Foreign relations of Saudi Arabia

Foreign relations of Saudi Arabia are the diplomatic and trade relations between Saudi Arabia and other countries around the world. The foreign policy of Saudi Arabia is focused on co-operation with the oil-exporting Gulf States, the unity of the Arab World, Islamic solidarity, and support for the United Nations.[1] In practice, the main concerns in recent years have been relations with the US, the Saudi Arabian–led intervention in Yemen, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, Iraq, the perceived threat from the Islamic Republic of Iran, and the effect of oil pricing. Saudi Arabia contributes large amounts of development aid to Muslim countries. From 1986 to 2006, the country donated £49 billion in aid.[2][3][4]

Although a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, Saudi Arabia is described as leading the "Pro-Western Camp" of Arab countries, aligned with the U.S. and composed of Egypt, Jordan, and Arab states of the Persian Gulf. Saudi Arabia and the United States are close strategic allies and partners. However, the relationship witnessed certain decline during the last years of the Obama administration, but strengthened following the election of President Donald Trump who forged close ties with the Saudi royal family.[5][6][7][8] Sunni Islam is the main religion of Saudi.[9][10] China and Saudi Arabia are major allies, with the relationship between the two countries growing significantly in recent decades.[11] A majority of Saudi Arabians have expressed a favorable view of China.[12][13][14][15][16][17]

As a founding member of OPEC, Saudi Arabia's long-term oil pricing policy has been to keep prices stable and moderate—high enough to earn large amounts of revenue, but not so high as to encourage alternative energy sources among oil importers, or jeopardise the economies of Western countries where many of its financial assets are located and which provide political and military support for the Saudi government.[10] The major exception to this occurred during the 1973 oil crisis when Saudi Arabia, with the other Arab oil states, used an embargo on oil supplies to pressure the US to stop supporting Israel.[18]

Saudi Arabia is a founding member of several multinational organizations, including OPEC, the United Nations, the Arab League. It is also a founding member of the Gulf Cooperation Council, Muslim World League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and the Islamic Development Bank—all of which are headquartered in Saudi. The country plays a prominent role in the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and in 2005 joined the World Trade Organization.

According to a UCLA professor James L. Gelvin, Saudi Arabia recently has become much more active in terms of foreign and security policy because of the Arab Spring, the policies of the Obama administration and the mid-2010s collapse of oil prices.[19]

History

After World War II (1939–1945) and during the Cold War (c. 1947–1991), Saudi Arabia maintained an anti-Communist, anti-secular Arab-nationalist policy, often working with the leading anti-communist power, the United States. Following the 1973 oil crisis, when Saudi Arabia and other Arab oil exporters embargoed the United States and its allies for their support of Israel, oil revenues increased dramatically, and the Kingdom worked to become the leading Islamic state, spending generously to advance Islam and particularly its conservative school (known as Wahhabism). Supporters see this as having purified and unified the Islamic faith; other commentators claim it has eroded regional Islamic cultures. (Examples of the acculturizing effect of Saudi aid can be seen among the Minangkabau and the Acehnese in Indonesia, as well as among the people of the Maldives.[20][21][22][23] The Wahhabi form of Islam is also perceived in the West as a source of Islamist extremism.[24][25]

King Fahd of Saudi Arabia with U.S. President Ronald Reagan and real-estate tycoon and future President Donald Trump in 1985

Saudi Arabia and its oil policy were significant factors in the proxy wars of the Cold War prior to the downfall of Soviet Communism in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Saudi Arabia helped to finance not just the Afghan Mujahideen but also non-Muslim anti-communists. It also seriously harmed the Soviet Communist cause by stabilizing oil prices "throughout the 1980s, just when the Russians were desperate to sell energy in order to keep up with huge hikes in American military spending."[26]

Following King Fahd's stroke in 1995, Abdullah, then Crown Prince, assumed responsibility for foreign policy. A marked change in U.S.-Saudi relations occurred, as Abdullah sought to put distance between his policies and the unpopular pro-Western policies of King Fahd. Abdullah took a more independent line from the US and concentrated on improving regional relations, particularly with Iran. Several long-standing border disputes were resolved, including significantly reshaping the Saudi border with Yemen. The new approach resulted in increasingly strained relations with the US.[9] Despite this, the U.S. and Saudi Arabia remained close. In 1998 Abdullah paid a state visit to Washington and met with U.S. President Bill Clinton.

In 2003 Abdullah's new policy was reflected in the Saudi government's refusal to support or to participate in the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq. Some US critics[which?] saw this as an attempt by the Saudi royal family to placate the kingdom's Islamist radicals. That same year Saudi and U.S. government officials agreed to the withdrawal of all U.S. military forces from Saudi soil. After ascending the throne, King Abdullah (r. 2005–2015) followed a more activist foreign policy and continued to push-back on US policies which were unpopular in Saudi Arabia (for example, refusing to provide material assistance to support the new Iraqi government).[9][27] However, increasingly, in common with the US, fear and mistrust of Iran became a significant factor in Saudi policy. In 2010 leaked diplomatic cableds revealed that King Abdullah had urged the U.S. to attack Iran in order to "cut off the head of the snake".[28] Saudi Arabia has long since used its alliance with the United States as a counterbalance to Iran's influence in the Middle East, and Saudi Arabia and other Arab states of the Persian Gulf have looked to the United States for protection against Iran.

Relations with the US and other Western countries became further strained by the fact that Saudi Arabia has been a source of Islamist terrorist activity world-wide. Osama bin Laden and 15 out of the 19 September 11 attacks hijackers were Saudi nationals, though some[quantify] officials argue that bin Laden planned this deliberately in an attempt to strain U.S.-Saudi relations,[29] and former Central Intelligence Agency director James Woolsey described Saudi Arabian Wahhabism as "the soil in which al-Qaeda and its sister terrorist organizations are flourishing".[24] Some[who?] in the U.S. Government also believe that the royal family, through its long and close relations with Wahhabi clerics, had laid the groundwork for the growth of militant groups like al-Qaeda ,and that after the attacks had done little to help track the militants or prevent future atrocities.[9]

As announced at the 2009 Arab League summit, Saudi Arabia had intended to participate in the Arab Customs Union to be established in 2015 and in an Arab common market to be established by 2020.[10][30]

Following the wave of early-2011 protests and revolutions affecting the Arab world, Saudi Arabia offered asylum to deposed President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali of Tunisia, and King Abdullah telephoned President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt (prior to Mubarak's deposition) to offer his support.[31]

Saudi military forces and their allies became involved in conflict in Yemen (on Saudi Arabia's southern borders) from March 2015 onwards.

Islam

According to the FFGI at Goethe University Frankfurt, wahhabist ideology is spread globally with organisations closely associated with the government of Saudi Arabia such as the Muslim World League (WML) and the World Association of Muslim Youth are actively participating.[32]

Between the mid-1970s and 2002, Saudi Arabia expended over $70 billion in "overseas development aid". However, there is evidence that the vast majority was, in fact, spent on propagating and extending the influence of Wahhabism at the expense of other forms of Islam.[33] According to the government-associated paper Ain Al-Yaqeen article in 2002, Saudi government-sponsored projects were active in non-Muslim countries in Europe, North and South America, Africa, Australia and Asia. These encompassed 210 Islamic centres which were completely or partly funded by the Saudi kingdom, 1500 mosques, 202 colleges and almost 2000 schools. The House of Saud has inaugurated 1359 mosques in Europe.[32]

In February 2019, Saudi Arabia's Crown prince Mohammad bin Salman defended Xinjiang re-education camps for Muslims, saying "China has the right to carry out anti-terrorism and de-extermination work for its national security."[34][35][36] China has allegedly imprisoned up to 2 million Muslims in concentration camps, where they are subject to abuse and torture.[36][37]

Diplomatic relations

List of countries which Saudi Arabia maintains diplomatic relations with:

# Country Date
1  Russia 19 February 1926[38]
2  France March 1926[39]
3  United Kingdom 20 May 1927[40]
4  Germany 26 April 1929[41]
5  Turkey 3 August 1929[42]
6  Iran 24 August 1929[43][44]
7  Netherlands 9 June 1930[45]
8  Iraq 7 April 1931[46]
9  Italy 10 February 1932[47]
10  Afghanistan 5 May 1932[48]
11  Egypt 7 May 1936[49]
12  United States 4 February 1940[50]
13  Lebanon 9 April 1944[51]
14  Syria 26 June 1944[52]
15  Chile 6 September 1945[53][54]
16  Argentina 16 February 1946[55]
17  Pakistan September 1947[56]
18  India 1947[57]
19  Jordan 12 August 1948[58]
20  Spain 30 August 1948[59]
21  Ethiopia 25 May 1949[60]
22  Indonesia 1 May 1950[61]
23  Mexico 12 September 1952[62]
24  Venezuela 1952[63]
25  Belgium 10 April 1955[64]
26  Japan 7 June 1955[65]
27  Cuba 10 February 1956[66]
28  Tunisia June 1956[67]
29   Switzerland 12 July 1956[68]
30  Sudan 14 October 1956[69]
31  Libya 1956[70]
32  Morocco 1956[71]
33  Yemen 21 June 1957[72]
34  Austria 10 September 1957[73]
35  Thailand 1 October 1957[74]
36  Malaysia 1957[75]
37  Sweden 1957[76]
38  Ghana 1 April 1960[77]
39  Senegal 22 January 1961[78]
40  Norway 8 May 1961[79]
41  Guinea 15 May 1961[80]
42  Nigeria 21 August 1961[81]
43  Kuwait 5 October 1961[82]
44  Cyprus 1961[83]
45  Greece 1961[84]
46  Denmark 1 February 1962[85]
47  South Korea 16 October 1962[86]
48  Somalia 29 October 1962[87]
49  Algeria August 1963[88]
50  Mali 1963[89]
51  Cameroon 6 October 1966[90]
52  Niger 20 November 1966[91]
53  Brazil 23 December 1968[92]
54  Kenya 12 May 1969[93]
55  Finland 6 June 1969[94]
56  Philippines 24 October 1969[95]
57  Mauritania 22 March 1970[96]
58  Bahrain 29 September 1971[97]
59  Qatar 12 October 1971[98]
60  Oman 14 December 1971[99]
61  Uganda 26 June 1972[100]
62  Sierra Leone 1 July 1972[101]
63  Chad 20 November 1972[102]
64  Canada 8 May 1973[103]
65  Democratic Republic of the Congo 13 September 1973[104]
66  Australia 15 January 1974[105]
67  Gabon January 1974[106]
68  Liberia 30 March 1974[107]
69  Gambia 9 May 1974[108]
70  Trinidad and Tobago 5 July 1974[109]
71  Burundi 15 July 1974[110]
72  United Arab Emirates 21 August 1974[111]
73  Ireland September 1974[112]
74  Sri Lanka 30 November 1974[113]
75  Uruguay 1974[114]
76  Malta 1 September 1975[115]
77  Bangladesh 17 November 1975[116]
78  Jamaica 15 August 1976[117]
79  New Zealand 22 December 1976[118]
80    Nepal 15 March 1977[119]
81  Singapore 10 November 1977[120]
82  Djibouti 14 December 1977[121]
83  Luxembourg 10 December 1977[122]
84  Zambia 1 May 1978[123]
85  Mauritius 3 August 1978[124]
86  Burkina Faso 25 March 1980[125]
87  Portugal 18 June 1980[126]
88  Maldives 17 March 1981[127]
89  Iceland 15 January 1982[128]
90  Guinea-Bissau 1983[129]
91  Tanzania 11 April 1984[130]
92  Comoros 1984[131]
93  Ivory Coast 10 January 1985[132]
94  Peru 19 March 1986[133]
95  Brunei 1 July 1987[134]
 State of Palestine 1 January 1989[135]
96  Laos 29 May 1990[136]
97  China 21 July 1990[137]
98  Uzbekistan 20 February 1992[138]
99  Tajikistan 22 February 1992[139]
100  Turkmenistan 22 February 1992[140]
101  Azerbaijan 24 February 1992[141]
102  Bosnia and Herzegovina 17 April 1992[142]
103  Kyrgyzstan 19 October 1992[143]
104  Albania 2 December 1992[144]
105  Ukraine 14 April 1993[145]
106  Eritrea 2 October 1993[146]
107  Kazakhstan 30 April 1994[147]
108  Georgia 27 May 1994[148]
109  South Africa 29 October 1994[149]
110  North Macedonia 11 January 1995[150]
111  Romania 13 March 1995[151]
112  Bulgaria 20 March 1995[152]
113  Hungary 18 April 1995[153]
114  Poland 3 May 1995[154]
115  Slovenia 7 June 1995[155]
116  Croatia 8 June 1995[156]
117  Slovakia 16 June 1995[157]
118  Czech Republic 1995[158]
119  Moldova 17 July 1996[159]
120  Mozambique 1996[160]
121  Belarus 6 June 1997[161]
122  Republic of the Congo 1 February 1999[162]
123  Suriname 24 February 1999[163]
124  Malawi 15 August 1999[164]
125  Vietnam 21 October 1999[165]
126  Honduras 28 September 2000[166]
127  Seychelles 28 September 2000[167]
128  Haiti 17 November 2000[168]
129  Saint Lucia 2000[169]
130  Estonia 21 March 2003[170]
131  Latvia 21 March 2003[171]
132  Myanmar 25 August 2004[172]
133  Lithuania 31 October 2005[173]
134  Nicaragua 30 March 2006[174]
135  Antigua and Barbuda 12 February 2007[175]
136  Mongolia 12 February 2007[176]
137  Botswana 1 March 2007[177]
138  Cape Verde 14 March 2007[178]
139  Barbados 17 December 2007[179]
140  Togo 26 December 2007[180]
141  Madagascar 22 October 2008[181]
142  Dominica 23 January 2009[182]
143  Ecuador 23 January 2009[183]
144  El Salvador 27 February 2009[184]
145  Andorra 19 March 2009[185]
146  Angola 24 March 2009[186]
147  Liechtenstein 29 April 2009[187]
148  Paraguay 9 July 2009[188]
 Kosovo 7 August 2009[189]
149  Cambodia 19 October 2010[190]
150  San Marino 15 December 2010[191]
151  Colombia 8 September 2011[192]
152  Montenegro 16 September 2011[193]
153  Equatorial Guinea 12 October 2011[194]
154  Guyana 22 February 2012[195]
155  Dominican Republic 24 July 2012[196]
156  Serbia 17 April 2013[197]
157  Bolivia 19 August 2013[198]
158  South Sudan 3 December 2013[199]
159  Solomon Islands 17 July 2014[200]
160  Panama 14 January 2015[201]
161  East Timor 29 January 2015[202]
162  Tuvalu 26 March 2015[203]
163  Eswatini 30 March 2015[204]
164  Namibia 29 July 2015[205]
165  Fiji 4 August 2015[206]
166  Costa Rica 7 December 2015[207]
167  Saint Kitts and Nevis 29 September 2016[208]
168  Guatemala 21 April 2017[209]
169  Central African Republic 16 June 2017[210]
170  Rwanda 29 March 2018[211]
171  Zimbabwe 3 December 2020[212]
172  Tonga 14 December 2020[213]
173  Lesotho 20 August 2021[214]
174  Vanuatu 8 August 2022[215]
175  Belize 24 September 2022[216]
176  Palau 23 November 2022[217]
177  Bahamas 23 November 2022[218]
178  Monaco 2 March 2023[219]
 Cook Islands 12 April 2023[220]
179  São Tomé and Príncipe 7 June 2023[221]
180  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11 October 2023[222]
181  Federated States of Micronesia 7 November 2023[223]
182  Nauru 7 November 2023[224]
183  Armenia 25 November 2023[225]
184  Kiribati 19 December 2023[226]
185  Benin Unknown

