Exclusive economic zone

The world's exclusive economic zones by boundary types and EEZ types

An exclusive economic zone (EEZ), as prescribed by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is an area of the sea in which a sovereign state has exclusive rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.[1]

It stretches from the outer limit of the territorial sea (22.224 kilometres or 12 nmi from the baseline) out 370.4 kilometres (or 200 nautical miles) from the coast of the state in question. It is also referred to as a maritime continental margin and, in colloquial usage, may include the continental shelf. The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 nautical mile limit. The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea. The surface waters are international waters.[2]


Sea areas in international rights (top down view)

Generally, a state's exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, extending seaward to a distance of no more than 200 nmi (370 km) out from its coastal baseline.[3] The exception to this rule occurs when exclusive economic zones would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nmi (741 km) apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary.[4] Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the nearest state.[5]

The exclusive economic zone stretches much further into sea than the territorial waters, which end at 12 nmi (22 km) from the coastal baseline (if following the rules set out in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea).[5] Thus, the exclusive economic zones includes the contiguous zone.

States also have rights to the seabed of what is called the continental shelf up to 350 nmi (648 km) from the coastal baseline, beyond the exclusive economic zones, but such areas are not part of their exclusive economic zones. The legal definition of the continental shelf does not correspond exactly to the geological meaning of the term, as it also includes the continental rise and slope, and the entire seabed within the exclusive economic zone.

Origin and history

The idea of allotting nations' EEZs to give them more control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century.

Initially, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nmi (6 km) (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore.[citation needed] In modern times, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nmi (22 km) beyond the shore.[citation needed] One of the first assertions of exclusive jurisdiction beyond the traditional territorial seas was made by the United States in the Truman Proclamation of 28 September 1945. However, it was Chile and Peru respectively that first claimed maritime zones of 200 nautical miles with the Presidential Declaration Concerning Continental Shelf of 23 June 1947[6] and Presidential Decree No. 781 of 1 August 1947[7][8]

It was not until 1982 with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone was formally adopted.


De facto territories in the Spratly Islands

The exact extent of exclusive economic zones is a common source of conflicts between states over marine waters:

Potential disputes

Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also a source of potential dispute.[12]

Resolved disputes

  • The Cod Wars between the United Kingdom and Iceland occurred periodically over many decades until they were resolved with a final agreement in 1976.
  • In 1992, the Canada–France Maritime Boundary Case, which centred on the EEZ around the French islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, was decided by an arbitral tribunal that concurred on the whole with the arguments put forth by Canada. France was awarded 18% of the area it had originally claimed.
  • In 1999, following the Hanish Islands conflict, the Permanent Court of Arbitration ruled that the EEZs of Yemen and Eritrea should be demarcated equidistantly between the mainlands of the two nations, without taking account of sovereignty over the islands.[13][14]
  • In 2009, in a dispute between Romania and Ukraine over Snake Island, the UN International Court of Justice decided that Snake Island has no EEZ beyond 12 nautical miles of its own land.[15]
  • In 2010, a dispute between Norway and Russia about both territorial waters and EEZ with regard to the Svalbard archipelago as it affects Russia's EEZ due to its unique treaty status was resolved. A treaty was agreed in principle in April 2010 between the two states and subsequently officially ratified, resolving this demarcation dispute.[16] The agreement was signed in Murmansk on 15 September 2010.[17]
  • In 2014, the Netherlands and Germany resolved an old border dispute regarding the exact location of the border in the Dollart Bay.[18][19]

Transboundary stocks

Fisheries management, usually adhering to guidelines set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control.[20] Transboundary stocks are fish stocks that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. Straddling stocks, on the other hand, range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.[21]

By country

Various island countries

EEZs in the Caribbean Sea
EEZs in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans
EEZs in the Pacific Ocean


Algeria on 17 April 2018 established an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off its coasts by Presidential Decree No. 18-96 of 2 Rajab 1439 corresponding to 20 March 2018.[22][23] The permanent mission of Spain to the United Nations on 27 July 2018 declared its disagreement with the EEZ announced by Algeria and that the government of Spain indicated its willingness to enter into negotiations with the government of Algeria with a view to reaching a mutually acceptable agreement on the outer limits of their respective exclusive economic zones,[24] The same was done by the Italian mission on 28 November 2018.[25] The two countries indicated that the Algerian measure had been taken unilaterally and without consulting them.

On 25 November 2018, the Algerian Ministry of Foreign Affairs sent an oral note in response to the Spanish protest, explaining that the Algerian government does not recognize the largely exorbitant coordinates contained in Royal Decree 236/2013, which overlap with the coordinates of Presidential Decree n° 18–96 establishing an exclusive economic zone off the coast of Algeria. The Algerian government wished to emphasize that the unilateral delimitation carried out by Spain is not in conformity with the letter of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and has not taken into consideration the configuration, the specific characteristics, and the special circumstances of the Mediterranean Sea, in particular for the case of the two countries whose coasts are located face to face, as well as the objective rules and relevant principles of international law to govern the equitable delimitation of the maritime areas between Algeria and Spain, in accordance with article 74 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Algeria expressed its willingness to negotiate for a just solution.[26]

On 20 June 2019, a communication from Algeria was sent. It was addressed to the Italian embassy[27] and the Spanish embassy in Algiers[28] to show their eligibility in Algeria's exclusive economic zone.


Argentina's exclusive economic zones, including its territorial claims (the Falklands and South Georgia, etc. plus its Antarctic claim)

Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of Argentina reaches 3,849,756 km2. The recognized Argentine EEZ area is 1,159,063 km2.


Australia's exclusive economic zones, including its Antarctic claim

Australia's exclusive economic zone was declared on 1 August 1994, and extends from 12 to 200 nautical miles from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.[29][30] To the 12 nautical miles boundary is Australia's territorial waters. Australia has the third largest exclusive economic zone, behind France and the United States, but ahead of Russia, with a total area of 8,148,250 square kilometres, which actually exceeds its land territory.

