Bor, South Sudan
City of Bor
|Coordinates: 6°12′45″N 31°33′39″E / 6.21250°N 31.56083°E / 6.21250; 31.56083Coordinates: 6°12′45″N 31°33′39″E / 6.21250°N 31.56083°E / 6.21250; 31.56083|
|• Mayor||Dr. Akim Ajieth Buny, PhD|
|Elevation||407 m (1,335 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (CAT)|
Bor is a historic city in South Sudan’s central region, being the epicenter of national liberation revolution with multiple landmarks that tells the story. In Malual-Chaat barrack, statues of liberators and destroyed weapons are conserved and exhibited at historical heritage site. It has also served as the headquarters of Jonglei state. The city is situated on the east side of the White Nile (Bahr al Jabal River) at the southern extent of the sudd, South Sudan's vast central wetlands.
Bor is located on the eastern bank of White Nile River, a site where an ivory trading depot was established in the 1860s. It grew into a regional hub of the ivory trade during the late nineteenth century. In 1874, Charles George Gordon established a government station there under the Turkiyah Government. In the early years of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Bor was a "wooding station" for steamers travelling along the White Nile (Bahr al Jabal River). In 1905, Bor was established as the headquarters of the Bor District.
Bor became an administrative centre under the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899–1956) for the Dinka Bor people. Bor is the epicenter of the Second Sudanese Civil War. 105 Battalion led by Alier Nhialmangardit staged a revolt against the oppressive Khartoum government in Malual-Chaat a garrison in Town of Bor, in May 1983, leading to the birth of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement and Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLM/SPLA). Bor was also the scene of the 1991 Bor massacre, where thousands of civilians were killed by Riek Machar’s army of loyal tribesmen . Eventually South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011 following 22 years of liberation struggle.
Bor is of historical importance to the people of South Sudan. It was in Malek, a small settlement about 19 kilometres (12 mi) south of Bor, that one of the first modern Christian missions in present-day South Sudan was established by Archibald Shaw in 1906. Bor became the first area to host a Church Missionary Society station in 1906.
Malek was turned into a missionary stronghold in the Upper Nile Region. Shaw opened the first primary school in Malek. This school produced the first indigenous Anglican bishop to be consecrated in Dinkaland, Rt. Rev. Daniel Deng Atong, followed the Nikonora Achiek Deng Ariir. Daniel Deng Atong became the first to be baptized in Bor.
Following the 2013 South Sudanese coup d'état attempt, Bor was contested in several weeks of combat between the national army and rebels led by Riek Machar due to its influential status on national affairs. A portion of the Nuer White Army joined the fighting as well.
In 2016, Bor was designated as the seat of Bor Municipality. The same order sub-divided the former Bor County into five smaller counties, each containing a single payam. These new counties were Bor South County (Kolnyang payam), Bor East County (Anyidi Payam), Bor Central county (Makuach Payam), Bor West County (Baidit Payam), and Bor North County (Jalle Payam).
Bor is the second most developed city, in central South Sudan, approximately 190 kilometres (120 mi), by road, north of Juba, the capital and largest city in the country. The town is located on the east bank of the White Nile.
Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as tropical wet and dry (Aw).
|Climate data for Bor, South Sudan|
|Average high °C (°F)||36
|Daily mean °C (°F)||27.9
|Average low °C (°F)||19.9
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||2
|Source: Climate-Data.org (altitude: 430m)|
The 2020 population of Bor was projected by the National Bureau of Statistics to be 327,583.
The economy depends on agricultural products, fishing, livestock and foreign investments in different sectors. Bor is the second largest economy in the country, with Juba being the first as it is the centre of businesses and government. Prior to 2013 civil war, Bor was the fastest growing city in the country. Kenyan Commercial Bank(KCB) still maintains it’s branch.
The John Garang Memorial University of Science and Technology, one of the leading public universities in the country, is located in Bor. The university is named after John Garang de Mabior a former leader of Sudan People Liberation Army/Movement(SPLA). Garang was a guerrilla leader fighting in Southern Sudan against Khartoum governments for what he termed as “New Sudan” under the SPLA/M umbrella. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005 was signed under his leadership, an event which paved way for the independence of South Sudan in 2011.
Bor is also the seat of Bor Diocese in the Episcopal Church of Sudan.
Bor is also served by Bor Airport, in addition to river traffic on the White Nile and three major roads that lead out of town.
ARC collaborated with the government to build a multi million dollar 4 lane highway from Juba to Bor. It's believed to be the longest dual carriage highway in the central and Eastern Africa.
- ^ a b c "Governor Establishes Additional Counties In Jonglei". Gurtong. Bor, South Sudan. 3 May 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- ^ a b c Tuttle, Brendan R. (2014). Life is Prickly. Narrating history, belonging, and common place in Bor, South Sudan (PhD Dissertation). Temple University. p. 61-65.
- ^ Tuttle, Brendan (2015). "South Sudan". In Riggs, Thomas (ed.). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Religious Practices: Religions and Denominations. Global Issues In Context. Vol. 4 (2nd ed.). Gale. pp. 225–232.
- ^ Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach (2011). Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington: AuthorHouse. p. 319. ISBN 9781456723576.
- ^ "South Sudan rebels control Jonglei state capital, says military". The Guardian. 19 December 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
- ^ Straziuso, Jason (30 December 2013). "South Sudan: 'White Army' militia marches to fight". West Hawaii Today. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- ^ "Map Showing Bor And Juba With Distance Marker". Distancecalculator.globefeed.com. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
- ^ a b "Climate: Bor - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
- ^ National Bureau of Statistics, Sudan (2013). 2008 Census Population Distribution by Age Group by Sex by Payam, Main Release, Volume Two Part One: the Greater Upper Nile. National Bureau of Statistics (Sudan). p. 69. Archived from the original on 2016-12-24. Retrieved 2016-12-24.
- ^ Branches of KCB South Sudan Archived 2013-12-25 at the Wayback Machine