Bilateral relations

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria See Algeria–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Algeria has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate-general in Jeddah.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Algiers.
 Botswana 1 March 2007 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 March 2007[227]
 Central African Republic
  • Central African Republic is represented in Saudi Arabia by its embassy in Cairo.
  • Saudi Arabia's embassy in N'Djamena also serves as non-resident embassy for Central African Republic.
 Cape Verde Cape Verde is represented in Saudi Arabia by its embassy in Rome, Italy.
  • Saudi Arabia's embassy in Dakar also serves as non-resident embassy for Cape Verde.
 Chad
  • Chad has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in N'Djamena.
 Egypt 7 May 1936
President Trump's Trip Abroad globe cropped.jpg

See Egypt–Saudi Arabia relations

  • Egypt has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate-general in Jeddah.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Cairo.
 Ethiopia 25 May 1949 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 May 1949 when Minister of Ethiopia to Saudi Arabia (Resident in Cairo) Mr. Taffassa Hapte Mikael presented his credentials.[60]
  • Ethiopia has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate-general in Jeddah.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
 Ghana
  • Ghana has an embassy in Riyadh
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Accra
 Guinea
  • Guinea has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate-general in Jeddah.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Conakry.
 Guinea-Bissau
  • Guinea-Bissau is represented in Saudi Arabia by its embassy in Algiers, Algeria.
  • Saudi Arabia's embassy in Dakar also serves as non-resident embassy for Guinea-Bissau.
 Kenya 12 May 1969 See Kenya–Saudi Arabia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 May 1969 when Kenya's Ambassador to Saudi Arabia, Japheth Kimanzi Ilako, has presented his credentials to King Faisal.[93]

  • Kenya has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Nairobi.
 Libya See Libya–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Libya has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate-general in Jeddah.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Tripoli.
 Madagascar
  • Madagascar has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia is accredited to Madagascar from its embassy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
 Malawi
  • Malawi is represented in Saudi Arabia by its embassy in Kuwait City.
  • Saudi Arabia's embassy in Nairobi also serves as non-resident embassy for Malawi.
 Mali
  • Mali has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate-general in Jeddah.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Bamako.
 Mauritius
  • Mauritius has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia's embassy in Pretoria also serves as non-resident embassy for Mauritius.
 Morocco See Morocco–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Morocco has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate-general in Jeddah.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Rabat.
 Namibia
  • Namibia is represented in Saudi Arabia by its embassy in Cairo.
  • Saudi Arabia's embassy in Lusaka also serves as non-resident embassy for Namibia.
 Sierra Leone
  • Sierra Leone has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia's embassy in Conakry also serves as non-resident embassy for Sierra Leone.
 Senegal See Saudi Arabia–Senegal relations
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Dakar.
  • Senegal has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate-general in Jeddah.
 South Africa See Saudi Arabia–South Africa relations
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Pretoria.
  • South Africa has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate-general in Jeddah.
 South Sudan
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Kampala whose consular areas also covers South Sudan.
  • South Sudan has an embassy in Riyadh.
 Sudan 14 October 1956 See Saudi Arabia–Sudan relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 October 1956 when Minister of the Republic of Sudan to Saudi Arabia, Sayyid Mahjoub Maccawi, presented his credentials to King Saud.[69]

  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Khartoum.
  • Sudan has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate-general in Jeddah.
 Tanzania See Saudi Arabia–Tanzania relations
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Dar es Salaam.
  • Tanzania has an embassy in Riyadh.
 Tunisia See Saudi Arabia–Tunisia relations
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate-general in Jeddah.
 Zambia
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Lusaka.
  • Zambia has an embassy in Riyadh
 Zimbabwe
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Lusaka whose consular areas also covers Zimbabwe.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Cairo whose consular areas also covers Saudi Arabia.

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina
  • Argentina has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Buenos Aires.
 Bolivia
  • Bolivia is represented in Saudi Arabia by its embassy in Cairo
  • Saudi Arabia is represented in Bolivia by its embassy in Brasilia.
 Brazil
  • Brazil has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Brasília.
 Canada See Canada–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Riyadh.[228]
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Ottawa.[229]
  • See also: Arab Canadians
 Chile
  • Chile has an embassy in Abu Dhabi which also covers Saudi Arabia.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Santiago.
 Colombia
  • Colombia has an embassy in Abu Dhabi which also covers Saudi Arabia.
  • Saudi Arabia is represented in Colombia by its embassy in Lima.
 Costa Rica
  • Costa Rica has an embassy in Abu Dhabi which also covers Saudi Arabia.
  • Saudi Arabia is represented in Costa Rica by its embassy in Lima.
 Cuba
  • Cuba has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Havana.
 Ecuador
  • Ecuador is represented in Saudi Arabia by its embassy in Cairo
  • Saudi Arabia is represented in Ecuador by its embassy in Brasilia.
 El Salvador
  • El Salvador is represented in Saudi Arabia by its embassy in Doha
  • Saudi Arabia is represented in El Salvador by its embassy in Mexico City.
 Guatemala
  • Guatemala is represented in Saudi Arabia by its embassy in Cairo
  • Saudi Arabia is represented in Guatemala by its embassy in Mexico City.
 Haiti
  • Haiti has an embassy in Rome which also covers Saudi Arabia.
  • Saudi Arabia is represented in Haiti by its embassy in Havana.
 Honduras
  • Honduras is represented in Saudi Arabia by its embassy in Cairo.
  • Saudi Arabia is represented in Honduras by its embassy in Mexico City.
 Mexico
See Mexico–Saudi Arabia relations
 Nicaragua
  • Nicaragua has an embassy in Cairo which also covers Saudi Arabia.
  • Saudi Arabia is represented in Nicaragua by its embassy in Mexico City.
 Peru
  • Peru has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Lima.
 United States See Saudi Arabia-United States relations
King Ibn Saud converses with President Franklin D. Roosevelt on board the USS Quincy, after the Yalta Conference in 1945.
A pro-Palestine demonstration in front of the Saudi Arabia Consulate General building in West Los Angeles

United States recognized the government of King Ibn Saud in 1931. In the 1930s, oil exploration by Standard Oil commenced. There was no US ambassador resident in Saudi Arabia until 1943, but as World War II progressed, the United States began to believe that Saudi oil was of strategic importance. King Ibn Saud met with the U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on 14 February 1945 in a meeting which lasted three days.[232] The meeting took place on board the USS Quincy at the Great Bitter Lake in the Suez Canal.[232][233] The meeting laid down the basis of the future relations between two countries.[234]

In 1951, under a mutual defence agreement, the U.S. established a permanent U.S. Military Training Mission in the kingdom and agreed to provide training support in the use of weapons and other security-related services to the Saudi armed forces. This agreement formed the basis of what grew into a longstanding security relationship. The United States is one of Saudi Arabia's largest trading partners and closest allies and has had full diplomatic relations since 1933 and they remain strong today. However, Saudi Arabia's relationship with the United States has been put under pressure since late 2013 following the United States backing down from its intervention in the Syrian Civil War and the United States thawing relations with Iran. The international abduction of American children to Saudi Arabia provoked sustained criticism and resulted in a Congressional hearing in 2002 where parents of children held in Saudi Arabia gave impassioned testimony related to the abduction of their children. Washington based Insight magazine ran a series of articles on international abduction during the same period highlighting Saudi Arabia a number of times[235][236][237][238]

Relations between the U.S. and Saudi Arabia were strained after the September 11 attacks in 2001,[according to whom?] when nineteen men affiliated with al-Qaeda, including 15 Saudi nationals, hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners, crashing two of the planes into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, killing 2,973. Saudi Arabia issued a statement on the day of the terrorist attacks on America's World Trade Center and Pentagon, calling them "regrettable and inhuman." Saudi recognition of the Taliban stopped and as of mid-November 2001, the Bush administration continued to publicly praise Saudi support for the war on terrorism. However, published media reports have indicated U.S. frustration with Saudi inaction. Although 15 of the 19 hijackers were Saudi nationals, publicly the Saudis were not cooperating with Americans who wanted to look at background files of the hijackers or to interview the hijackers' families.[citation needed]

Secretary of State Hillary Clinton meets with King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, 2012

In his first formal television interview as U.S. President, Barack Obama addressed the Muslim world through an Arabic-language satellite TV network Al-Arabiya. He expressed interest and a commitment to repair relations that have continued to deteriorate under the previous administration.[239] The American envoy to the region is former Sen. George J. Mitchell.