The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ.[31][32] Australia also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, additional Continental Shelf past its EEZ from the Australian Antarctic Territory,[33] but these claims were deferred on Australia's request. However, Australia's EEZ from its Antarctic Territory is approximately 2 million square kilometres.[32]

Region EEZ Area (km2)[32]
Mainland Australia (5 States and 3 Territories of the Australian Federation), Tasmania, and other minor islands 6,048,681
Macquarie Island 471,837
 Christmas Island 463,371
 Norfolk Island 428,618
Heard Island and McDonald Islands 410,722
 Cocos Islands 325,021
Australian Antarctic Territory 2,000,000[note 1]
Total 8,148,250


Brazil's exclusive economic zones

Brazil's EEZ includes areas around the Fernando de Noronha Islands, Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, and the Trindade and Martim Vaz Islands. It is called the Blue Amazon.

Region EEZ Area (km2)[34]
Mainland Brazil (9 States of the Brazilian Federation) 2,570,917
Trindade and Martim Vaz Islands 468,599
Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago 413,636
Fernando de Noronha Islands 363,362
Total 3,830,955

In 2004, Brazil submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.[35]


Canada's exclusive economic zone and territorial waters

Canada is unusual in that its exclusive economic zone, covering 5,599,077 km2 (2,161,816 sq mi), is slightly smaller than its territorial waters.[36] The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay (about 300 nmi (560 km) across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic Archipelago.


Chile's exclusive economic zones, including its Antarctic claim

Chile's EEZ includes areas around the Desventuradas Islands, Easter Island, and the Juan Fernández Islands.

Region EEZ Area (km2)[37] Land Area (km2) Total
Mainland Chile 1,987,371 755,757 2,743,128
Easter Island 720,412 164 720,576
Juan Fernández Islands 502,524 100 502,624
Desventuradas Islands 449,836 5 449,841
Total 3,660,143 756,102.4 4,416,245.4

In 2020 and 2022, Chile submitted its partial claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.


Exclusive economic zone claimed by the People's Republic of China:
  China's undisputed EEZ –
960,556 km2[38]
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by Taiwan – 1,148,485 km2[39]
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by other countries – 210,926 km2
Total: 2,236,430 km2[40]

The first figure excludes all disputed waters, while the last figure indicates China's claimed boundaries, and does not take into account adjacent powers' claims.[clarification needed]


Croatia's exclusive economic zone (dark blue) and Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone

Croatia proclaimed Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone in 2003, but it was not enforced toward other European Union states especially Italy and Slovenia. The zone was upgraded to EEZ in 2021 together with Italy and Slovenia.[41][42] Territorial waters has 18,981 km2, while internal waters located within the baseline cover an additional 12,498 km2, and EEZ covers 24,482 km2 for a total of 55,961 km2.


Cyprus EEZ covers 98,707 square km (38,100 square miles). Cyprus' EEZ borders those of Greece, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Egypt.


The exclusive economic zones and territorial waters of the Kingdom of Denmark

The Kingdom of Denmark includes the constituent country (selvstyre) of Greenland and the constituent country (hjemmestyre) of the Faroe Islands.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[43] Land area Total
 Denmark 105 989 42 506 149 083
 Faroe Islands 260 995 1 399 262 394
 Greenland 2,184,254 2,166,086 4,350,340
Total 2,551,238 2,210,579 4,761,817


Ecuador's exclusive economic zone

Area: 1,077,231 km2


Exclusive economic zones of France, including its Antarctic territorial claim

Due to its numerous overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,691,000 km2 (4,514,000 sq mi).[44] The EEZ of France covers approximately 7% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of Earth.


Germany declared the establishment of its exclusive economic zone in the North and Baltic Seas on 1 January 1995.[45] The relevant German legal provisions that are applicable within the EEZ include the Maritime Task Act (Seeaufgabengesetz) from 1965, the Maritime Facilities Act (Seeanlagengesetz) from 2017, and prior to that the Sea Facilities Ordinance (Seeanlagenverordnung) from 1997, the Federal Mining Act (Bundesberggesetz) and the Regional Planning Act (Raumordnungsgesetz).

The German EEZ has an area of 32,982 km2. About 70% of the EEZ covers Germany's entire North Sea area, while some 29% encompasses the Baltic Sea area.[46]


Exclusive Economic Zone of Greece

Greece forms the southernmost part of the Balkan peninsula in the Mediterranean Sea. It includes many small islands which vary between 1,200 and 6,000 in the Aegean Sea and the Ionian Sea.[47] The largest islands are Crete, Euboea, Lesbos, Rhodes and Chios.

Greece's EEZ is bordered to the west by Albania and Italy, to the south by Libya and Egypt, and to the east by Cyprus and Turkey.

EEZ Area of Greece[48]
Territory km2 sq mi Notes
Total 505,572 195,202


India's exclusive economic zones
EEZ Area (km2)
Mainland India (9 states and 2 union territories) and Lakshadweep union territory 1,641,514 km2
Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory 663,629 km2
Total 2,305,143 km2

India is currently seeking to extend its EEZ to 350 miles.[49]


Indonesia's exclusive economic zone

Indonesia has the 6th largest exclusive economic zone in the world. The total size is 6,159,032 km2 (2,378,016 sq mi). It claims an EEZ of 200 nautical miles from its shores. This is due to the 13,466 islands of the Indonesian Archipelago.[50] It has the 2nd largest coastline of 54,720 km (34,000 mi). The five main islands are: Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, and Western New Guinea. There are two major island groups (Nusa Tenggara and the Maluku Islands) and sixty smaller island groups.


Ireland's exclusive economic zone was reported to be the location of a Russian military exercise in January 2022.[51] Russia's exercise was then moved outside the economic zone.[52]


In 2010, an agreement was signed with Cyprus concerning the limit of territorial waters between Israel and Cyprus at the maritime halfway point, a clarification essential for safeguarding Israel's rights to oil and underwater gas reservoirs. The agreement was signed in Nicosia by Israeli Infrastructure Minister Uzi Landau and the Cypriot Foreign Minister Markos Kyprianou. The two countries agreed to cooperate in the development of any cross-border resources discovered and to negotiate an agreement on dividing joint resources.


