of great worth, and of great ability, and valor",[96][97] while philosopher and inventor Roger Bacon applauded the scientific and philosophical vigor of Genghis Khan's empire,[16] and the famed writer Geoffrey Chaucer wrote concerning Cambinskan:[98]

The noble king was called Genghis Khan,
Who in his time was of so great renown,
That there was nowhere in no region,
So excellent a lord in all things

Portrait on a hillside in Ulaanbaatar, 2006

In Mongolia, Genghis Khan has meanwhile been revered for centuries by Mongols and many Turkic peoples because of his association with tribal statehood, political and military organization, and victories in war. As the principal unifying figure in Mongolian history, he remains a larger-than-life figure in Mongolian culture. He is credited with introducing the Mongolian script and creating the first written Mongolian code of law, in the form of the Yassa.

During the communist period in Mongolia, Genghis was often described by the government as a reactionary figure, and positive statements about him were avoided.[99] In 1962, the erection of a monument at his birthplace and a conference held in commemoration of his 800th birthday led to criticism from the Soviet Union and the dismissal of secretary Tömör-Ochir of the ruling Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party Central Committee.

In the early 1990s, the memory of Genghis Khan underwent a powerful revival, partly in reaction to its suppression during the Mongolian People's Republic period. Genghis Khan became a symbol of national identity for many younger Mongolians, who maintain that the historical records written by non-Mongolians are unfairly biased against Genghis Khan and that his butchery is exaggerated, while his positive role is underrated.[100]


Genghis Khan Monument in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China

There are conflicting views of Genghis Khan in China, which suffered a drastic decline in population.[101] The population of north China decreased from 50 million in the 1195 census to 8.5 million in the Mongol census of 1235–36; however, many were victims of plague. In Hebei province alone, 9 out of 10 were killed by the Black Death when Toghon Temür was enthroned in 1333.[102][dubious ][better source needed] Northern China was also struck by floods and famine long after the war in northern China was over in 1234 and not killed by Mongols.[103][failed verification] The Black Death also contributed. By 1351, two out of three people in China had died of the plague, helping to spur armed rebellion,[104][failed verification] most notably in the form of the Red Turban Rebellions. However according to Richard von Glahn, a historian of Chinese economics, China's population only fell by 15% to 33% from 1340 to 1370 and there is "a conspicuous lack of evidence for pandemic disease on the scale of the Black Death in China at this time."[105] An unknown number of people also migrated to Southern China in this period,[106] including under the preceding Southern Song dynasty.[107]

The Mongols also spared many cities from massacre and sacking if they surrendered,[108] including Kaifeng,[109] Yangzhou,[110] and Hangzhou.[111] Ethnic Han and Khitan soldiers defected en masse to Genghis Khan against the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty.[112] Equally, while Genghis never conquered all of China, his grandson Kublai Khan, by completing that conquest and establishing the Yuan dynasty, is often credited with re-uniting China, and there is a great deal of Chinese artwork and literature praising Genghis as a military leader and political genius. The Yuan dynasty left an indelible imprint on Chinese political and social structures and a cultural legacy that outshone the preceding Jin dynasty.[113]


Invasions like the Battle of Baghdad by his grandson are treated as brutal and are seen negatively in Iraq. This illustration is from a 14th-century Jami' al-tawarikh manuscript.

The conquests and leadership of Genghis Khan included widespread devastation and mass murder.[114][115][116][117] The targets of campaigns that refused to surrender would often be subject to reprisals in the form of enslavement and wholesale slaughter.[118] The second campaign against Western Xia, the final military action led by Genghis Khan, and during which he died, involved an intentional and systematic destruction of Western Xia cities and culture.[118] According to John Man, because of this policy of total obliteration, Western Xia is little known to anyone other than experts in the field because so little record is left of that society. He states that "There is a case to be made that this was the first ever recorded example of attempted genocide. It was certainly very successful ethnocide."[116] In the conquest of Khwarezmia under Genghis Khan, the Mongols razed the cities of Bukhara, Samarkand, Herāt, Ṭūs, and Neyshābūr and killed the respective urban populations.[119] His invasions are considered the beginning of a 200-year period known in Iran and other Islamic societies as the "Mongol catastrophe."[117] Ibn al-Athir, Ata-Malik Juvaini, Seraj al-Din Jozjani, and Rashid al-Din Fazl-Allah Hamedani, Iranian historians from the time of Mongol occupation, describe the Mongol invasions as a catastrophe never before seen.[117] A number of present-day Iranian historians, including Zabih Allah Safa, have likewise viewed the period initiated by Genghis Khan as a uniquely catastrophic era.[117] Steven R. Ward writes that the Mongol violence and depredations in the Iranian Plateau "killed up to three-fourths of the population... possibly 10 to 15 million people. Some historians have estimated that Iran's population did not again reach its pre-Mongol levels until the mid-20th century."[120]