On 20 October 2010, U.S. State Department notified Congress of its intention to make the biggest arms sale in American history – an estimated $60.5 billion purchase by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The package represents a considerable improvement in the offensive capability of the Saudi armed forces.[240]

The U.S. was keen to point out that the arms transfer would increase "interoperability" with U.S. forces. In the 1990–1991 Gulf War, having U.S.-trained Saudi forces, along with military installations built to U.S. specifications, allowed the American armed forces to deploy in a comfortable and familiar battle environment. This new deal would increase these capabilities, as an advanced American military infrastructure is about to be built.[241]

  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Washington, D.C., and consulates-general in Houston, Los Angeles and New York City.[242]
  • United States has an embassy in Riyadh and consulates-general in Dhahran and Jeddah.[243]
 Uruguay
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Riyadh.
 Venezuela
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Caracas.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Riyadh, as well as Jeddah.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan 5 May 1932 See Afghanistan-Saudi Arabia relations
  • Afghanistan has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate-general in Jeddah.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Kabul.
 Armenia 25 November 2023
See Armenia–Saudi Arabia relations
 Azerbaijan
See Azerbaijan–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Baku.
 Bahrain See Bahrain–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Bahrain has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Manama.
 Bangladesh 17 November 1975 See Bangladesh–Saudi Arabia relations

When Bengali nationalists began a war of liberation against the Pakistani state, Saudi Arabia supported Pakistan and opposed calls for the independence of Bangladesh. Saudi Arabia saw the Bengali nationalists as opposing a Muslim state and thus opposing Islam. Saudi Arabia provided extensive financial and political support to Pakistan during the conflict. The pro-Soviet, secular and socialist policies of the regime of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founding leader of Bangladesh, also antagonized the anti-Communist Saudis. Saudi Arabia and Bangladesh formally established diplomatic relations in 1975–76, after the killing of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman by pro-Islamic military officers. The military regimes of Ziaur Rahman and Hussain Muhammad Ershad took steps to forge strong commercial and cultural ties with Saudi Arabia. Since the late 1970s, a large number of both skilled and unskilled Bangladeshi workers have moved to Saudi Arabia; the number of Bangladeshis living in Saudi Arabia today exceeds 2.7 million. As one of the most populous Muslim countries, Bangladesh is a major source of Hajj pilgrims. Saudi Arabia has become a major source of financing and economic aid to Bangladesh.[244]

 China 21 July 1990 See China–Saudi Arabia relations
Countries which signed cooperation documents related to the Belt and Road Initiative

The People's Republic of China and Saudi Arabia established official diplomatic relations on 21 July 1990.[137] Sino-Saudi diplomatic and economic relations grew closer in the 2000s. In January 2006, King Abdullah was the first ever Saudi head of State to visit China. His visit was reciprocated by Chinese President Hu Jintao in April of the same year. In February 2009, Hu visited Saudi Arabia a second time, to "exchange views on international and regional issues of common concern" with King Abdullah.[245]

Following the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, Saudi Arabia was the largest aid donor to China, providing close to €40,000,000 in financial assistance, and an additional €8,000,000 worth of relief materials.[245] In 2008, Sino-Saudi bilateral trade was worth €32,500,000,000,[246] making Saudi Arabia China's largest trading partner in Western Asia.[247] In the first quarter of 2010, Saudi oil export to China has reached over 1,000,000 barrels (160,000 m3), exceeding export to USA.[248]

In July 2019, UN ambassadors of 37 countries, including Saudi Arabia, have signed a joint letter to the UNHRC defending China's treatment of Uyghurs and other Muslim minority groups in the Xinjiang region.[249][250]

 India 1947

See India–Saudi Arabia relations

Saudi Arabia is the one of largest suppliers of oil to India. India's booming construction industry and rising affluence has created greater demand for goods and services thereby boosting Indian industrial growth. Saudi Arabia has contributed aid to India after the 2001 Gujarat earthquake.

 Indonesia 1 May 1950 See Indonesia–Saudi Arabia relations

Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Jakarta, while Indonesia has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate in Jeddah. Both countries are the member of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and G-20 major economies. Saudi Arabia and Indonesia have long been close allies. Indonesia sent the largest hajj pilgrims among Muslim countries. The balance of trade is heavily in favor of Saudi Arabia, because of its oil and gas exports to Indonesia. There are more than 600,000 Indonesian workers in Saudi Arabia. Migrant worker abuse and death sentences faced by Indonesian workers in Saudi Arabia are the main problems that have strained diplomatic relations between two countries.

 Iran 24 August 1929
See Iran–Saudi Arabia relations

Saudi Arabia-Iran relations have been strained throughout history due to the differences between Sunni Islam and Shia Islam. Although Saudi Arabia and Iran are Muslim majority nations, their relationship is fraught with tension, suspicion and hostility. Various attempts have been made to improve the relationship, though none have had lasting success. Both Saudi Arabia and Iran have aspirations for Islamic leadership and both the countries possess a different vision of regional order. Iran, which after the Islamic Revolution strictly followed an anti-US policy, always deemed Saudi Arabia as an agent of the US in the Persian Gulf region that speaks for US interests. Saudi Arabia's concerns about Iran on the other side are mainly associated with its plans of expanding influence to other parts of the Persian Gulf region, especially in post-Saddam Iraq, and the quest to build its own nuclear arsenal.[251]

Differences in political ideologies and governance also divided both the countries. For Iran, it is said that there is no place for monarchical regimes in Islam, like the ones seen in Saudi Arabia and also in some other Arab countries. Energy difference is a third source of tension between Saudi Arabia and Iran. While Saudi Arabia, compared to Iran's smaller oil reserves and larger population, can afford to take a long-term view of the global oil market and has an incentive to moderate prices, Iran is compelled to focus on high prices in the short term.[251]

Relations in the 2010s and 2020s were increasingly unstable due to the outbreak of crisis in Syria and Iraq in 2014 with the rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria. Despite both countries' efforts to help contain the situation, the Iranian government has at times accused Saudi Arabia of supporting ISIS, which they had done up until the events of June 2014. Relations dropped to an all-time low following the Saudi state's execution of 47 Shia Muslim protesters in January 2016.

Iran and Saudi Arabia announced that they would resume relations in 2023.[252]

 Iraq 7 April 1931 See Iraq–Saudi Arabia relations

Postwar Saudi policy focused on ways to contain potential Iraqi threats to the kingdom and the region. One elements of Riyadh's containment policy included support for Iraqi opposition forces that advocated the overthrow of Saddam Hussein's government. In the past, backing for such groups had been discreet, but in early 1992 the Saudi's invited several Iraqi opposition leaders to Riyadh to attend a well-publicised conference. To further demonstrate Saudi dissatisfaction with the regime in Baghdad, Crown Prince Abdallah permitted the media to videotape his meeting with some of the opponents of Saddam Hussein.

In 2019, Saudi Arabia opened a new consulate in Baghdad. Earlier in 2016, the Kingdom reopened its embassy in Baghdad after it was closed in 1990.[253]

 Israel See Israel–Saudi Arabia relations

A charter member of the Arab League, Saudi Arabia has supported Palestinian rights to sovereignty, and called for withdrawal from the Occupied Territories since 1967. In recent years, Saudi Arabia has changed its viewpoint concerning the validity of negotiating with Israel. It calls for Israel's withdrawal from territory occupied in June 1967 in order to obtain peace with the Arab states; then-Crown Prince Abdullah extended a multilateral peace proposal based on withdrawal in 2002. At that time, Israel did not respond to the offer. In 2007 Saudi Arabia again officially supported a peaceful resolution of the Arab-Israeli conflict.

Saudi Arabia rejected the Camp David accords, claiming that they would be unable to achieve a comprehensive political solution that would ensure Palestinian Arabs could all move to Israel and the division of Jerusalem. In response to Egypt "betraying" the Arab States and signing peace with Israel, Saudi Arabia, along with all the Arab States, broke diplomatic relations with and suspended aid to Egypt, the two countries renewed formal ties in 1987.

Saudi Arabia does not have diplomatic relations with Israel. The country participates in an active economic boycott of Israel. However, Saudi Arabia recognizes that its ally, the United States, has a strong and supportive relationship of Israel.

Saudi Arabia played an active role in attempting to bring the Palestinians towards a self-governing condition which would permit negotiations with Israel. It has done so primarily by trying to mend the schism between Fatah and Hamas, most notably when King Abdullah invited the two factions to negotiations in Mecca resulting in the Mecca Agreement of 7 February 2007. The agreement soon failed, but Saudi Arabia has continued to support a national unity government for the Palestinians, and strongly opposed Israel's war on Gaza in early 2009.

The Times has reported that Saudi Arabia has tested the ability to stand down their air defenses to allow an Israeli strike on Iran to pass through their airspace.[254] Both nations have denied this.[255][256]

 Japan 7 June 1955
See Japan–Saudi Arabia relations

Japan is a major trading partner for Saudi Arabia. In 2006, Japan exported $5.103 million worth of goods to the Kingdom, primarily automobiles, machinery and equipment, and metals. In the same year, Saudi Arabia exported $33.624 million worth of goods to Japan, primarily crude oil and petroleum products. Japan imported 1.3 million barrels a day of Saudi crude in 2006, 31% of the nation's total supply.[257]

 Jordan 12 August 1948 See Jordan-Saudi Arabia relations

Relations with Jordan became strained in the years following the Persian Gulf war. Relations were mended in 1996 when Prince Abdullah visited the country. The countries have since met and discussed international development and the Arab situation.

Saudi Arabia is responsible for ending the Hashemite dynasty's control over Hejaz through their conquests following World War I. Jordan is currently ruled by a branch of the dynasty originally from Hejaz, and installed in Trans-Jordan by the British following the conquest of the region from the Ottomans. It is not entirely apparent how this influences their relationship.

 Kuwait 5 October 1961 See Kuwait–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Kuwait has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate-general in Jeddah.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Kuwait City,
 Lebanon 9 April 1944 See Lebanon-Saudi Arabia relations and 2017 Lebanon–Saudi Arabia dispute

In 1989, Saudi Arabia along with the United States helped mediate the end of the fifteen-year Lebanese Civil War through the Taif Agreement.[258] Following the assassination of Rafik Hariri, Saudi Arabia called for the immediate withdrawal of the Syrian occupation of Lebanon.[259] Saudi Arabia has opposed Hezbollah's influence in Lebanon as they are seen to be aligned with Iran. On 4 November 2017 Lebanese Prime Minister Saad Hariri announced his resignation from Saudi Arabia, this action led to the 2017 Lebanon–Saudi Arabia dispute.

 Maldives 17 March 1981
  • Maldives has an embassy in Riyadh
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Malé
 Malaysia 1957 See Malaysia – Saudi Arabia relations

Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has an embassy in Riyadh. Relations, both diplomatic and economic, are quite close between the two Muslim-majority Organisation of Islamic Cooperation members. Additionally, there is a sizable population of Malaysian migrant workers in Saudi Arabia.

 Oman 14 December 1971 See Oman–Saudi Arabia relations

There have been economic, social and political ties between the two countries.[260]

 Pakistan September 1947 See Pakistan–Saudi Arabia relations

Bilateral relations between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are largely friendly. Pakistan has been called the closest non-Arab ally of Saudi Arabia, or "Saudi Arabia's closest Muslim ally"[261] Saudi Arabia has been rocking the cradle of Pakistani politics, brokering truce among warring leaders, providing asylum to those being exiled and generously lavishing funds on a state strapped for cash.[262]

Diplomatic relations were established at the independence of Pakistan in 1947 and have strengthened considerably owing to cooperation in regional affairs and trade. In 1969 the personnel of the Pakistani Air Force flew the Saudi fighter planes to ward off an invasion from South Yemen. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia invested in Pakistan, in many Industries. Since the inception of Pakistan, Pakistan has been playing a major and important role in the development of Saudi Arabia. Pakistan has provided assistance in the field of science and technology, infrastructure development and many more fields, Pakistan is providing training facilities to Saudi Armed forces. The Faisal Mosque, the National Mosque of Pakistan in Islamabad, is named in honour of King Faisal and was funded by Saudi Arabia.