Italy's EEZ in the Mediterranean Sea

Italy has an EEZ of 541,915 km2 (209,235 sq mi).[48] The country claims an EEZ of 200 nautical miles from its shores, and its three coastlines are the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west, the Ionian Sea to the south and the Adriatic Sea to the east. Italy's EEZ is limited by maritime boundaries with neighboring countries to the northwest, east and southeast.

Italy's western sea territory stretches from the west coast of Italy on the Tyrrhenian Sea, including the island of Sardinia. The island of Sicily is in the southernmost area. Lampedusa, a tiny island in the Mediterranean Sea, is tbe country's southernmost point. Italy shares treaty-defined maritime boundaries with France, Spain, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Malta, Greece, Albania, Montenegro, Croatia and Slovenia.


Japan's exclusive economic zones:
  Japan's EEZ
  Joint regime with the Republic of Korea
  EEZ claimed by Japan, disputed by others

Japan has the world's eighth-largest exclusive economic zone, covering 4,479,674 km2 (1,729,612 sq mi).[53] It claims an EEZ of 200 nautical miles from its shores.

EEZ Areas of Japan
Region EEZ Area (km2) EEZ Area (sq mi)
Ryukyu Islands 1,394,676 538,487
Pacific Ocean (Japan) 1,162,334 448,780
Nanpō Islands 862,782 333,122
Sea of Japan 630,721 243,523
Minami-Tori-shima 428,875 165,590
Sea of Okhotsk 235 91
Daitō Islands 44 17
Senkaku Islands 7 2.7
Total[note 2] 4,479,674 1,729,612

Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (China, Russia, South Korea, and Taiwan). The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project[54][55][56] both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account the claims of adjacent jurisdictions.

Japan also refers to various categories of "shipping area" – Smooth Water Area, Coasting Area, Major or Greater Coasting Area, Ocean Going Area – but it is unclear whether these are intended to have any territorial or economic implications.



Exclusive economic zone of Mexico

Mexico's exclusive economic zones cover a total surface area of 3,269,386 km2,[48] and places Mexico among the countries with the largest areas in the world.

New Zealand

Exclusive economic zones of the Realm of New Zealand, including the Ross Dependency (shaded)

New Zealand's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km2 (1,576,742 sq mi),[57][58] which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2.[59] These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (the Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau, and the Ross Dependency).

North Korea

The exclusive economic zone of North Korea

The exclusive economic zone of North Korea stretches 200 nautical miles from its basepoints in both the West Sea (Yellow Sea) and the Sea of Japan.[60] The EEZ was declared in 1977 after North Korea had contested the validity of the Northern Limit Lines (NLL) set up after the Korean War as maritime borders.[61] The EEZ has not been codified in law and North Korea has never specified its coordinates, making it difficult to determine its specific scope.[62]

In the West Sea, the EEZ remains unspecified in the Korea Bay because China has not determined its own EEZ in the area.[63] The border between the North Korean and South Korean EEZs in the West Sea cannot be determined because of potential overlap and disputes over certain islands.[64]

In the Sea of Japan, the North Korean EEZ can be approximated to be trapezoidal-shaped.[65] The border between North Korea and Russia's respective EEZs is the only such border that has been determined in East Asia.[66] Here, the EEZ does not cause many problems, even with regards to South Korea, because the sea is not thought to be rich in resources.[65]


Norway's exclusive economic zones, including the dependency of Bouvet Island

Norway has a large exclusive economic zone of 819,620 km2 around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km2, including fishing zones around Svalbard and Jan Mayen.[67]

In April 2009, the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway and Russia both had valid claims over a portion of the shelf in the Barents Sea.[68]

Region EEZ and Territorial
Waters Area (km2)
Land Area (km2) Total (km2)
Mainland Norway 1,273,482 323,802 1,597,284
Svalbard 402,574 61,002 463,576
Jan Mayen 273,118 373 273,491
Bouvet Island 436,004 49 436,053
Total 2,385,178 385,226 2,770,404


Area: 290,000 km2

Pakistan coast is a 1046 km long coast, extending from Sir Creek in the east to Gwadar Bay in the west and the EEZ extends up to 290,000sqkm which is more than 30% of its land area and ranks sixty-sixth in the world by area.

Pakistan had an EEZ of 240,000sq km before their case was accepted by UNCLCS. Pakistan Navy with the help of the National Oceanographic Organization (NIO) initiated the continental shelf case at ministerial level in 1995.

On 26 Aug 2013, a seven-member sub-commission with members from Japan, China, Mozambique, Kenya, Denmark, Georgia and Argentina was formulated at UNCLCS to evaluate the technical details of Pakistan's case and after a year accepted Pakistan's claim.

On 13 March 2015, UN Commission on the Limits of Continental Shelf (UNCLCS) accepted recommendations for extension of the outer limits of the continental shelf on Pakistan's case so far 80 countries had submitted claims to UNCLCS out of which recommendations of 22 countries including Pakistan had been finalised.

It was a historic event in the country's history when Pakistan became the first country in the region to have its continental shelf extended to 350 nm.

Some of the claimed territories overlapped the Omani claim. It is believed that the verdict in favour of Pakistan was announced after successful negotiation with Oman.


Peru's exclusive economic zone

Area: 857,000 km2[69]


The exclusive economic zone of the Philippines shown in blue lines,[70] Eleven Dash-line shown in red lines, and treaty line of the Treaty of Paris (1898) shown in green line

The Philippines' EEZ covers 2,263,816 km2 (874,064 sq mi).[71]


The Polish EEZ covers the area of 30,533 km2 (11,789 sq mi) within the Baltic Sea.[72]


Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zones plus submitted Extended Continental Shelf to the UN[73]

Portugal has the 20th largest EEZ in the world. Presently, it is divided in three non-contiguous sub-zones:

Portugal submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over an additional 2.15 million square kilometres of the adjacent continental shelf in May 2009,[74] resulting in an area with a total of more than 3,877,408 km2. The submission, as well as a detailed map, can be found in the Task Group for the extension of the Continental Shelf website.