Although the famous Mughal emperors were proud descendants of Genghis Khan and particularly Timur, they clearly distanced themselves from the Mongol atrocities committed against the Khwarizim Shahs, Turks, Persians, the citizens of Baghdad and Damascus, Nishapur, Bukhara and historical figures such as Attar of Nishapur and many other notable Muslims.[citation needed] However, Mughal Emperors directly patronized the legacies of Genghis Khan and Timur; together their names were synonymous with the names of other distinguished personalities particularly among the Muslim populations of South Asia.[121]

Cultural depictions

Genghis Khan and Great Khans of the Yuan dynasty, late 13th and early 14th-century Yuan paintings
16th century Ottoman miniature of Genghis Khan


Unlike most emperors, Genghis Khan never allowed his image to be portrayed in paintings or sculptures.[122]

The earliest known images of Genghis Khan were produced half a century after his death, including the famous National Palace Museum portrait in Taiwan.[123][124] The portrait portrays Genghis Khan wearing white robes, a leather warming cap and his hair tied in braids, much like a similar depiction of Kublai Khan.[125] This portrait is often considered to represent the closest resemblance to what Genghis Khan actually looked like, though it, like all others renderings, suffers from the same limitation of being, at best, a facial composite.[126] Like many of the earliest images of Genghis Khan, the Chinese-style portrait presents him in a manner more akin to a Mandarin sage than a Mongol warrior.[127] Other portrayals of Genghis Khan from other cultures likewise characterized him according to their particular image of him: in Persia he was portrayed as a Turkic sultan and in Europe he was pictured as an ugly barbarian with a fierce face and cruel eyes.[128] According to sinologist Herbert Allen Giles, a Mongol painter known as Ho-li-hosun (also known as Khorisun or Qooriqosun) was commissioned by Kublai Khan in 1278 to paint the National Palace Museum portrait.[129] The story goes that Kublai Khan ordered Khorisun, along with the other entrusted remaining followers of Genghis Khan, to ensure the portrait reflected the Genghis Khan's true image.[130]

The only individuals to have recorded Genghis Khan's physical appearance during his lifetime were the Persian chronicler Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani and Chinese diplomat Zhao Hong.[131] Minhaj al-Siraj described Genghis Khan as "a man of tall stature, of vigorous build, robust in body, the hair of his face scanty and turned white, with cats’ eyes, possessed of dedicated energy, discernment, genius, and understanding, awe-striking...".[132] The chronicler had also previously commented on Genghis Khan's height, powerful build, with cat's eyes and lack of grey hair, based on the evidence of eyes witnesses in 1220, which saw Genghis Khan fighting in the Khorasan (modern day northwest Persia).[133][134] According to Paul Ratchnevsky, the Song dynasty envoy Zhao Hong who visited the Mongols in 1221,[135] described Genghis Khan as "of tall and majestic stature, his brow is broad and his beard is long".[133]