Faisal Mosque, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Due to the Kingdom's continuing support, many places in Pakistan are named after Saudi Kings and Saudi Arabia in general. For example, the city previously named Lyallpur was renamed Faisalabad in honor of the late Faisal of Saudi Arabia. Also, in Karachi, Pakistan, there are neighbourhoods named Saud Colony, Saudabad, Faisal Colony. Also in Karachi, there is an airforce base name Faisal Airbase named after King Faisal and also, in the honor of King Faisal, the main business street of Pakistan is called Sharah-e-Faisal in Karachi.

In 2005, due to passing of King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, Pakistan declared a seven-day mourning period. Saudi Arabia also hosted former Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif for 8 years while he was in exile. During his stay there, Kingdom held talks with Sharif and even provided him with license to operate business in the Kingdom. It is believed that it was Kingdom of Saudi Arabia which held talks with President Pervez Musharraf of Pakistan to foster their relationship and to allow Sharif back in Pakistan.

The leaked cables revealed in 2010 that Saudis are "long accustomed to having a significant role in Pakistan's affairs."[263] One of the Saudi diplomat boasted about the Saudi involvement in Pakistani affairs, stating, "We in Saudi Arabia are not observers in Pakistan, we are participants."[citation needed] Saudi Arabia also complained over President Zardari's alleged corruption and bias against Shiite Iran, thus fearing a Shia triangle stretching from Iraq, Iran to Pakistan. The cables further alleged that, Prince Mohammed bin Nayef, then Saudi assistant minister of interior, described the Pakistani Chief of Army staff Ashfaq Parvez Kayani as a "decent man" and the Pakistani Army as Saudi Arabia's "winning horse" and its "best bet"[citation needed] for "stability".[263] Time reported that "despite the tensions with Zardari's government, military and intelligence links between Riyadh and Islamabad remain strong and close." Time interviewee, Arif Rafiq of an international consulting firm, stated that the cables "demonstrate that the Saudis have deep vested interests in Pakistan and an influence that is so significant that even the U.S. in some way relies on Saudi knowledge of the country."[263]

 Palestine 1 January 1989 See Palestine-Saudi Arabia relations

State of Palestine and Saudi Arabia established diplomatic relations on 1 January 1989 when opened Embassy State of Palestine in Riyadh.[135]

The internationally recognized PA government maintains cordial relations with Saudi Arabia and has aligned itself with the pro-Saudi bloc in the region, while Saudi Arabia is hostile to Hamas due it its backing from Iran. Despite cordial relations, beginning sometime in the mid to late 2000s, Saudi Arabia has continued to support Palestine, albeit in a limited fashion and has adopted the position of a peaceful settlement between the Arab/Islamic world and Israel, and has been criticized at times of 'betraying' Palestine.

  • Palestine has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate in Jeddah.
 Philippines 24 October 1969 See Philippines–Saudi Arabia relations

The Philippines–Saudi Arabia relations refers to the bilateral relations of the Philippines and Saudi Arabia. Formal diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on 24 October 1969.[95]

Trade relations: In 2012, Saudi Arabia was the 10th largest trading partner of the Philippines, 31st and 8th largest market in the export and import market respectively. Saudi Arabia was also the Philippines' largest trading partner and import supplier, and second largest export market in the Middle East. According to the Saudi government, trade between Saudi Arabia and the Philippines amounted to $3.6 billion in 2011, a bigger figure from compared to the previous year's trade figure amounting to $2.7 billion.

Labor relations: As of June 2013, there are about 674,000 Filipinos working in Saudi Arabia according to the Saudi Ministry of Interior. A landmark agreement on Filipino household service workers were signed between Saudi Arabia and the Philippines. The agreement was the first for Saudi Arabia with a labor-supplying country.[264]

In 2012, about 150,000 Filipino female nurses are working in Saudi Arabia. This accounts for 25 percent of the total number of Overseas Filipino Workers in the Kingdom.[265]

 Qatar 12 October 1971 See Qatar–Saudi Arabia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 October 1971 when signed agreement to exchange ambassadors.[98]

In 1969, an agreement with Qatar was reached about their borders after three years of dispute. A final agreement about the Qatar border was signed in 2001.

After a March 2014 meeting of the Gulf Cooperation Council, the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain announced the recall of their ambassadors to Qatar.[266][267][268]

Some financial economists have interpreted the 2014 Saudi–Qatari rift as the tangible political sign of a growing economic rivalry between oil and natural gas producers, which could "have deep and long-lasting consequences" beyond the Middle East-North Africa area.[269]

On 5 June 2017, Saudi Arabia severed diplomatic relations, as well as other ties, with Qatar.[270] Saudi Arabia explained the decision by referring to Qatar's "embrace of various terrorist and sectarian groups aimed at destabilising the region", including the Muslim Brotherhood, al-Qaida, Islamic State, and groups supported by Iran in the kingdom's eastern province of Qatif.[271]

diplomatic relations were re-established in 2021

 South Korea 16 October 1962

See Saudi Arabia–South Korea relations

The link between South Korea and Saudi Arabia have been historically strong from the old era when Arab merchants came to the Korean Kingdom United Silla in 7th and 8th century.[272] This has resulted in the growth of trades between Korea and the Arab world despite regime changes on both sides.[272]

There are two Korean international schools in Saudi Arabia: Korean International School of Jeddah (KISJ; 젯다한국국제학교) and Korean School in Riyadh (리야드한국학교).[273][274]

During the period 1973-1984, a total of approximately 720,000 Korean workers were employed in various projects in Saudi Arabia.[275] Korean migration to Saudi Arabia has peaked in 1982 and 1983, with over 122,000 South Koreans entering Saudi Arabia in each of those years, making up over 70% of Korean migration to the region. However, by 1985, the number of South Koreans entering Saudi Arabia had fallen to 58,924, paralleling a downward trend in the whole region.[276] As of 2015, there are 5,189 Koreans living in Saudi Arabia.[277]

In business, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the largest exporter of oil to the Republic of Korea (300,000,000 barrels, 2014) Also, ARAMCO Korea was established in 2012. In 2016, two-way trade volume reached US$29.04 billion with South Korea exporting cars, electronic goods, steel and other items to Saudi Arabia and importing oil and other petrochemical products from it.[278] Now, South Korea is described as a "core" partner for the Saudi Vision 2030 project, noting progress in joint efforts to flesh out their cooperation scheme to realize the vision.[278]

  • South Korea has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate in Jeddah
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Seoul
 Sri Lanka 30 November 1974 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 November 1974[113]
  • Sri Lanka has an embassy in Riyadh
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Colombo
 Syria 26 June 1944 See Saudi Arabia–Syria relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 June 1944[52]

  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Damascus.
  • Syria has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Relations between the two countries greatly deteriorated following the outbreak of the Syrian civil war.[279]
  • Between 2018 and 2023, both countries made a gradual reaprochement.[citation needed]
  • Both countries are members of the Arab League.
 Thailand 1 October 1957 See Saudi Arabia–Thailand relations

The country enjoyed a very friendly and strongly strategic partnership[280] The historically friendly and strategic relationship between Thailand and Saudi Arabia had drastically deteriorated since the 1990s, following the Blue Diamond Affair. Diplomatic missions were downgraded to the chargé d'affaires level and the number of Thai workers in Saudi Arabia plummeted.[280] Saudi Arabia did not issue working visas for Thais and discouraged its citizens from visiting the country. Relations between Thailand and Saudi Arabia, already strained, plunged to a new low in 2014 following a Criminal Court decision that acquitted five ex-police officers in relation to the murder of a Saudi businessman in 1990.[281] On January 26, 2022, both countries announced they restored full diplomatic relations and have appointed ambassadors.[282] Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Bangkok and Thailand has an embassy in Riyadh.[283]

 Turkey 3 August 1929 See Saudi Arabia–Turkey relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 August 1929.[42]

Turkey was one of the first states that recognised the country in 1926 and had a diplomatic mission in Hijaz.[284] Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate – general in Istanbul.[285] Turkey has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate – general in Jeddah.[286][287] Both countries are full members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). On the other hand, in 1986 Saudi Arabia proposed that Turkey should have ended commercial relations with Iran and that it could compensate Turkey's losses resulting from this.[288]

 United Arab Emirates 21 August 1974 See Saudi Arabia–United Arab Emirates relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 August 1974.[111]

  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate-general in Jeddah.
 Yemen 21 June 1957 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 June 1957 when the Government of Saudi Arabia is establishing a Legation in Yemen and appointed Abdul Rahman Abikan as its first Minister of Saudi Arabia to Yemen.[72]

See Saudi-Yemen Relations

For Saudi Arabia, Yemen has long been a serious national security concern. Relations between the two countries have historically fluctuated with the Saudis having many access points into Yemen via both formal and informal networks. Then Crown Prince Sultan managed the tribal networks for decades but the tribal system is diminishing and the Saudi tribal connections have weakened as a result. While relations with former President Saleh were often stormy, Saudi Arabia considers the Iranian backed Houthis to be a terrorist group and a threat to the stability of not only their kingdom but the entire region. Due to these concerns, Saudi Arabia led an invasion of Yemen in 2015, resulting in an ongoing conflict.

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 2 December 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 December 1992[144]
  • Albania has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Tirana.
 Andorra 19 March 2009 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 March 2009[185]
 Austria 10 September 1957 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 September 1957[73]
See Austria–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Both countries had diplomatic contact since 7 July 1880, with the opening of an Austrian consulate in Jeddah (then under Ottoman occupation).
  • Austria has an embassy in Riyadh.[289]
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Vienna.[290]
  • Austria Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties (in German only) Archived 12 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
 Belarus 6 June 1997 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 June 1997.[161]
 Belgium 10 April 1955 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 April 1955.[64]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 17 April 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 April 1992.[142]
 Croatia 8 June 1995 See Croatia–Saudi Arabia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 June 1995[156]

  • Croatia is represented in Saudi Arabia through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Saudi Arabia isn't represented in Croatia but citizens that need any assistance are advised to contact Saudi Arabia embassy in Sarajevo (BiH).
  • Both countries are members of the United Nations.
 Cyprus 1961[83] See Cyprus–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Cyprus is represented through its honorary consulate in Jeddah.
  • Saudi Arabia is represented through its embassy in Nicosia.
  • Both countries are members of the United Nations.
  • [2]
 Czech Republic 1995 Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1995.[158]
 Denmark 1 February 1962 See Denmark–Saudi Arabia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 February 1962 when has been accredited first Ambassador of Saudi Arabia to Denmark Sheik Gawad Moustafa Zikry.[85]

  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Hellerup, Copenhagen.[291]
  • Denmark has an embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.[292]
 Estonia 21 March 2003 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 March 2003[170]
  • Estonia is represented in Saudi Arabia by its embassy in Abu Dhabi.
 Finland 6 June 1969 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 June 1969[293]
  • Finland has an embassy in Riyadh and an honorary consulate general in Jeddah.[294]
  • Saudi Arabia opened an embassy in Helsinki[295]
  • Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland about relations with Saudi Arabia
 France March 1926[39] See France–Saudi Arabia relations
  • France has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate-general in Jeddah.[296]
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Paris.[297]
 Germany 26 April 1929 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 April 1929.[41] Diplomatic Relations between Federal Republic of Germany and Saudi Arabia were established on 10 November 1954.[298]
See Germany–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Germany has an embassy in Riyadh[299] and a consulate general in Jeddah.[300]
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Berlin[301] and a consulate general in Frankfurt am Main.
  • German Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Relations between Germany and Saudi Arabia
 Greece

See Greece–Saudi Arabia relations

  • Greece has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Athens.
 Hungary 18 April 1995 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 April 1995.[153]
 Iceland 15 January 1982 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 January 1982.[128]
 Ireland September 1974 Both countries established diplomatic relations in September 1974.[112]
  • Ireland has an embassy in Riyadh and an honorary consulate in Jeddah.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Dublin.
 Italy 10 February 1932 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 February 1932 with signed the Treaty of Friendship between Italy and the Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz.[47]
See Italy–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Italy has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate in Jeddah.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Rome.
 Kosovo 7 August 2009 See Kosovo–Saudi Arabia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 August 2009.[189]