Spain previously objected to the EEZ's southern border, maintaining that it should be drawn halfway between Madeira and the Canary Islands. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islands, a small archipelago north of the Canaries, claiming an EEZ border further south. Spain has no longer disputed the Portuguese claim since 2015.[75][76]


Area: 23,627 km2


Russia's exclusive economic zone

Russia's exclusive economic zone, the world's fourth largest, is composed of:

  • Kaliningrad (Baltic Sea) – 11,634 km2
  • Saint Petersburg (Baltic Sea) – 12,759 km2
  • Barents Sea – 1,308,140 km2
  • Black Sea (without the Crimean EEZ) – 66,854 km2
  • Pacific – 3,419,202 km2
  • Siberia – 3,277,292 km2
  • Total – 8,095,881 km2[77]


Senegal's exclusive economic zone

Area: 158,861 km2


Somalia's exclusive economic zone

Area: 825,052 km2

South Africa

South Africa's exclusive economic zone

South Africa's EEZ includes both that next to the African mainland and that around the Prince Edward Islands, totalling 1,535,538 km2.[48]

  • Mainland – 1,068,659 km2
  • Prince Edward islands – 466,879 km2

South Korea

South Korean exclusive economic zone:
  Korean EEZ
  EEZ claimed by Republic of Korea and Japan
  Joint regime with Japan

Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2


Spain's exclusive economic zone (Labels in Spanish)

Area: 1,039,233 km2


Thailand's exclusive economic zone

Area: 299,397 km2


Turkey's EEZ is bordered by Georgia, Russia, Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria in the Black Sea to the north, Greece in the Aegean Sea to the west, and Cyprus and Syria in the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Turkey is one of the few countries to not have signed UNCLOS and disputes Greece's and Cyprus' EEZ.

United Kingdom

The exclusive economic zones of the United Kingdom in blue, including the British Overseas Territories and the Crown Dependencies. The British claim in Antarctica is shown in shaded blue.[78]
UK, Ireland, Iceland & Faroes exclusive economic zones

The United Kingdom has the world's fifth-largest exclusive economic zone of 6,805,586 km2 (2,627,651 sq mi) square km. It comprises the EEZs surrounding the United Kingdom,[79] the Crown Dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories. The figure does not include the EEZ of the British Antarctic Territory.

The EEZ associated with the Falkland Islands and South Georgia are disputed by Argentina. The EEZ of the Chagos Archipelago, also known as the British Indian Ocean Territory, is also disputed with Mauritius which considers the archipelago as a part of its territory.

The EEZ areas of the United Kingdom, Crown Dependencies and British Overseas Territories (in decreasing size)[48]
Territory EEZ Area (km2) EEZ Area (sq mi) Notes
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 1,449,532 559,667 Disputed with  Argentina.
 Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands 836,108 322,823
 United Kingdom 773,676 298,718 Including the  Isle of Man.
 Tristan da Cunha 754,720 291,400 Including Gough Island.
 British Indian Ocean Territory 638,568 246,552 Disputed with  Mauritius.
 Falkland Islands 550,872 212,693 Disputed with  Argentina.
 Bermuda 450,370 173,890
 Saint Helena 444,916 171,783
 Ascension Island 441,658 170,525
 Turks and Caicos Islands 154,068 59,486
 Cayman Islands 119,137 45,999
 Anguilla 92,178 35,590
 British Virgin Islands 80,117 30,933
Channel Islands 11,658 4,501 Including  Guernsey and  Jersey.
 Montserrat 7,582 2,927
 Gibraltar 426 164 Disputed with  Spain.
 Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia 0 0 No EEZ area. The relevant EEZ areas around Cyprus Island are claimed by the  Republic of Cyprus[80] and  Northern Cyprus.[81]
Total 6,805,586 2,627,651

A part of the overseas territory of  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, which together has an EEZ of 1,641,294 square km.

United States

The USA's Exclusive Economic Zones

The United States' exclusive economic zone is the second largest in the world, covering 11,351,000 km2. Areas of its EEZ are located in three oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea.

The EEZ (including territorial sea) areas of the territories of the U.S. (in decreasing size)[82]
Territory EEZ Area (km2) EEZ Area (sq mi) Notes
 Alaska 3,770,021 1,455,613 A non-contiguous state in the northwest extremity of the North American continent.
 HawaiiNorthwestern Islands 1,579,538 609,863 Including Midway Atoll, these islands form the Leeward Islands of the Hawaiian island chain.
U.S. East Coast 915,763 353,578 The mainland coastal states of the Eastern United States. As a region, this term most often refers to the coastal states of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and the Atlantic Coast of Florida.
 HawaiiSoutheastern Islands 895,346 345,695 These islands form the Windward Islands of the Hawaiian island chain.
U.S. West Coast 825,549 318,746 The mainland coastal states of the Western United States. As a region, this term most often refers to the coastal states of California, Oregon, Washington.
 Northern Mariana Islands 749,268 289,294 An organized, unincorporated, Commonwealth of the United States.
U.S. Gulf Coast 707,832 273,295 The mainland coastal states of the Southern United States. As a region, this term most often refers to the coastal states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the Gulf Coast of Florida
Johnston Atoll 442,635 170,902 A National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands.
Howland and Baker Islands 434,921 167,924 Both territories are National Wildlife Refuges in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands.
 Wake Island 407,241 157,237 A National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands.
 American Samoa 404,391 156,136 The only inhabited, unorganized, unincorporated, territory of the United States.
Palmyra Atoll and Kingman Reef 352,300 136,000 Both territories are National Wildlife Refuges in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands.
Jarvis Island 316,665 122,265 A National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands.
 Guam 221,504 85,523 An organized, unincorporated, territory of the United States.
 Puerto Rico 177,685 68,605 An organized, unincorporated, Commonwealth of the United States.
 U.S. Virgin Islands 33,744 13,029 An organized, unincorporated, territory of the United States.
Navassa Island N/A[note 3] N/A[note 3] A National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands.[note 4]
Total 11,351,000 4,383,000

Note, the totals in the table actually add up to 12,234,403 square km and 4,723,705 square miles.