Other descriptions of Genghis Khan come from 14th century texts. The Persian historian Rashid-al-Din in Jami' al-tawarikh, written in the beginning of the 14th century, stated that most Borjigin ancestors of Genghis Khan were "tall, long-bearded, red-haired, and bluish green-eyed," features which Genghis Khan himself had. The factual nature of this statement is considered controversial.[126] In the Georgian Chronicles, in a passage written in the 14th century, Genghis Khan is similarly described as a large, good-looking man, with red hair.[136] However, according to John Andrew Boyle, Rashid al-Din's text of red hair referred to ruddy skin complexion, and that Genghis Khan was of ruddy complexion like most of his children except for Kublai Khan who was swarthy. He translated the text as “It chanced that he was born 2 months before Möge, and when Chingiz-Khan's eye fell upon him he said: “all our children are of a ruddy complexion, but this child is swarthy like his maternal uncles. Tell Sorqoqtani Beki to give him to a good nurse to be reared”.[137] 14th century Arabic historian Shihab al-Umari also disputed Rashid al-Din's translation and claimed Alan Gua falsified the origin of her clan.[138] Some Historians such as Denise Aigle claimed that Rashid al-Din mythicized the origin of Genghis Khan ancestors (the Borjigin clan) through his own interpretations of The Secret History of the Mongols. Italian historian Igor de Rachewiltz claimed that the Mongol origins of the early ancestors of Genghis Khan were animals born from the blue eye wolf (Borte Chino) and the fallow doe (Qo'ai Maral) that was described in the early legends, that their ancestors were animals.[138]


In Mongolia today, Genghis Khan's name and likeness appear on products, streets, buildings, and other places. His face can be found on everyday commodities, from liquor bottles to candy, and on the largest denominations of 500, 1,000, 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 Mongolian tögrög (₮).

Mongolia's main international airport in Ulaanbaatar is named Chinggis Khaan International Airport, and there is a 40m-high equestrian statue of Genghis Khan east of the Mongolian capital. There has been talk about regulating the use of his name and image to avoid trivialization.[139]

Genghis Khan's birthday, on the first day of winter (according to the Mongolian lunar calendar), is a national holiday.[140]

In popular culture

There have been numerous works of literature, films and other adaptation works based on the Mongolian ruler and his legacy.

Television series
Video games



  1. ^ a b English: /təˈmɪn/, sometimes also written as Temuchin or Temujin; Classical Mongolian:ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠵᠢᠨ; Mongolian: Тэмүжин, romanized: Temüjin Mongolian pronunciation: [tʰemut͡ʃiŋ]; Middle Mongolian: Temüjin;[10] traditional Chinese: 鐵木真; simplified Chinese: 铁木真; pinyin: Tiěmùzhēn; Wade–Giles: T'ieh3-mu4-chen1.
  2. ^ According to History of Yuan, Genghis Khan was buried at Qinian valley (起輦谷).[4] The concrete location of the valley is never mentioned in any documents, many assume that it is somewhere close to the Onon River and the Burkhan Khaldun mountain, Khentii Province, Mongolia.
  3. ^ Chinese: 成吉思汗; pinyin: Chéngjísī Hán; Wade–Giles: Ch'eng2-chi2-szu1 Han4.
  4. ^ Historians of the Mongol empire generally prefer the spelling Chingis Khan or Chinggis Khan, which more closely approximates the name in Mongolian, Чингис хаан [t͡ʃʰiŋɡɪs xaːŋ].[8] The English spelling of his name came originally from Italian, hence the pronunciation /ˌɛŋɡɪs ˈkɑːn/, which is similar to the Italian pronunciation; the second G has a following H to produce the sound [g], as in spaghetti. But because G before E in English is ambiguous (cf. get vs. gel), this leads to the common pronunciation of /ˌɡɛŋɡɪs ˈkɑːn/, with both Gs producing the sound /ɡ/, which has led to the alternative spelling Jenghis Khan to try to prevent this.[9] The Middle Mongol pronunciation was [ˈt͡ɕʰiŋːɡis ˈkaχaːn] or [ˈt͡ʃʰiŋːɡis ˈqaχaːn].


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  • De Nicola, Bruno (2016). "Chapter 4: The Economic Role of Mongol Women: Continuity and Transformation from Mongolia to Iran". In De Nicola, Bruno; Melville, Charles (eds.). The Mongols' Middle East: Continuity and Transformation in Ilkhanid Iran. Leiden, South Holland: Brill. pp. 79–105. ISBN 978-90-04-31472-6.
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  • Incorrect source cite: Lee, Sieun (2016). Molecular Genealogy of a Mongol Queen's Family and Her Possible Kinship with Genghis Khan. University of Mongolia. ISBN 978-0-8153-4149-9.[failed verification]
    • Cite based on title and URL: Lkhagvasuren et al. 2016.
    • Cite based on ISBN Strachan, T.; Read, Andrew P. (2011). Human molecular genetics 4 (4th ed.). New York: Garland Science.
  • Man, John (2007). Genghis Khan: Life, Death, and Resurrection. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-36624-7.
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  • von Glahn, Richard (2016). The Economic History of China: From Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century.
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  • Weatherford, Jack (2004). "2: Tale of Three Rivers". Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World. New York: Random House/Three Rivers Press. ISBN 978-0-609-80964-8.
  • Weatherford, Jack (2005). Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World. Crown. ISBN 978-0-307-23781-1.
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Primary sources
  • Juvaynī, Alā al-Dīn Atā Malik, 1226–1283 (1997). Genghis Khan: The History of the World-Conqueror [Tarīkh-i jahāngushā]. Translated by John Andrew Boyle. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-97654-9.
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Further reading