  • Kosovo has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia is accredited to Kosovo from its embassy in Tirana, Albania.
 Latvia 21 March 2003 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 March 2003.[171]
 Liechtenstein 29 April 2009 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 29 April 2009[187]
  • The interests of Liechtenstein are handled through the Swiss embassy in Riyadh.[302]
  • Saudi Arabia's embassy in Bern also serves as non-resident embassy for Liechtenstein.
 Lithuania 31 October 2005 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 31 October 2005.[173]
 Luxembourg 10 December 1977 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 December 1977.[122]
 Malta 1 September 1975 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 September 1975.[115]
 Moldova 17 July 1996 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 July 1996.[159]
 Monaco 2 March 2023 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 March 2023.[219]
 Montenegro 16 September 2011 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 September 2011[193]
 Netherlands 9 June 1930 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 June 1930 when first the Netherlands Charge d'Affaires, M. Van de Meulen, presented letters of credence to King Ibn Saud.[45]
See Netherlands–Saudi Arabia relations
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in The Hague.
 North Macedonia 11 January 1995 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 January 1995.[150]
 Norway 8 May 1961 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 May 1961[79]
  • Norway has had an embassy in Riyadh since 1976.[303]
  • Saudi Arabia has had an embassy in Oslo since 2012.[303]
 Poland 3 May 1995 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 May 1995[154]
See Poland–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Portugal 18 June 1980 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 June 1980.[126]
 Romania 13 March 1995 See Romania – Saudi Arabia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 March 1995[151]

  • Romania has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Bucharest.
 Russia 19 February 1926 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 February 1926.[38]
See Russia–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Russia has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Moscow.
 San Marino 31 March 2009 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 31 March 2009[304]
 Serbia 17 April 2013 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 April 2013[197]
 Slovakia 16 June 1995 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 June 1995.[157]
 Slovenia 7 June 1995 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 June 1995.[155]
 Spain 30 August 1948 See Saudi Arabia–Spain relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 August 1948.[59]

  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Madrid and a consulate in Málaga.
  • Spain has an embassy in Riyadh.
 Sweden 1957 See Saudi Arabia–Sweden relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1957[76]

  • The 2005 Project Simoom contract on weapon industry cooperation[305][306] was torn up by the Swedish government in 2015.[307]
  • Swedish foreign minister Wallström's planned speech[308] for the Arab Union in March 2015 was blocked by Saudi Arabia, after Sweden criticized Saudi Arabia on human rights issues.[309]
  • Sweden has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Stockholm,
  Switzerland 12 July 1956 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 July 1956.[68]
 Ukraine 14 April 1993
See Saudi Arabia–Ukraine relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 April 1993[145]

  • Saudi Arabia recognized Ukraine's independence in 1992.
  • Saudi Arabia is represented in Ukraine through its embassy in Kyiv.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Riyadh and an honorary consulate in Jeddah.[310]
  • In January 2003, Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma made an official visit to Saudi Arabia.
 United Kingdom 20 May 1927 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 May 1927 when signed in Jeddah Treaty of Friendship between Great Britain and Kingdom of Hejaz and Najd.[40]

See United Kingdom-Saudi Arabia relations

The UK has an embassy in Riyadh, consulate in Jeddah and trade office in Al Khobar.[311] Saudi Arabia has an embassy and consulate in London.[312]

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 15 January 1974 See Australia–Saudi Arabia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 January 1974[105]

  • Australia has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate in Jeddah.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate in Sydney.
 Cook Islands 12 April 2023 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 April 2023.[220]
 Fiji 4 August 2015 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 August 2015[206]

Saudi Arabia's embassy in Canberra also serves as non-resident embassy for Fiji.

 Kiribati 19 December 2023 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 December 2023.[226]
 Micronesia 7 November 2023 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 November 2023.[223]
 Nauru 7 November 2023 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 November 2023.[224]
 New Zealand 22 December 1976 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 December 1976[118]
  • New Zealand has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Wellington and a consulate-general in Auckland.
 Palau 23 November 2022 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 November 2022[217]
 Solomon Islands 17 July 2014

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 July 2014[200]

Saudi Arabia's embassy in Canberra also serves as non-resident embassy for Solomon Islands.

 Tonga 14 December 2020 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 December 2020[213]
 Tuvalu 26 March 2015 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 March 2015.[203]
 Vanuatu 8 August 2022 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 August 2022.[215]

Public relations and propaganda

The reputation of Saudi Arabia in the West has always been controversial due to its record of human rights abuses and the Saudi involvement in the Yemen civil war.

The United Kingdom and United States have become a major centre for public relations (PR) supporting the Saudi regime. Lina Khatib, head of the Middle East and north Africa programme at Chatham House said that Saudi Arabia had embarked upon a "wide-ranging PR campaign focused on the UK and the US" since 2016, which involved English-language content targeting a British audience. This PR, linked with the support of Theresa May in arms sales during the war in Yemen. In the UK, media PR depicted Mohammed bin Salman as a reforming prince, and major newspapers ran adverts promoting Bin Salman's 'reform agenda'.[313][314]

This image has been undermined by disappearance and apparent Saudi state-sanctioned murder of Washington Post journalist Jamal Khashoggi.[313][314] Following these allegations, US Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo said, "We call on the government of Saudi Arabia to support a thorough investigation of Mr Khashoggi's disappearance and to be transparent about the results of that investigation"[315] and a UK Foreign Office spokesman said, "These are extremely serious allegations. We are aware of the latest reports and are working urgently to establish the facts, including with the government of Saudi Arabia." France also sought an explanation as to how an "accomplished and esteemed" journalist such as Khashoggi vanished.[316]

Following the murder of Khashoggi, Germany's Chancellor Angela Merkel halted the sale of weapons to Saudi. A non-binding resolution was also voted in the European Parliament to "impose an EU-wide arms embargo on Saudi Arabia". Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau threatened to cancel a multimillion-dollar defence contract amidst the Khashoggi controversy.[317]

Consulum, a London-based PR firm primarily staffed by former Bell Pottinger employees, has worked on communications programmes with the Saudi Arabian government and PR firm Freud Communications, which has worked with the kingdom in propagating the Saudi Vision 2030 relaunch under Bin Salman, distanced itself from the regime following the disappearance of Khashoggi. Pagefield Global Counsel and Kekst CNC (a London division of French PR company Publicis) have said that they previously worked with the regime but no longer work in Saudi Arabia.

A number of media companies that have worked with the Saudi state to promote its overseas image. Bin Salman met Vice Media founder Shane Smith in early 2018 on his tour of the US, and Vice has had a team promoting the country with the Saudi Research and Marketing Group (SRMG), a Saudi regime-affiliated publishing group and 'organ of soft power'. SMRG has signed a deal with The Independent to launch foreign-language websites (including Arabic) across the Middle East, which has led to concern over potential editorial influence by the Saudi publisher. SMRG also donates to the Tony Blair Institute for Global Change to facilitate Tony Blair's work on the Saudi modernisation programme.[313][314]

According to a FARA eFile document filed with the US Department of Justice, the Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Washington, D.C., hired an ex-top lobbyist of the Heritage Foundation for a brief legislative push before the inauguration of 2020 President-elect Joe Biden and his administration. The contract with Off Hill Strategies worth $25,000-per-month was effective from 19 October 2020 through 18 January 2021, two days before the inauguration of President Biden. As per the filing, the PR firm was tasked with serving "federal legislative advocacy and related services to support the Embassy's congressional outreach efforts and further advance bilateral ties between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United States." During the primary debate of 2019, Biden was quoted as calling Saudi Arabia a "pariah" and promising to end the US arms sales to Riyadh following its alleged use in the Saudi-led coalition's war in Yemen that has resulted in the deaths of thousands of civilians. Off Hill Strategies has been called the Saudi embassy's first hiring in 2020.[318][319]