Vietnam claims an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of 1,395,096 km2 (538,650 sq mi) with 200 nautical miles from its shores.[86][87] These figures do not include the claimed EEZ areas of the Paracel Islands and the Spratly Islands. Vietnam has disputes mainly with the People's Republic of China due to the nine-dash line.

Countries with the most distant EEZs

Countries with the most distant EEZs

Rankings by area

This list includes dependent territories (including uninhabited territories) within their sovereign states, but does not include various claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA) which includes territorial land and internal waters.

Rank Country EEZ km2[48] Shelf km2 EEZ+TIA km2
1  United States[note 5] 11,351,000 2,193,526 21,814,306
2  France[note 6] 10,186,624 725,297 12,416,921
3  Australia[note 7] 9,025,053 2,194,008 16,197,464
4  Russia 7,566,673 3,817,843 24,664,915
5 United Kingdom[note 8] 6,805,586 872,891 7,048,486
6  Indonesia 6,159,032 2,039,381 8,063,601
7  Canada 5,599,077 2,644,795 15,607,077
8  Japan 4,479,388 214,976 4,857,318
9 New Zealand[note 9] 4,420,565[57][58][88] 272,898[57][58][88] 4,688,285[89][90]
10  Brazil 3,830,955 774,563 12,345,832
11  Chile 3,681,989 252,947 4,431,381
12  Kiribati 3,441,810 7,523 3,442,536
13  Mexico 3,269,386 419,102 5,141,968
14  Federated States of Micronesia 2,996,419 19,403 2,997,121
15 Denmark[note 10] 2,551,238 495,657 4,761,811
16  Papua New Guinea 2,402,288 191,256 2,865,128
17  Norway[note 11] 2,385,178 434,020 2,770,404
18  India 2,305,143 402,996 5,592,406
19  Marshall Islands 1,990,530 18,411 1,990,711
 Cook Islands[note 12] 1,960,027 1,213 1,960,267
20  Portugal[note 13] 1,727,408 28,000 1,819,498
21  Philippines 1,590,780 272,921 1,890,780
22  Solomon Islands 1,589,477 36,282 1,618,373
23  South Africa 1,535,538 156,337 2,756,575
24  Seychelles 1,336,559 39,063 1,337,014
25  Mauritius 1,284,997 29,061 1,287,037
26  Fiji 1,282,978 47,705 1,301,250
27  Madagascar 1,225,259 101,505 1,812,300
28  Argentina 1,159,063 856,346 3,939,463[note 14]
29  Ecuador 1,077,231 41,034 1,333,600
30  Spain 1,039,233 77,920 1,545,225
31  Maldives 923,322 34,538 923,622
32  Peru 906,454 82,000 2,191,670
33  China 877,019 231,340 10,473,980
34  Somalia 825,052 55,895 1,462,709
35  Colombia 808,158 53,691 1,949,906
36  Cape Verde 800,561 5,591 804,594
37  Iceland 751,345 108,015 854,345
38  Tuvalu 749,790 3,575 749,816
39  Vanuatu 663,251 11,483 675,440
40  Tonga 659,558 8,517 660,305
41  Bahamas 654,715 106,323 668,658
42  Palau 603,978 2,837 604,437
43  Mozambique 578,986 94,212 1,380,576
44  Morocco 575,230 115,157 1,287,780
45  Costa Rica 574,725 19,585 625,825
46  Namibia 564,748 86,698 1,388,864
47  Yemen 552,669 59,229 1,080,637
48  Italy 541,915 116,834 843,251
49  Oman 533,180 59,071 842,680
50  Myanmar 532,775 220,332 1,209,353
51  Sri Lanka 532,619 32,453 598,229
52  Angola 518,433 48,092 1,765,133
53  Greece 505,572 81,451 637,529
54  South Korea 475,469 342,522 575,469
55  Venezuela 471,507 98,500 1,387,950
56  Vietnam 417,663 365,198 748,875
57  Ireland 410,310 139,935 480,583
58  Libya 351,589 64,763 2,111,129
59  Cuba 350,751 61,525 460,637
60  Panama 335,646 53,404 411,163
61  Malaysia 334,671 323,412 665,474
 Niue[note 12] 316,584 284 316,844
62  Nauru 308,480 41 308,501
63  Equatorial Guinea 303,509 7,820 331,560
64  Thailand 299,397 230,063 812,517
65  Pakistan 290,000 51,383 1,117,911
66  Egypt 263,451 61,591 1,265,451
67  Turkey 261,654 56,093 1,045,216
68  Jamaica 258,137 9,802 269,128
69  Dominican Republic 255,898 10,738 304,569
70  Liberia 249,734 17,715 361,103
71  Honduras 249,542 68,718 362,034
72  Tanzania 241,888 25,611 1,186,975
73  Ghana 235,349 22,502 473,888
74  Saudi Arabia 228,633 107,249 2,378,323
75  Nigeria 217,313 42,285 1,141,081
76  Sierra Leone 215,611 28,625 287,351
77  Gabon 202,790 35,020 470,458
78  Barbados 186,898 426 187,328
79  Côte d'Ivoire 176,254 10,175 498,717
80  Iran 168,718 118,693 1,797,468
81  Mauritania 165,338 31,662 1,190,858
82  Comoros 163,752 1,526 165,987
83  Sweden 160,885 154,604 602,255
84  Senegal 158,861 23,092 355,583
85 Netherlands[note 15] 154,011 77,246 192,345
86  Ukraine 147,318 79,142 750,818
87  Uruguay 142,166 75,327 318,381
88  Guyana 137,765 50,578 352,734
89  São Tomé and Príncipe 131,397 1,902 132,361
90  Samoa 127,950 2,087 130,781
91  Suriname 127,772 53,631 291,592
92  Haiti 126,760 6,683 154,510
93  Algeria 126,353 9,985 2,508,094
94  Nicaragua 123,881 70,874 254,254
95  Guinea-Bissau 123,725 39,339 159,850
96  Bangladesh 118,813 66,438 230,390
97  Kenya 116,942 11,073 697,309
98  Guatemala 114,170 14,422 223,059
99  North Korea 113,888[91][92] 50,337[91][92] 234,428[93]
100  Antigua and Barbuda 110,089 4,128 110,531
101  Tunisia 101,857 67,126 265,467
102  Cyprus 98,707 4,042 107,958
103  El Salvador 90,962 16,852 112,003
104  Finland[note 16] 87,171 85,109 425,590
105  Republic of China (Taiwan) 83,231 43,016 119,419
106  Eritrea 77,728 61,817 195,328
107  Trinidad and Tobago 74,199 25,284 79,329
108  East Timor 70,326 25,648 85,200
109  Sudan 68,148 19,827 1,954,216
110  Cambodia 62,515 62,515 243,550
111  Guinea 59,426 44,755 305,283
112  Croatia 59,032 50,277 115,626
113  United Arab Emirates 58,218 57,474 141,818
114  Germany 57,485 57,485 414,599
115  Malta 54,823 5,301 55,139
116  Estonia 36,992 36,992 82,219
117  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 36,302 1,561 36,691
118  Belize 35,351 13,178 58,317
119  Bulgaria 34,307 10,426 145,186
120  Benin 33,221 2,721 145,843
121  Qatar 31,590 31,590 43,176
122  Republic of the Congo 31,017 7,982 373,017
123  Poland 29,797 29,797 342,482
124  Dominica 28,985 659 29,736
125  Latvia 28,452 27,772 93,011
126  Grenada 27,426 2,237 27,770
127  Israel 26,352 3,745 48,424
128  Romania 23,627 19,303 262,018
129  Gambia 23,112 5,581 34,407
130  Georgia 21,946 3,243 91,646
131  Lebanon 19,516 1,067 29,968
132  Cameroon 16,547 11,420 491,989
133  Saint Lucia 15,617 544 16,156
134  Albania 13,691 6,979 42,439
135  Togo 12,045 1,265 68,830
136  Kuwait 11,026 11,026 28,844
137  Syria 10,503 1,085 195,683
138  Bahrain 10,225 10,225 10,975
139  Brunei 10,090 8,509 15,855
140  Saint Kitts and Nevis 9,974 653 10,235
141  Montenegro 7,745 3,896 21,557
142  Djibouti 7,459 3,187 30,659
143  Lithuania 7,031 7,031 72,331
144  Belgium 3,447 3,447 33,975
145  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,606 1,593 2,346,464
146  Singapore 1,067 1,067 1,772
147  Iraq 771 771 439,088
148  Monaco 288 2 290
149  Palestine 256 256 6,276
150  Slovenia 220 220 20,493
151  Jordan 166 59 89,508
152  Bosnia and Herzegovina 50 50 51,259
 Kazakhstan 2,724,900
 Mongolia 1,564,100
 Chad 1,284,000
 Niger 1,267,000
 Mali 1,240,192
 Ethiopia 1,104,300
 Bolivia 1,098,581
 Zambia 752,612
 Afghanistan 652,090
 Central African Republic 622,984
 South Sudan 619,745
 Botswana 582,000
 Turkmenistan 488,100
 Uzbekistan 447,400
 Paraguay 406,752
 Zimbabwe 390,757
 Burkina Faso 274,222
 Uganda 241,038
 Laos 236,800
 Belarus 207,600
 Kyrgyzstan 199,951
   Nepal 147,181
 Tajikistan 143,100
 Malawi 118,484
 Hungary 93,028
 Azerbaijan 86,600
 Austria 83,871
 Czech Republic 78,867
 Serbia 77,474
 Slovakia 49,035
  Switzerland 41,284
 Bhutan 38,394
 Moldova 33,846
 Lesotho 30,355
 Armenia 29,743
 Burundi 27,834
 Rwanda 26,338
 North Macedonia 25,713
 Eswatini 17,364
 Luxembourg 2,586
 Andorra 468
 Liechtenstein 160
 San Marino 61
 Vatican City 0.44
Total  United Nations 137,926,515 25,149,113 274,891,722