  • Brent, Peter (1976). The Mongol Empire: Genghis Khan: His Triumph and His Legacy. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-77137-1.
  • Bretschneider, Emilii (2002). Mediæval Researches from Eastern Asiatic Sources; Fragments Towards the Knowledge of the Geography & History of Central & Western Asia. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 978-1-4021-9303-3. This Elibron Classics book is a facsimile reprint of an 1888 edition by Trübner & Co., London.
  • Cable, Mildred; French, Francesca (1943). The Gobi Desert. London: Landsborough Publications.
  • Chapin, David (2012). Long Lines: Ten of the World's Longest Continuous Family Lineages. College Station, Texas. ISBN 978-1-60264-933-0.
  • Charney, Israel W. (1994). Genocide: A Critical Bibliographic Review. New York: Facts on File Publications.
  • Farale, Dominique (2002). De Gengis Khan à Qoubilaï Khan : la grande chevauchée mongole. Campagnes & stratégies (in French). Paris: Economica. ISBN 978-2-7178-4537-2.
  • Farale, Dominique (2007). La Russie et les Turco-Mongols : 15 siècles de guerre (in French). Paris: Economica. ISBN 978-2-7178-5429-9.
  • Kennedy, Hugh (2002). Mongols, Huns & Vikings. London: Cassell. ISBN 978-0-304-35292-0.
  • Kradin, Nikolay; Skrynnikova, Tatiana (2006). Imperiia Chingis-khana (Chinggis Khan Empire) (in Russian). Moscow: Vostochnaia literatura. ISBN 978-5-02-018521-0. (summary in English)
  • Kradin, Nikolay; Skrynnikova, Tatiana (2006). "Why do we call Chinggis Khan's Polity 'an Empire'". Ab Imperio. 7 (1): 89–118. doi:10.1353/imp.2006.0016. S2CID 162546341. 5-89423-110-8.
  • Lamb, Harold (1927). Genghis Khan: The Emperor of All Men. New York: R. M. McBride & Co.
  • Lister, R. P. (2000). Genghis Khan. Lanham, Maryland: Cooper Square Press. ISBN 978-0-8154-1052-2.
  • Man, John (1999). Gobi: Tracking the Desert. London; New Haven, CT: Weidenfeld & Nicolson; Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-7538-0161-1.
  • Martin, Henry Desmond (1950). The Rise of Chingis Khan and his Conquest of North China. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
  • May, Timothy (2001). "Mongol Arms". Explorations in Empire: Pre-Modern Imperialism Tutorial: The Mongols. San Antonio College History Department. Archived from the original on May 18, 2008. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
  • Smitha, Frank E. "Genghis Khan and the Mongols". Macrohistory and World Report. Retrieved June 30, 2005.
  • Stevens, Keith. "Heirs to Discord: The Supratribal Aspirations of Jamukha, Toghrul, and Temüjin" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 25, 2008. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
  • Stewart, Stanley (2001). In the Empire of Genghis Khan: A Journey among Nomads. London: Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-653027-5.
  • Turnbull, Stephen (2003). Genghis Khan & the Mongol Conquests 1190–1400. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-523-5.
  • Valentino, Benjamin A. (2004). Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the Twentieth Century. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-3965-0.
Genghis Khan
House of Borjigin (1206–1635)
Born: c. 1162 Died: 1227
Regnal titles
Preceded by Khagan of Khamag Mongol
Khamag Mongol ended,
succeeded by Mongol Empire
New title
Mongol Empire established
Khagan of the Mongol Empire
Succeeded by
As regent
Retrieved from ""