International organization participation

Saudi Arabia is a member of the ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, BIS, ESCWA, FAO, G-20, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, International Maritime Organization, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, and WTrO.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Request Rejected". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  2. ^ ‘Saudis donate aid to non-Muslims' The Telegraph, 26 March 2006
  3. ^ "Saudi Aid to the Developing World". Saudinf. 20 April 2009. Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  4. ^ "Arab Aid". Saudi Aramco World. 1979. Archived from the original on 13 January 2010. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  5. ^ Gardner, Frank (20 April 2016). "How strained are US-Saudi relations?". BBC News.
  6. ^ "The bizarre alliance between the US and Saudi Arabia is finally fraying". newstatesman.com.
  7. ^ "The U.S. Might Be Better Off Cutting Ties With Saudi Arabia". Time.
  8. ^ Noi, Aylin ¨Unver. "A Clash of Islamic Models" (PDF). CURRENT TRENDS IN ISLAMIST IDEOLOGY / VOL. 15. Hudson Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 December 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2014. Saudi-led "Pro-Western Camp" aligned with the U.S. and composed of Egypt, Jordan, and the Gulf states.
  9. ^ a b c d "Saudi Arabia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  10. ^ a b c "Saudi Arabia". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  11. ^ Genin, Aaron (1 April 2019). "A GLOBAL, SAUDI SOFT POWER OFFENSIVE: A SAUDI PRINCESS AND DOLLAR DIPLOMACY". The California Review. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  12. ^ "Saudi Arabia and China launch 'digital Silk Road'". businessreviewmiddleeast.com.[permanent dead link]
  13. ^ "China's Xi Jinping calls Saudi king with pledge to boost ties". South China Morning Post.
  14. ^ "Saudi Arabia, China Sign Deals Worth Up to $65 Billion". Foreign Policy.
  15. ^ "Public Opinion in Saudi Arabia". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org.
  16. ^ Diplomat, Charlotte Gao, The. "Closer Ties: China And Saudi Arabia Sign $70 Billion in New Deals". The Diplomat.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ "Wang Yi and Foreign Minister Adel bin Ahmed Al-Jubeir of Saudi Arabia Co-host the Third Meeting of the Political and Diplomatic Sub-committee of China-Saudi Arabia High-level Joint Committee". fmprc.gov.cn.
  18. ^ "Oil Embargo, 1973–1974 – 1969–1976 – Milestones – Office of the Historian". Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  19. ^ Gelvin, James L. "Why is Saudi Arabia suddenly so paranoid?". Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  20. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. A history of modern Indonesia since c.1200. Stanford. 2001 Stanford University Press.
  21. ^ Abdullah, Taufik. Adat and Islam: An Examination of Conflict in Minangkabau. 1966.
  22. ^ Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. 2003. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
  23. ^ Xavier Romero-Frias, The Maldive Islanders, A Study of the Popular Culture of an Ancient Ocean Kingdom. 1999, ISBN 84-7254-801-5
  24. ^ a b 'Fueling Terror', Institute for the Analysis of Global Terror, http://www.iags.org/fuelingterror.html
  25. ^ Chosky, C.E.B.; Chosky, J.K (2015). "The Saudi Connection: Wahhahbism and global terror". World Affairs. 178 (1): 23–34. JSTOR 43555279. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
  26. ^ Rodenbeck, Max (21 October 2004). "Unloved in Arabia". The New York Review of Books. 51 (16). During the Reagan administration, Saudi Arabia effectively became a weapon in the all-out assault on communism. It was not just the Afghan Mujahideen who benefited, fatefully as we well know, from Saudi largesse, but America's proxy fighters on other cold-war fronts, from Angola to Central America to the Horn of Africa. Less dramatically but perhaps more crucially, the kingdom also bled the Soviet Union by keeping oil prices down throughout the 1980s, just when the Russians were desperate to sell energy in order to keep up with huge hikes in American military spending. In periods of shortage during the past ten years, such as during the Iraq wars and Venezuela's 2002 oil strike, the Saudis have cranked up production to keep prices stable.
  27. ^ "Abdullah's no reformer" Archived 30 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine Foreign Policy, 28 June 2010
  28. ^ "Wikileaks and Iran". Chicago Tribune. 29 November 2010. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  29. ^ Johnston, David (9 September 2003). "Two years later: 9/11 Tactics; Official Says Qaeda Recruited Saudi Hijackers to Strain Ties". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 May 2008.
  30. ^ "Arab leaders issue resolutions, emphasize Gaza reconstruction efforts". Kuwait News Agency. 20 January 2009. Retrieved 10 August 2010.
  31. ^ "Egypt Protests could spread to other countries" The Guardian, 31 January 2011, Retrieved 21 February 2011.
  32. ^ a b Biskup, Lennart (2017). Saudi-Arabiens radikalisierender Einfluss auf Deutschlands Muslime (PDF). Frankfurt: Frankfurter Forschungszentrums Globaler Islam (FFGI). pp. 4, 11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 June 2018.
  33. ^ J Jonsson David (2006). Islamic Economics and the Final Jihad. Xulon Press. pp. 249–250. ISBN 978-1-59781-980-0.
  34. ^ "Saudi crown prince defends China's right to put Uighur Muslims in concentration camps". The Daily Telegraph. 22 February 2019.
  35. ^ "Saudi Arabia's Mohammed bin Salman Defends China's Use of Concentration Camps for Muslims During Visit to Beijing". Newsweek. 22 February 2019.
  36. ^ a b "Saudi crown prince defended China's imprisonment of a million Muslims in internment camps, giving Xi Jinping a reason to continue his 'precursors to genocide'". Business Insider. 23 February 2019.
  37. ^ "Saudi crown prince defends China's right to fight 'terrorism'". al-Jazeera. 23 February 2019.
  38. ^ a b "The USSR and Saudi Arabia established diplomatic relations 95 years ago". Russian Foreign Ministry - МИД России in Facebook. Retrieved 25 December 2023.
  39. ^ a b "La France et l'Arabie saoudite… ensemble pour un meilleur avenir". Ambassade de France en Arabie Saoudite (in French). Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  40. ^ a b Hejaz-Nejd Treaty signed with Great Britain. trove.nla.gov.au: The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Mon 26 Sep 1927. p. 15. Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  41. ^ a b British Documents on Foreign Affairs--reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print From the First to the Second World War. Series B, Turkey, Iran, and the Middle East, 1918-1939 · Volume 6. University Publications of America. 1986. p. 237.
  42. ^ a b "Türkiye - Suudi Arabistan Siyasi İlişkileri". Republic of Türkiye Ministry of Foreign Affairs (in Turkish). Retrieved 9 November 2023.
  43. ^ Dr. Emir Hadžikadunić. "Insight 215: Iran–Saudi Ties: Can History Project Their Trajectory?". Ifimes. Retrieved 12 September 2023.
  44. ^ British Documents on Foreign Affairs--reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print. From the First to the Second World War. Series B, Turkey, Iran, and the Middle East, 1918-1939 · Volume 7. University Publications of America. 1986. p. 12.
  45. ^ a b British Documents on Foreign Affairs--reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print From the First to the Second World War. Series B, Turkey, Iran, and the Middle East, 1918-1939 · Volume 7. University Publications of America. 1986. p. 12.
  46. ^ Joshua Yaphe (2021). Saudi Arabia and Iraq as Friends and Enemies. Borders, Tribes and a History Shared. Liverpool University Press. p. 35.
  47. ^ a b Matteo Pizzigallo (2013). "History of an 80-Year-Long friendship: Italy - Saudi Arabia 1932 – 2012" (PDF). In Silvia Colombo (ed.). Italy and Saudi Arabia confronting the challenges of the XXI century. Roma: Edizioni Nuova Cultura. pp. 17–36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 March 2023. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  48. ^ Records of Saudi Arabia: 1932-1934. Archive Editions. 1992. p. 47.
  49. ^ Dr. Ashraf Saleh Mohamed Sayed (June 2014). "Friendship & Cooperation Treaty Between The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia And The Kingdom of Egypt May-November 1936" (PDF). LIWA Journal of the National Archives Volume 6, Number 11. p. 37. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2021. Retrieved 12 September 2023.
  50. ^ "A Guide to the United States' History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, since 1776: Saudi Arabia". Office of the Historian Department of State USA. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  51. ^ Khoury Gérard (2004). Sélim Takla 1895-1945. Une contribution à l'indépendance du Liban (in French). KARTHALA Editions. p. 376.
  52. ^ a b Heads of Foreign Missions in Syria, 1947. Syria from Foreign Office files 1947-1956. 1947. p. 33. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  53. ^ "CHILE: Relaciones diplomáticas con el Mundo Árabe". arabe.cl (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 September 2023.
  54. ^ Memoria del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores (in Spanish). Chile. Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores. 1945. p. 372.
  55. ^ "Acuerdo por Notas Reversales por el que se establecen Relaciones Diplomáticas con el Reino de Arabia Saudita". Biblioteca Digital de Tratados Argentina. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  56. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Pakistan – Saudi Arabia". Embassy of Pakistan in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  57. ^ "India-Saudi Arabia Relations" (PDF). Retrieved 30 December 2023.
  58. ^ Chronology of International Events - Volume 4. Royal Institute of International Affairs. 1948. p. 560.
  59. ^ a b Guía hispano-árabe (in Spanish). Islamo-Cristiano Darek-Nyumba de Madrid. 1982. p. 89.
  60. ^ a b British Documents on Foreign Affairs--reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print: Arabia, The Lebanon, Israel, Syria, Jordan and General, 1952. LexisNexis. 2006. p. 149.
  61. ^ "Bilateral Relations between Indonesia and Saudi Arabia". Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Retrieved 12 September 2023.
  62. ^ "Hoy celebramos el 70 aniversario del establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas entre México y Arabia Saudita". Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores de México. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  63. ^ Rasooldeen, Mohammed (6 July 2017). "Saudi-Venezuelan ties to reach new heights: Envoy". Arab News. Riyadh. Retrieved 5 October 2023.
  64. ^ a b Arabia, 1947-1957. The National Archives (Kew, United Kingdom). 1947. p. 92. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  65. ^ "Japan-Saudi Arabia Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 17 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  66. ^ "Memoria Anual 2015" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 May 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  67. ^ "Relations bilatérales". Republique Tunisienne Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres (in French). Archived from the original on 21 May 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  68. ^ a b "Au Conseil fédéral. Création d'une représentation diplomatique permanente en Arabie séoudite". Dodis (in French). Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  69. ^ a b U.S. Records on Saudi Affairs, 1945-1959: Internal affairs, 1955-1958. Archive Editions Limited. 1997. pp. 407, 582.
  70. ^ U.S. Records on Saudi Affairs, 1945-1959: Internal affairs, 1955-1958. Archive Editions Limited. 1997. p. 370.
  71. ^ "Politique étrangère du Maroc" (in French). p. 30. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  72. ^ a b U.S. Records on Saudi Affairs, 1945-1959: Internal affairs, 1955-1958. Archive Editions Limited. 1997. p. 559.
  73. ^ a b "120 Jahre österreichische Präsenz". wienerzeitung.at (in German). Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  74. ^ "Relation between the Kingdom of Thailand and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia". riyadh.thaiembassy.org. 29 November 2022. Retrieved 12 September 2023.
  75. ^ "King Salman to begin Asian tour in Malaysia". Arab News. 26 February 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2023.
  76. ^ a b "Saudiarabien". regeringen.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  77. ^ Daily Report: Foreign Radio Broadcasts - Issues 66-70 - Page 4. United States. Foreign Broadcast Information Service. 1960.
  78. ^ Yitzhak Oron (1961). Middle East Record Volume 2, 1961 Volume 2. Israel Oriental Society, The Reuven Shiloah Research Center. p. 430. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  79. ^ a b "Norges opprettelse af diplomatiske forbindelser med fremmede stater" (PDF). regjeringen.no (in Norwegian). 27 April 1999. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  80. ^ Yitzhak Oron (1961). Middle East Record Volume 2, 1961 Volume 2. The Moshe Dayan Center. p. 430. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  81. ^ Yitzhak Oron (1961). Middle East Record Volume 2, 1961 Volume 2. Israel Oriental Society, The Reuven Shiloah Research Center. p. 430.
  82. ^ "Today in Kuwait's history". Kuwait News Agency (KUNA). 5 October 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2023.
  83. ^ a b "سياسي / المملكة وقبرص .. علاقات متطورة نحو آفاق أوسع لخدمة مصالحهما المشتركة". Saudi Press Agency (in Arabic). Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  84. ^ S. H. Steinberg (1961). The Statesman's Year-Book: Greece: Diplomatic Representatives. p. 1083.
  85. ^ a b "Kongelig Dansk Hof- Og Stats Kalender 1963" (PDF). slaegtsbibliotek.dk (in Danish). p. [24]. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  86. ^ "Overview". Ministry of Foreign Affairs Republic of Korea. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  87. ^ Daily report, foreign radio broadcasts. 1962 no.212-213 1962. Foreign Broadcast Information Service. 30 October 1962. p. 183.
  88. ^ "CHRONOLOGIE INTERNATIONALE Etablissement des relations diplomatiques par l'Algérie". p. 39. Archived from the original on 5 October 2023. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  89. ^ Europe, France outremer Issues 405-416. 1963. p. 143.
  90. ^ Summary of World Broadcasts: Non-Arab Africa. British Broadcasting Corporation. Monitoring Service. 1966. p. 5.
  91. ^ Africa Research Bulletin. Blackwell. 1966. p. 667.
  92. ^ Documentos de política externa Volumes 1-4 (in Portuguese). Brazil. Ministério das Relações Exteriores, Brazil. Secretaria Geral Adjunta para o Planejamento Político. 1967. p. 129. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
  93. ^ a b Middle East Economic Digest - Volume 13. Middle East Economic Digest, Limited. 1969. p. 673.
  94. ^ "Saudi Arabia". Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. Archived from the original on 15 February 2018. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  95. ^ a b "The Republic of the Philippines and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia celebrate 53 years of formal diplomatic relations today, October 24!". DFA Philippines. 24 October 2022. Retrieved 12 September 2023.
  96. ^ ARR Arab Report and Record. Economic Features, Limited. 1970. p. 180.
  97. ^ "Bilateral Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs Bahrain. Archived from the original on 17 April 2023. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  98. ^ a b Anita L. P. Burdett (2004). Records of Saudi Arabia, 1966-1971: 1971. Archive Editions. p. 9.
  99. ^ Alexei Vassiliev (September 2013). The History of Saudi Arabia. 2013. ISBN 9780863567797.
  100. ^ Record of the Arab World Yearbook of Arab and Israeli Politics · Volume 1. Research and Publishing House. 1972. p. 805.
  101. ^ ARR: Arab Report and Record. Economic Features, Limited. 1972. p. 333.
  102. ^ News Review on West Asia. Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. 1972. p. 11.
  103. ^ "A Guide to Canadian Diplomatic Relations 1925-2019". Canadian Global Affairs Institute. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  104. ^ Africa Research Bulletin. Blackwell. 1973. p. 3002.
  105. ^ a b Establishment of Diplomatic Relations with Saudi Arabia. Australian foreign affairs record.Vol. 45 No. 1 (January 1974). p. 56. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  106. ^ Année africaine (in French). Éditions A. Pedone. 1975. p. 160.
  107. ^ Africa Newsletter Risālat Afrīqiyā · Issues 1-11. African Society. 1974. p. 14.
  108. ^ ARR: Arab Report and Record - Page 31. Economic Features, Limited. 1974.
  109. ^ "Trinidad and Tobago and Saudi Arabia seek to strengthen bilateral relations". Ministry of Foreign and CARICOM Affairs Trinidad and Tobago. 22 July 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  110. ^ ARR: Arab Report and Record. Economic Features, Limited. 1974. p. 38.
  111. ^ a b Middle East Economic Survey. 1974. p. CCXXXVI.
  112. ^ a b "Dáil Éireann debate -Thursday, 5 Jun 1975 Vol. 281 No. 10". oireachtas.ie. Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  113. ^ a b Summary of World Broadcasts: Far East - Part 3 - Page A-42. British Broadcasting Corporation. Monitoring Service. 1974.
  114. ^ "Embajador de Arabia Saudi en Uruguay: "Queremos fortalecer el comercio"". El Observador (in Spanish). 24 August 2022. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  115. ^ a b "Embassy of Malta in Riyadh celebrates the Anniversary of Malta's Independence Day". foreignandeu.gov.mt. 14 September 2015. Archived from the original on 24 December 2021. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  116. ^ Bangladesh: Past and Present. Salahuddin Ahmed, A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. 2004. p. 219. ISBN 9788176484695. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  117. ^ "Countries with which Jamaica has Established Diplomatic Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade of Jamaica. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  118. ^ a b MEED Arab Report. Middle East Economic Digest Limited. 1976.
  119. ^ "Bilateral Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs Nepal. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  120. ^ "Diplomatic & Consular List" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs Singapore. p. 184. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 August 2017. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  121. ^ Translations on Sub-Saharan Africa Issues 1885-1892. United States. Joint Publications Research Service. 1978. p. 169. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  122. ^ a b "Bulletin de documentation_1977_13" (PDF). sip.gouvernement.lu (in French). p. 61. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  123. ^ ARR, Arab Report and Record. Arab Report and Record. 1978. p. 338.
  124. ^ Saudi Review - Page 2. 1978.
  125. ^ "Vingt-huit bougies pour notre ambassade en terre sainte". Collection Islam Burkina Faso (in French). Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  126. ^ a b Sa'udi Arabia Yearbook. Research & Publishing House. 1980. p. 77.
  127. ^ "Countries with which the Republic of Maldives has established Diplomatic Relations" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Maldives. 11 May 2023. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 June 2023. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  128. ^ a b "Iceland - Establishment of Diplomatic Relations". Government of Iceland. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  129. ^ Peter Karibe Mendy, Richard Andrew Lobban (2013). Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau. Scarecrow Press. p. 174.
  130. ^ Summary of World Broadcasts: Non-Arab Africa, Issues 7607-7630. British Broadcasting Corporation. Monitoring Service. 1984. p. 10.
  131. ^ al-Yamāmah, 795–808 (in Arabic). 1984. p. 22. جلالة الملك فهد بن عبد العزيز المفدى بمكتبه بالديوان الملكي بعد ظهر الاربعاء الماضي اوراق اعتماد سفيري كل من جمهورية جزر القمر الاتحادية الاسلامية ابراهيم عبد الله ابراهيم..
  132. ^ Africa Research Bulletin Political series · Volumes 22-23. 1985. p. 7517.
  133. ^ "Arabia Saudita abrirá embajada en Perú para consolidar relación bilateral". ANDINA Agencia Peruana de Noticias. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  134. ^ "Saudi Arabia". Ministry of Foreign Affairs Brunei Darussalam. Archived from the original on 29 March 2023. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  135. ^ a b Gerhard Von Glahn (1992). Law Among Nations An Introduction to Public International Law. Macmillan Publishing Company. p. 86.
  136. ^ "List of states which the Lao PDR has established diplomatic relations since 1950". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lao PDR. Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  137. ^ a b "Communique Concerning the Estabushment of Diplomatic Relations Between the People's Repulbic of China and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  138. ^ "States with which the Republic of Uzbekistan established diplomatic relations". Embassy of the Republic of Uzbekistan in Ukraine. Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  139. ^ "Relations between the Republic of Tajikistan and the Saudi Arabia". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Tajikistan. Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  140. ^ "States with which Turkmenistan established diplomatic relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkmenistan. Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  141. ^ "Bilateral diplomatic relations between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia". Republic of Azerbaijan Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  142. ^ a b "Dates of Recognition and Establishment of Diplomatic Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  143. ^ "Список стран, с которыми КР установил дипломатические отношения". mfa.gov.kg (in Russian). Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  144. ^ a b "Relations between Republic of Albania and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia". Albanian Embassy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  145. ^ a b "Bilateral agreements between Ukraine and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia". Embassy of Ukraine in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  146. ^ Horn of Africa Bulletin, Volume 5. Life & Peace Institute. 1993. p. 9.
  147. ^ "Bilateral Relations". Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  148. ^ "Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  149. ^ "BILATERAL AGREEMENTS SIGNED BY SOUTH AFRICA AS ON 25 JUNE 2020". Parliamentary Monitoring Group. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