See also


  1. ^ The reference gives an approximate figure of 2 million square kilometres for the EEZ claimed by Australia as part of its Antarctic Territory. This is in addition to the 8 million square kilometres total given in the reference. This EEZ is also distinct from the 2.56 million square kilometres of additional continental shelf mentioned in the reference.
  2. ^ Including areas recommended by the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf.
  3. ^ a b The source does not provide any data for Navassa Island[83][84] even though the U.S. federal government did claim an EEZ area for this disputed territory.[85]
  4. ^ A joint Cuba–Haiti Maritime Boundary Agreement signed at Havana in 1977 bilaterally divides the waters between both local nations and Cuba's maritime boundary places the island within Haitian waters and doesn't recognize any local U.S. claim in the area.
  5. ^ Including Palmyra Atoll and 12 unincorporated territories of the United States. The source does not provide any data for Navassa Island.
  6. ^ Comprising Metropolitan France and Overseas France.
  7. ^ Including 6 Australian external territories.
  8. ^ Comprising the United Kingdom, 3 Crown dependencies and 12 British Overseas Territories. The source does not provide any data for the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia.
  9. ^ Comprising New Zealand proper and Tokelau. The Cook Islands and Niue are listed separately due to their full treaty-making capacities within the United Nations System.
  10. ^ Comprising Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland.
  11. ^ Including Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, and Svalbard.
  12. ^ a b A part of the Realm of New Zealand, listed separately due to its full treaty-making capacity within the United Nations System.
  13. ^ Comprising Continental Portugal, the Azores, and Madeira.
  14. ^ If the claimed Argentine Antarctica and its associated EEZ area are included, the total internal area of Argentina plus its EEZ area reaches 6,581,500 km2.
  15. ^ Comprising the European Netherlands and the Dutch Caribbean.
  16. ^ Including Åland.