  150. ^ a b "Bilateral relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of North Macedonia. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  151. ^ a b "Diplomatic Relations of Romania". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Romania. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  152. ^ "Установяване, прекъсване u възстановяване на дипломатическите отношения на България (1878-2005)" (in Bulgarian). Archived from the original on 26 August 2018. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  153. ^ a b Magyar Külpolitikai Évkönyv 1968-2010 Magyar Külpolitikai Évkönyv, 1995 (in Hungarian). library.hungaricana.hu. p. 137. Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  154. ^ a b "Poland in Saudi Arabia". gov.pl. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  155. ^ a b mag. Mojca Pristavec Đogić. "Priznanja samostojne Slovenije" (PDF) (in Slovenian). p. 7. Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  156. ^ a b "Overview of Bilateral Treaties of the Republic of Croatia by Country". mvep.gov.hr. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  157. ^ a b "Saudská Arábia: Základné informácie". mzv.sk (in Slovak). Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  158. ^ a b "Diplomatic relations between Czechia and Saudi Arabia". Embassy of the Czech Republic in Riyadh. Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  159. ^ a b "Regatul Arabiei Saudite". mfa.gov.md (in Romanian). Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  160. ^ "Mozambique and Saudi Arabia sign cooperation agreement in Ryadh – AIM". 10 February 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  161. ^ a b "Political cooperation". Embassy of the Republic of Belarus in the United Arab Emirates. Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  162. ^ "Diplomatie : l'Arabie saoudite raffermit ses relations avec le Congo". Agence d'Information d'Afrique Centrale. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  163. ^ "Lijst van Diplomatieke Betrekkingen en Visum-afschaffingsovereenkomsten" (PDF). gov.sr (in Dutch). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 April 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  164. ^ "اليوم في التاريخ 15 أغسطس". alyaum.com (in Arabic). 15 August 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2023.
  165. ^ "List of countries which maintains diplomatic relations with the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (as April 2010)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs Viet Nam. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  166. ^ "Gestionan oportunidades de trabajo para hondurenos en Arabia Saudita". La Prensa (in Spanish). 25 October 2021. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  167. ^ "President Ramkalawan welcomes the Minister of State for African Countries Affairs of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia". statehouse.gov.sc. 10 June 2021. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  168. ^ "Diplomatic relations between Haiti and Saudi Arabia as of 17 Nov. 2000". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  169. ^ "List of countries with which Saint Lucia has established Diplomatic Relations" (PDF). saintluciamissionun.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 November 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  170. ^ a b "Diplomaatiliste suhete (taas)kehtestamise kronoloogia". Republic of Estonia Ministry of Foreign Affairs (in Estonian). Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  171. ^ a b "Dates of Establishment and Renewal of Diplomatic Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs Republic of Latvia. 1 July 2021. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  172. ^ "Diplomatic relations". Embassy of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar in Brazil. Archived from the original on 12 July 2023. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  173. ^ a b "List of countries with which Lithuania has established diplomatic relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Lithuania. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  174. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Nicaragua and Saudi Arabia as of 30 Mar. 2006". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  175. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Saudi Arabia and Antigua and Barbuda as of 12 Feb. 2007". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  176. ^ "List of Countries Maintaining Diplomatic Relations with Mongolia" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Mongolia. March 2020. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2022. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  177. ^ "Saudi Arabia, Botswana establish diplomatic relations". Saudi Press Agency. 1 March 2007. Archived from the original on 17 April 2023. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  178. ^ "Saudi Ambassador's credentials presented to President of Cape Verde". SAUPRESS. 16 March 2007. Retrieved 18 September 2023.
  179. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Saudi Arabia and Barbados as of 17 Dec. 2007". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  180. ^ "Nouveaux ambassadeurs à Lomé". republicoftogo.com (in French). 26 December 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  181. ^ "Etablissement de relations diplomatiques entre Madagascar et l'Arabie saoudite". MADAGATE.com. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  182. ^ "Diplomatic Relations between Dominica and Saudi Arabia as of 23 Jan. 2009". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  183. ^ "Diplomatic Relations between Ecuador and Saudi Arabia as of 23 Jan. 2009". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  184. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Saudi Arabia and El Salvador as of 27 Feb. 2009". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  185. ^ a b "Diplomatic Relations Between Andorra and Saudi Arabia as of 19 Mar. 2009". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  186. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Saudi Arabia and Angola as of 24 Mar. 2009". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  187. ^ a b "قام سعادة سفير خادم الحرمين الشريفين لدى الاتحاد السويسري بالتوقيع على إقامة علاقات دبلوماسية بين المملكة وإمارة ليختنشتاين (in Arabic)". Embassy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in Switzerland. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  188. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Saudi Arabia and Paraguay as of 9 July 2009". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  189. ^ a b "Saudi Arabia and Kosovo establish diplomatic relations". gov.sa. 9 August 2009. Archived from the original on 25 September 2023. Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  190. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Saudi Arabia and Cambodia as of 19 Oct. 2010". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  191. ^ "Rapporti bilaterali della Repubblica di San Marino". esteri.sm (in Italian). Retrieved 31 January 2024.
  192. ^ "Diplomatic Relations between Colombia and Saudi Arabia as of 8 Sept. 2011". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  193. ^ a b "Diplomatic Relations between Montenegro and Saudi Arabia as of 16 Sept. 2011". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  194. ^ "King receives credentials of new ambassadors". SAURESS. 12 October 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  195. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Saudi Arabia and Guyana as of 22 Feb. 2012". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  196. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Saudi Arabia and Dominican Republic as of 24 July 2012". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  197. ^ a b "Diplomatic Relations between Saudi Arabia and Serbia as of 17 Apr. 2013". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  198. ^ "Embajadores de Alemania, Dinamarca y Arabia Saudita presentan cartas credenciales en Bolivia". laRazon (in Spanish). 19 August 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  199. ^ "Riyadh, Juba strengthen ties: Establish diplomatic missions". eyeradio.org. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
  200. ^ a b "Diplomatic Relations between Solomon Islands and Saudi Arabia as of 17 July 2014". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  201. ^ "Diplomatic Relations between Saudi Arabia and Panama as of 14 Jan. 2015". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  202. ^ "Diplomatic Relations between Timor-Leste and Saudi Arabia as of 29 Jan. 2015". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  203. ^ a b "Diplomatic Relations between Saudi Arabia and Tuvalu as of 26 Mar. 2015". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 2 December 2023.
  204. ^ "Diplomatic Relations between Saudi Arabia and Swaziland as of 30 Mar. 2015". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  205. ^ "Diplomatic Relations between Saudi Arabia and Namibia as of 29 July 2015". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  206. ^ a b "Diplomatic Relations between Fiji and Saudi Arabia as of 4 Aug. 2015". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  207. ^ "Diplomatic Relations between Saudi Arabia and Costa Rica as of 7 Dec. 2015". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  208. ^ "Diplomatic relations between Saint Kitts and Nevis and Saudi Arabia as of 29 Sept. 2016". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  209. ^ "Diplomatic relations between Guatemala and Saudi Arabia as of 21 Apr. 2017". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  210. ^ "Diplomatic relations between Central African Republic and Saudi Arabia as of 16 June 2017". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  211. ^ "Diplomatic relations between Saudi Arabia and Rwanda as of 29 Mar. 2018". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 2 December 2023.
  212. ^ "Saudi Arabia establishes diplomatic relations with Zimbabwe". ARABNEWS. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  213. ^ a b "Diplomatic Relations Between Saudi Arabia and Tonga as of 14 Dec. 2020". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  214. ^ "The Kingdom signs an agreement to establish diplomatic relations with Lesotho". SawahPress. 20 August 2021. Archived from the original on 4 February 2022. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  215. ^ a b "Saudi Arabia, Vanuatu sign protocol to establish diplomatic relations". Saudigazette. 8 August 2022. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
  216. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Belize and Saudi Arabia as of 24 Sept. 2022". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  217. ^ a b "Diplomatic Relations Between Saudi Arabia and Palau as at 23 Nov. 2022". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  218. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Saudi Arabia and Bahamas as at 23 Nov. 2022". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  219. ^ a b "Diplomatic Relations Between Saudi Arabia and Monaco as at 2 Mar. 2023". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 2 December 2023.
  220. ^ a b "Diplomatic Relations Between Cook Islands and Saudi Arabia as at 12 Apr. 2023". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 9 November 2023.
  221. ^ "São Tomé e Príncipe e o Reino da Arábia Saudita iniciaram formalmente as Relações Diplomáticas". Embaixada da Republica Democratica de Sao Tome e Principe na Republica de Cabo Verde (in Portuguese). 9 June 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  222. ^ "Diplomatic relations between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Saudi Arabia as of 11 October 2023". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 2 December 2023.
  223. ^ a b "Diplomatic relations between Micronesia (Federated States of) and Saudi Arabia as of 7 November 2023". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 2 December 2023.
  224. ^ a b "Diplomatic relations between Nauru and Saudi Arabia as of 7 November 2023". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 2 December 2023.
  225. ^ "Establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Armenia and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia". 25 November 2023. Retrieved 25 November 2023.
  226. ^ a b "The Kingdom begins a new chapter in its relations by signing diplomatic relations with Kiribati". Saudi Arabia Mission to the UN. 19 December 2023. Retrieved 21 December 2023.
  227. ^ "SAUDI ARABIA, BOTSWANA ESTABLISH DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS". Saudi Press Agency. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  228. ^ "Embassy of Canada to Saudi Arabia". 16 October 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  229. ^ "Canada". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  230. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Riyadh
  231. ^ Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Mexico City
  232. ^ a b Abramson, Rudy (9 August 1990). "1945 Meeting of FDR and Saudi King Was Pivotal for Relations". Los Angeles Times. Washington DC. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  233. ^ "President Roosevelt and King Abdulaziz". SUSRIS. 17 March 2005. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  234. ^ Gawdat, Bahgat (Winter 2004). "Saudi Arabia and the War on Terrorism". Arab Studies Quarterly. 26 (1). Archived from the original on 12 October 2017.
  235. ^ Maier, Timothy (24 June 2002). "Kids Held Hostage in Saudi Arabia" (PDF). Insight. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
  236. ^ Maier, Timothy (27 November 2001). "Stolen Kids become Pawns in Terror War" (PDF). Insight. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
  237. ^ Maier, Timothy (18 June 2001). "All Talk, No Action on Stolen Children" (PDF). Insight. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 June 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
  238. ^ Maier, Timothy (7 October 2000). "A Double Standard for Our Children" (PDF). Insight. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
  239. ^ [1] Archived 30 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  240. ^ "Arms for the King and His Family: The U.S. Arms Sale to Saudi Arabia". Jerusalem Center For Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 14 August 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  241. ^ "US-Saudi Security Cooperation, Impact of Arms Sales – Cordesman". Archived from the original on 19 May 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  242. ^ "Home - Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia". www.saudiembassy.net. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  243. ^ "Home – Embassy of the United States Riyadh, Saudi Arabia". Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  244. ^ "Bangladesh and Saudi Arabia". The Economist. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  245. ^ a b "Chinese president arrives in Riyadh at start of 'trip of friendship, cooperation'", Xinhua, 10 February 2009
  246. ^ "Backgrounder: Basic facts about Kingdom of Saudi Arabia" Archived 12 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Xinhua, 9 February 2009
  247. ^ "Chinese president's visit to Saudi Arabia to show friendship" Archived 23 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Xinhua, 10 February 2009
  248. ^ China exceeds US in Saudi oil export, The New York Times, 10 March 2010
  249. ^ "Which Countries Are For or Against China's Xinjiang Policies?". The Diplomat. 15 July 2019.
  250. ^ "Saudi Arabia and Russia among 37 states backing China's Xinjiang policy". Reuters. 12 July 2019.
  251. ^ a b "Saudi-Iranian Relations Since the Fall of Saddam: Rivalry, Cooperation and Implication for US Policy"[permanent dead link] Frederic Wehrey et al, RAND, National Security Research Division, 2009.
  252. ^ "Iran and Saudi Arabia agree to resume relations after years of tension". NPR. 10 March 2023. Retrieved 10 March 2023.
  253. ^ "Saudi Arabia opens new Baghdad consulate and pledges $1bn in loans for Iraq". Arab News. 4 April 2019. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  254. ^ "Login". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  255. ^ "Israel denies Saudis gave IDF airspace clearance for Iran strike". Haaretz.com. 1 January 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  256. ^ Saudi denies Israel airspace deal against Iran Haaretz
  257. ^ "Japan-Saudi Arabia Relations." Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, November 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2011
  258. ^ Hudson, Michael C. (1997). "Trying Again: Power-Sharing in Post-Civil War Lebanon". International Negotiation. 2: 103–122. doi:10.1163/15718069720847889.
  259. ^ "Saudi ruler demands rapid Syrian withdrawal". The Daily Star Newspaper - Lebanon. 4 March 2005. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  260. ^ "Omani-Saudi relations". Saudi Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  261. ^ Lacey, Robert (2009). Inside the Kingdom : Kings, Clerics, Modernists, Terrorists, and the Struggle for Saudi Arabia. Viking. p. 294. ISBN 9780670021185. Saudi Arabia's closest Muslim ally, Pakistan
  262. ^ Todays Archived 16 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine News, 15 April 2011
  263. ^ a b c Tharoor, Ishaan (6 December 2010). "WikiLeaks: The Saudis' Close but Strained Ties with Pakistan". Time. Archived from the original on 28 December 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
  264. ^ "Manila, Riyadh bilateral ties at their best | Arab News – Saudi Arabia News, Middle East News, Opinion, Economy and more". Arabnews.com. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  265. ^ "Saudi role in restoring Philippine peace hailed". Saudi Gazette. 30 September 2012. Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  266. ^ "3 Gulf Countries Pull Ambassadors From Qatar Over Its Support of Islamists". The New York Times. 5 March 2014.
  267. ^ "gulfnews.com: "UAE, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain recall their ambassadors from Qatar" 5 Mar 2014". Retrieved 21 November 2014.
  268. ^ "Saudi Arabia, UAE, Bahrain withdraw envoys from Qatar". CNN. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
  269. ^ Firzli, M. Nicolas J. (6 April 2014). "A GCC House Divided: Country Risk Implications of the Saudi-Qatari Rift". Al-Hayat. London. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
  270. ^ "Four countries cut links with Qatar over 'terrorism' support". BBC News. 5 June 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  271. ^ Wintour, Patrick (5 June 2017). "Gulf plunged into diplomatic crisis as countries cut ties with Qatar". Retrieved 26 December 2017 – via www.theguardian.com.
  272. ^ a b "Home". Eng.korea-arab.org. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  273. ^ Home, Korean International School of Jeddah, retrieved 21 September 2015, 주소: P.O.BOX 4322, Jeddah 21491, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  274. ^ Home. Riyadh Korean School. Retrieved on 21 September 2015.
  275. ^ Chung In Moon. "Korean Contractors in Saudi Arabia: Their Rise and Fall." Middle East Journal, vol. 40, no. 4, 1986, pp. 614–33. JSTOR, JSTOR 4327423. Accessed 9 Apr. 2023.
  276. ^ Seok 1991, pp. 56–58
  277. ^ 재외동포현황 [Current Status of Overseas Compatriots] (in Korean). South Korea: Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
  278. ^ a b "Acting president calls for expanded economic cooperation with Saudi Arabia". Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
  279. ^ Saudi Arabia arming Syrian rebels croatian weapons Global Post, 26 February 2013
  280. ^ a b "Time running out for thai-saudi relations". Archived 7 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine (sic) Editorial. The Nation. 9 April 2008. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  281. ^ Post Publishing PCL. "Thai-Saudi relations likely to worse after murder acquittals – Bangkok Post: learning". bangkokpost.com. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  282. ^ "Saudi Arabia and Thailand restore relations after three decades of tensions". 26 January 2022.
  283. ^ "Royal Thai Embassy in Saudi Arabia". 1 July 2022.
  284. ^ Al Kahtani, Mohammad Zaid (December 2004). "The Foreign Policy of King Abdulaziz" (PDF). University of Leeds. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
  285. ^ "Request Rejected". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  286. ^ "Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Riyad Büyükelçiliği". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  287. ^ "Türkiye Cumhuriyeti". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  288. ^ Hunter, Shireen T. (Spring 1987). "After the Ayatollah". Foreign Policy. 66 (66): 77–97. doi:10.2307/1148665. JSTOR 1148665.
  289. ^ "Austrian Foreign Ministry -> Embassy -> Riyadh". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  290. ^ "Request Rejected". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  291. ^ "Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Denmark". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  292. ^ "Danmarks ambassade Saudi Arabien". Archived from the original on 24 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  293. ^ "Finland and Saudi Arabia". finlandabroad.fi. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  294. ^ "Embassy of Finland, Riyadh". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  295. ^ "Request Rejected". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  296. ^ "Ambassade de France en Arabie Saoudite". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  297. ^ "France". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  298. ^ "Saudi-Arabien: Steckbrief". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 December 2023.
  299. ^ "Deutsche Botschaft Riad – Startseite". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  300. ^ "German Embassy Riyadh – Home". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  301. ^ "Request Rejected". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  302. ^ "Liechtenstein – Consular services". www.eda.admin.ch.
  303. ^ a b "New Saudi Arabian embassy in Oslo". The Norway Post, Bærum. 22 October 2012. Archived from the original on 29 December 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  304. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Saudi Arabia and San Marino as of 31 Mar. 2009". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  305. ^ "Sweden 'caved to banker' in Saudi arms deal". 18 August 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  306. ^ Radio, Sveriges (29 January 2015). "Löfven hesitates calling Saudi Arabia a dictatorship - Radio Sweden". Sveriges Radio. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  307. ^ Tharoor, Ishaan (12 March 2015). "At last, a Western country stands up to Saudi Arabia on human rights". The Washington Post. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  308. ^ Regeringskansliet, Regeringen och (9 March 2015). "Utrikesminister Margot Wallströms planerade tal vid Arabförbundets utrikesministermöte". Regeringskansliet. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  309. ^ Saudis block Swedish minister's speech at Arab League Archived 16 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Reuters 9 March 2015.
  310. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Riyadh Archived 20 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  311. ^ "British Embassy Riyadh - GOV.UK". ukinsaudiarabia.fco.gov.uk.
  312. ^ "Request Rejected". www.mofa.gov.sa. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  313. ^ a b c Waterson, Jim (19 October 2018). "Saudi Arabia pays UK firms millions to boost image". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  314. ^ a b c "Report: U.K. Media, PR Firms Worked for Saudi Arabia to Boost Image". The Daily Beast. 19 October 2018. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  315. ^ "Jamal Khashoggi: US calls on Saudi Arabia to be 'transparent' about missing journalist". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  316. ^ "Jamal Khashoggi: Turkey hunts black van it believes carried body". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  317. ^ "MEPs back call for EU members to halt arms sales to Saudi Arabia". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  318. ^ "Saudis pick up former Heritage Foundation lobbyist for pre-inauguration push". Foreign Lobby. 17 November 2020. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
  319. ^ "FARA Document of the Embassy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Hiring Off Hill Strategies LLC" (PDF). The United States Department of Justice. Retrieved 13 November 2020.