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  2. ^ "Part V – Exclusive Economic Zone, Articles 55, 56". Law of the Sea. United Nations.
  3. ^ Urbina, Ian (17 February 2016). "Palau v. The Poachers". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  4. ^ William R. Slomanson, 2006. Fundamental Perspectives on International Law, 5th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth, 294.
  5. ^ a b "Part II: Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone". 1982 UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
  6. ^ El Mercurio, Santiago de Chile, 29 June 1947
  7. ^ El Peruano: Diario Oficial. Vol. 107, No. 1983, 11 August 1947)
  8. ^ The Exclusive Economic Zone: A Historical Perspective. Fao.org. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  9. ^ "Turkey sends non-paper to EU, warning to stay away from Cyprus EEZ". KeepTalkingGreece. 23 June 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  10. ^ "Greece's maritime claims 'maximalist,' violate international boundaries law". Daily Sabah. 13 June 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  11. ^ "Turkey threatens Greece over disputed Mediterranean territorial claims". DW.com. 5 September 2020.
  12. ^ "The Legal Status of Ice in the Antarctic Region". Archived from the original on 27 February 2006.
  13. ^ "AWARD OF THE ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL IN THE SECOND STAGE OF THE PROCEEDINGS (MARITIME DELIMITATION)". Permanent Court of Arbitration. Archived from the original on 12 April 2015. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  14. ^ Kwiatkowska, Barbara (January 2001). "The Eritrea-Yemen Arbitration: Landmark Progress in the Acquisition of Territorial Sovereignty and Equitable Maritime Boundary Delimitation". Ocean Development and International Law. 32 (1): 1–25. doi:10.1080/00908320150502177. S2CID 154096546.
  15. ^ United Nations International Court of Justice Archived 16 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine Decision year: 2009
  16. ^ Russia and Norway Reach Accord on Barents Sea, The New York Times, 28 April 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2010
  17. ^ Russia and Norway resolve Arctic border dispute, The Guardian, 15 September 2010. Retrieved 21 September 2010
  18. ^ Elizabeth Schumacher (24 October 2014). "Germany and the Netherlands end centuries-old border dispute". DW.com.
  19. ^ "Germany and the Netherlands end Ems River border dispute". Boundary News. Durham University. 6 November 2014. Archived from the original on 9 October 2015.
  20. ^ FAO: The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2006 Part3: highlights of Special studies Archived 29 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine Rome. ISBN 978-92-5-105568-7
  21. ^ Report of the FAO workshop on vulnerable ecosystems and destructive fishing in deep sea fisheries: Rome, 26-29 June 2007. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the Unite Nations. 2008. ISBN 978-92-5-105994-4. Fisheries Report No. 829.
  22. ^ "Deposit by Algeria of a list of geographical coordinates of points, pursuant to article 75, paragraph 2, of the Convention" (PDF).
  23. ^ "Presidential Decree No. 18-96 of 2 Rajab 1439 corresponding to March 20, 2018 establishing an exclusive economic zone off the Algerian coast" (PDF).
  24. ^ "Letter from Spain to the Secretary-General of 27 July 2018" (PDF).
  25. ^ "Letter from Italy to the Secretary-General of November 28, 2018" (PDF).
  26. ^ "oral note of the Algerian Ministry of Foreign Affairs response to the Spanish protest" (PDF).
  27. ^ "Communication from Algeria addressed to Italy dated 20 June 2019" (PDF).
  28. ^ "Communication from Algeria addressed to Spain dated 20 June 2019" (PDF).
  29. ^ "The Australian Fishing Zone". Department of Agriculture.
  30. ^ "Maritime Boundary Definitions". Geoscience Australia. Australian Government. Archived from the original on 5 April 2005.
  31. ^ UN confirms Australia's rights over extra 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed. Archived 25 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine Minister for Resources and Energy, The Hon Martin Ferguson AM MP, Media Release, 21 April 2008."Minister for Resources and Energy, Minister for Tourism". Archived from the original on 27 August 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2008.
  32. ^ a b c "Oceans and Seas". Geoscience Australia. Australian Government. 15 May 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  33. ^ Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea. Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, Submission by Australia
  34. ^ See Around Us Project (n.d.). "Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ)". Retrieved 3 June 2015. EEZ waters of: Mainland Brazil 2,570,917 km2, Fernando de Noronha Islands 363,362 km2, Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago 413,636 km2, and the Trindade and Martim Vaz Islands 468,599 km2
  35. ^ "UN Continental Shelf and UNCLOS Article 76: Brazilian Submission" (PDF).
  36. ^ "Canada's Marine Waters: Integrating the Boundaries of Politics and Nature". Wildlife Habitat Canada. Archived from the original on 21 December 2005.
  37. ^ See Around Us Project (n.d.). "Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ)". Retrieved 3 June 2015. EEZ waters of: Mainland Chile 1,975,760 km2, the Desventuradas Islands 449,836 km2, Easter Island 720,412 km2, the Juan Fernández, Felix and Ambrosio Islands 502,524 km2
  38. ^ "China · MRGID 8486". Marineregions.org. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  39. ^ EEZ and shelf areas of Taiwan – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  40. ^ EEZ and shelf areas of China – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  41. ^ "Hrvatska proglasila svoj Isključivi gospodarski pojas u Jadranskom moru: Zastupnici jednoglasno podržali odluku" [Croatia declared its Exclusive Economic Zone in the Adriatic Sea: MPs unanimously supported the decision]. Novi List (in Croatian). 5 February 2021. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  42. ^ "Hrvatska i Italija potpisale Ugovor o razgraničenju isključivih gospodarskih pojaseva. U odnosu na ZERP donosi dva nova prava" [Croatia and Italy signed the Agreement on Demarcation of Exclusive Economic Zones. In relation to ZERP, it brings two new rights.]. tportal.hr (in Croatian). 25 May 2022. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  43. ^ "Danish foreign ministry". Archived from the original on 23 November 2008.
  44. ^ "Espaces maritimes français | Limites maritimes". limitesmaritimes.gouv.fr. 26 January 2023.
  45. ^ "Bundesgesetzblatt BGBL. Online-Archiv 1949 - 2022 | Bundesanzeiger Verlag" (PDF).
  46. ^ "Nationale Meeresschutzgebiete | BFN".
  47. ^ Marker, Sherry; Kerasiotis, Peter (2010). "Greece in depth". In Nadeau, Mark (ed.). Frommer's Greece. Hoboken: Wiley. p. 12.
  48. ^ a b c d e f "Sea Around Us – Fisheries, Ecosystems and Biodiversity". Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  49. ^ Sunderarajan, P. (12 June 2011). "India hopes to double its EEZ". The Hindu. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  50. ^ "Hanya ada 13.466 Pulau di Indonesia". National Geographic Indonesia (in Indonesian). 8 February 2012.
  51. ^ Murphy, Ray (25 January 2022). "Why are Russian naval and air forces setting up off the Irish coast?". RTÉ News. Retrieved 30 January 2022.
  52. ^ "Russia to move military drills outside Ireland's EEZ". RTÉ News. 30 January 2022. Retrieved 30 January 2022.
  53. ^ "海洋白書 2004". Nippon Foundation. Retrieved 11 February 2008.
  54. ^ EEZ and shelf areas of Japan (main islands) – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  55. ^ EEZ and shelf areas of Japan (Daitō Islands) – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  56. ^ EEZ and shelf areas of Japan (Ogasawara Islands) – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  57. ^ a b c EEZ and shelf areas of New Zealand (mainland) – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  58. ^ a b c EEZ and shelf areas of New Zealand (Kermadec Islands) – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  59. ^ New Zealand Ministry for the Environment (August 2007). "Introduction". Improving Regulation of Environmental Effects in New Zealand's Exclusive Economic Zone: Discussion Paper. ISBN 978-0-478-30160-1. ME824. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2006.
  60. ^ Prescott & Schofield 2001, p. 25.
  61. ^ Kim 2017, p. 20.
  62. ^ Kim 2017, pp. 20, 71–72.
  63. ^ Kim 2017, p. 77.
  64. ^ Kotch & Abbey 2003, p. 179.
  65. ^ a b Van Dyke 2009, p. 42.
  66. ^ Kim 2017, p. 51.
  67. ^ Statistisk årbok 2007 Accessed January 2008
  68. ^ UN backs Norway claim to Arctic seabed extension Archived 11 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Canwest News Service, 15 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
  69. ^ Brittany, Derrick; Khalfallah, Myriam; Relano, Veronica; Zeller, Dirk; Pauly, Daniel (31 March 2021). "Updating to 2018 the 1950- 2010 marine catch reconstructions of the Sea Around Us. Part II: The Americas and Asia-Pacific". Fisheries Centre Research Reports. 28 (6): 270. ISSN 1198-6727. Retrieved 27 December 2023 – via The University of British Columbia.
  70. ^ https://www.fao.org/fishery/en/openasfa/a9b133df-8b25-409e-9066-906893bc39e7 Figure 1. The UNCLOS mandated exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Philippines
  71. ^ EEZ and shelf areas of the Philippines – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  72. ^ "Exploration and Extraction of Sand and Gravel Resources in the Polish Exclusive Economical Zone of the Baltic Sea" (PDF). Advanced Solutions International Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 March 2004. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  73. ^ "Task Group for the Extension of the Portuguese Continental Shelf". Archived from the original on 18 December 2009.
  74. ^ Portugal applies to UN to Extend Its Continental Shelf Zone. Retrieved 3 July 2011
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  76. ^ Communications received with regard to the submission made by Portugal to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf
  77. ^ "Sea Around Us Project – Data and Visualization". Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  78. ^ 10 Downing Street. "Countries within a country". Archived from the original on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 16 January 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  79. ^ "The Exclusive Economic Zone Order 2013" at Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  80. ^ EEZ and shelf areas of the Republic of Cyprus – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  81. ^ EEZ and shelf areas of Northern Cyprus – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  82. ^ "Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ)". Sea Around Us | Fisheries, Ecosystems and Biodiversity. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  83. ^ "Catches by Taxon in the waters of Haiti". Sea Around Us | Fisheries, Ecosystems and Biodiversity.
  84. ^ "Catches by Taxon in the waters of Jamaica". Sea Around Us | Fisheries, Ecosystems and Biodiversity.
  85. ^ "Field Listing :: Maritime claims — The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 9 January 2019.
  86. ^ EEZ and shelf areas of Vietnam – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  87. ^ "Vietnam · MRGID 8484". Marineregions.org.
  88. ^ a b EEZ and shelf areas of Tokelau – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  89. ^ "FAO Country Profiles:New Zealand". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  90. ^ "FAO Country Profiles:Tokelau". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  91. ^ a b EEZ and shelf areas of North Korea (Yellow Sea) – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  92. ^ a b EEZ and shelf areas of North Korea (Sea of Japan) – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  93. ^ "FAO Country Profiles:Democratic People's Republic of Korea". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Works cited:

  • Suk Kyoon Kim (2017). Maritime Disputes in Northeast Asia: Regional Challenges and Cooperation. Leiden: BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-34422-8.
  • Kotch, John Barry; Abbey, Michael (2003). "Ending naval clashes on the Northern Limit Line and the quest for a West Sea peace regime" (PDF). Asian Perspectives. 27 (2): 175–204. doi:10.1353/apr.2003.0024. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 July 2011.
  • Prescott, John Robert Victor; Schofield, Clive H. (2001). Furness, Shelagh (ed.). "Undelimited Maritime Boundaries of the Asian Rim in the Pacific Ocean". Maritime Briefing. 3 (1). Durham: International Boundaries Research Unit, University of Durham. ISBN 978-1-897643-43-3.
  • Van Dyke, Jon M. (2009). "Disputes Over Islands and Maritime Boundaries in East Asia". In Seoung Yong Hong, Jon M.; Van Dyke (eds.). Maritime Boundary Disputes, Settlement Processes, and the Law of the Sea. Leiden: BRILL. pp. 39–76. ISBN 978-90-04-17343-9.

External links

  • Interactive map at MarineRegions.org, showing boundaries and disputes
  • United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea – Part V
  • Sea Around Us Project – View the EEZ of all countries (note that this website does not distinguish between the territorial seas and the EEZs, therefore it tends to overstate the EEZ areas. See: EEZ AREA MEASURE)
  • The USA zone since 1977
  • GIS data: VLIZ.be
  • Foreign Military Activities in Asian EEZs: Conflict Ahead? by Mark J. Valencia (May 2011)
  • EEZ Management
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