Sources

  • Seok, Hyunho (1991), "Korean migrant workers to the Middle East", in Gunatilleke, Godfrey (ed.), Migration to the Arab World: Experience of Returning Migrants, United Nations University Press, pp. 56–103, ISBN 978-92-808-0745-5

Further reading

  • Klare, Michael (2004). Blood and Oil: The Dangers and Consequences of America's Growing Petroleum Dependency. New York: Metropolitan. ISBN 0-8050-7313-2.
  • Jones, John Paul (2007). If Olaya Street Could Talk: Saudi Arabia- The Heartland of Oil and Islam. The Taza Press. ISBN 978-0-9790436-0-4.

External links

  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • Our enemies, the Saudis. United States relations with Saudi Arabia by Victor Davis Hanson, originally published in Commentary, June 2002.
  • Saudi Arabia: 14-Year-Old Boy Faces Execution from Human Rights Watch 27 October 2005.
  • Saudi Arabia to host Israel boycott event[dead link] by Michael Freund, published in the Jerusalem Post, 7 March 2006
  • Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Washington, D.C.
  • Embassy of the United States in Riyadh
  • Saudi-U.S. Alignment after the Six Day War
  • A Saudi-Israeli Deal (an opinion column by Thomas L. Friedman)
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Foreign_relations_of_Saudi_Arabia&oldid=1206956575"