Bodhi Tree

The Mahabodhi Tree at the Sri Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya
The Diamond throne or Vajrashila, where the Buddha sat under the Bodhi Tree in Bodh Gaya

Coordinates: 24°41′45.29″N 84°59′29.29″E / 24.6959139°N 84.9914694°E / 24.6959139; 84.9914694

The Bodhi Tree ("tree of awakening"[1]), also called the Mahabodhi Tree, Bo Tree,[2] is a large sacred fig tree (Ficus religiosa)[1][3] located in Bodh Gaya, Bihar, India. Siddhartha Gautama, the spiritual teacher who became known as the Buddha, is said to have attained enlightenment or buddhahood circa 500 BCE under this tree.[4] In religious iconography, the Bodhi Tree is recognizable by its heart-shaped leaves, which are usually prominently displayed.[5]

The original tree under which Siddhartha Gautama sat is no longer living, but the term "bodhi tree" is also applied to existing sacred fig trees.[6] The foremost example of an existing tree is the Mahabodhi Tree growing at the Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya, which is often cited as a direct descendant of the original tree. This tree, planted around 250 BCE, is a frequent destination for pilgrims, being the most important of the four main Buddhist pilgrimage sites.[7]

Other holy bodhi trees with great significance in the history of Buddhism are the Anandabodhi Tree at Jetavana in Sravasti in North India and the Sri Maha Bodhi Tree in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. Both are also believed to have been propagated from the original Bodhi Tree.[citation needed]

The Forest Research Institute of India assists in the upkeep of the tree since 2007.[8][9][10] Cloning has been considered in 2008.[11] Its sacred leaves can also be bought by pilgrims as mementos.[11] Religious offerings, which would draw insects, were shifted to some distance from the tree.[11]

Origin and descendants

Bodh Gaya

1810 picture of a small temple beneath the Bodhi tree, Bodh Gaya.[12]
The Mahabodhi tree at Bodhgaya in 2015.
Illustration of the temple built by Asoka at Bodh-Gaya around the Bodhi tree. Sculpture of the Satavahana period at Sanchi, 1st century CE.

The Bodhi tree at the Mahabodhi Temple is called the Sri Maha Bodhi. Gautama Buddha attained enlightenment (bodhi) while meditating underneath a Ficus religiosa. According to Buddhist texts, the Buddha meditated without moving from his seat for seven weeks (49 days) under this tree. A shrine called Animisalocana cetiya, was later erected on the spot where he sat.[13]

The spot was used as a shrine even in the lifetime of the Buddha. Emperor Ashoka the Great was most diligent in paying homage to the Bodhi tree, and held a festival every year in its honour in the month of Kattika.[14] His queen, Tissarakkhā, was jealous of the Tree, and three years after she became queen (i.e., in the nineteenth year of Asoka's reign), she cursed the tree to be killed by means of mandu thorns.[15] The tree, however, grew again, and a great monastery was attached to the Bodhimanda called the Bodhimanda Vihara. Among those present at the foundation Kattika the Mahā Thūpa are mentioned thirty thousand monks from the Bodhimanda Vihara, led by Cittagutta.[16]

The tree was again cut down by King Pushyamitra Shunga in the 2nd century BC, and by King Shashanka in 600 AD. In the 7th century AD, Chinese traveler Xuanzang wrote of the tree in detail.

Bodhi Tree sign, 2013

Every time the tree was destroyed, a new tree was planted in the same place.[17]

In 1862 British archaeologist Alexander Cunningham wrote of the site as the first entry in the first volume of the Archaeological Survey of India:

The celebrated Bodhi tree still exists, but is very much decayed; one large stem, with three branches to the westward, is still green, but the other branches are barkless and rotten. The green branch perhaps belongs to some younger tree, as there are numerous stems of apparently different trees clustered together. The tree must have been renewed frequently, as the present Pipal is standing on a terrace at least 30 feet above the level of the surrounding country. It was in full vigour in 1811, when seen by Dr. Buchanan (Hamilton), who describes it as in all probability not exceeding 100 years of age.[18]

However, the tree decayed further and in 1876 the remaining tree was destroyed in a storm. In 1881, Cunningham planted a new Bodhi tree on the same site.[19][20]

To Jetavana, Sravasti

Ashoka's Mahabodhi Temple and Diamond throne in Bodh Gaya, built circa 250 BCE. The inscription between the Chaitya arches reads: "Bhagavato Sakamunino/ bodho" i.e. "The building round the Bodhi tree of the Holy Sakamuni (Shakyamuni)".[21] Bharhut frieze (circa 100 BCE).

It is said that in the ancient Buddhist texts[citation needed] in order that people might make their offerings in the name of the Buddha when he was away on pilgrimage, the Buddha sanctioned the planting of a seed from the Bodhi tree in Bodhgaya in front of the gateway of Jetavana Monastery near Sravasti. For this purpose Moggallana took a fruit from the tree as it dropped from its stalk before it reached the ground. It was planted in a golden jar by Anathapindika with great pomp and ceremony. A sapling immediately sprouted forth, fifty cubits high, and in order to consecrate it, the Buddha spent one night under it, rapt in meditation. This tree, because it was planted under the direction of Ananda, came to be known as the Ananda Bodhi.

To Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka

King Asoka's daughter, Sanghamitta, brought a piece of the tree with her to Sri Lanka where it is continuously growing to this day in the island's ancient capital, Anuradhapura.[19] This Bodhi tree was originally named Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi.[22] According to the Mahavamsa, the Sri Maha Bodhi in Sri Lanka was planted in 288 BC, making it the oldest verified specimen of any angiosperm. In this year (the twelfth year of King Asoka's reign) the right branch of the Bodhi tree was brought by Sanghamittā to Anurādhapura and placed by Devānāmpiyatissa his left foot in the Mahāmeghavana. The Buddha, on his death bed, had resolved five things, one being that the branch which should be taken to Ceylon should detach itself.[14] From Gayā, the branch was taken to Pātaliputta, thence to Tāmalittī, where it was placed in a ship and taken to Jambukola, across the sea; finally it arrived at Anuradhapura, staying on the way at Tivakka. Those who assisted the king at the ceremony of the planting of the Tree were the nobles of Kājaragāma and of Candanagāma and of Tivakka.

The Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi is also known to be the most sacred Bodhi tree. This came upon the Buddhists who performed rites and rituals near the Bodhi tree. The Bodhi tree was known to cause rain and heal the ill. When an individual became ill, one of his or her relatives would visit the Bodhi tree to water it seven times for seven days and to vow on behalf of the sick for a speedy recovery.[23]

To Honolulu, Hawaii

In 1913, Anagarika Dharmapala took a sapling of the Sri Maha Bodhi to Hawaii, where he presented it to his benefactor, Mary E. Foster, who had funded much Buddhist missionary work. She planted it in the grounds of her house in Honolulu, by the Nuʻuanu stream. On her death, she left her house and its grounds to the people of Honolulu, and it became the Foster Botanical Garden.

To Chennai, India

Sapling of the Maha bodhi tree planted in the year 1950 at Theosophical society

In 1950, Jinarajadasa took three saplings of the Sri Maha Bodhi to plant two saplings in Chennai, one was planted near the Buddha temple at the Theosophical Society another at the riverside of Adyar Estuary. The third was planted near a meditation center in Sri Lanka.[24]

To Trấn Quốc, Hanoi, Vietnam

In 1959, to mark the visit of the first President of India, Shri Rajendra Prasad, a cutting of the original tree in Bodh Gaya was gifted and presently it stands as the Bodhi tree on the grounds of the Trấn Quốc pagoda[25].

To Thousand Oaks, California, USA

In 2012, Brahmanda Pratap Barua, Ripon, Dhaka, Bangladesh, took a sapling of Bodhi tree from Buddha Gaya, Maha Bodhi to Thousand Oaks, California, where he presented it to his benefactor, Anagarika Glenn Hughes, who had funded much Buddhist work and teaches Buddhism in the USA.[26] He and his students received the sapling with a great thanks, later they planted the sapling in the ground in a nearby park.

To Nihon-ji, Japan

In 1989, the government of India presented Nihon-ji with a sapling from the Bodhi Tree as a gesture of world peace.[citation needed]

To Deekshabhoomi, Nagpur

This Bodhi Tree was planted at Deekshabhoomi from three branches of the Bodhi Tree at Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka. Bhadant Anand Kausalyayan brought these branches from Sri Lanka as a memorial of Buddha's enlightenment. This site is holy to Navayana Buddhism as this is the place where Dr. B. R. Ambedkar converted to Buddhism along with 600,000 followers on 14 October 1956, Dhammachakra Pravartan Din.

Quezon City, Philippines

The sapling of the Sacred Bodhi tree from Anuradhapura Sri Lanka was planted on 15 May 2011, at Wisdom Park 14 Broadway Avenue, New Manila, Quezon City, Philippines by D. M. Jayaratne, Prime Minister of Sri Lanka, and Mariano S. Yupitun, the founder of Universal Wisdom Foundation Inc.

Mahabodhi trees of other Buddhas

Following is a list of the various Mahabodhi trees under which all of the Buddhas known to Theravada Buddhism attained buddhahood.[27]

Buddha (Pāli name) Bodhirukka (tree of enlightenment; Pāli name) binomial name
1 Taṇhaṅkara rukkaththana
2 Medhaṅkara kaela
3 Saraṇaṅkara pulila
4 Dīpaṃkara pipphali Ficus obtusifolia
5 Koṇḍañña salakalyanīka Oroxylum indicum
6 Maṅgala nāga Mesua ferrea
7 Sumana nāga Mesua ferrea
8 Revata nāga Mesua ferrea
9 Sobhita nāga Mesua ferrea
10 Anomadassi ajjuna Terminalia arjuna
11 Paduma mahāsona Oroxylum indicum
12 Nārada mahāsona Oroxylum indicum
13 Padumuttara salala Pinus roxburghii
14 Sumedha mahanīpa Neolamarckia cadamba
15 Sujāta mahavelu Bambusa bambos
16 Piyadassi kakudha Crateva religiosa
17 Atthadassi campaka Magnolia champaca
18 Dhammadassī bimbijala Pavetta indica
19 Siddhattha kanikara Pterospermum acerifolium
20 Tissa asana Terminalia elliptica
21 Phussa amakala Phyllanthus emblica
22 Vipassī pāṭalī Stereospermum chelonoides
23 Sikhī puṇḍarīka Mangifera indica
24 Vessabhū sāla Shorea robusta
25 Kakusandha sirīsa Albizia lebbeck
26 Koṇāgamana uḍumbara Ficus racemosa
27 Kassapa nigrodha Ficus benghalensis
28 Gautama Buddha (present Buddha) assattha Ficus religiosa
29 Metteyya (future Buddha)[28] nāga Mesua ferrea

Celebrations

Bodhi Day

On 8 December, Bodhi Day celebrates Buddha's enlightenment underneath the Bodhi Tree. Those who follow the Dharma[dubious ] greet each other by saying, "Budu saranai!" which translates to "may the peace of the Buddha be yours."[29] It is also generally seen as a religious holiday, much like Christmas in the Christian west, in which special meals are served, especially cookies shaped like hearts (referencing the heart-shaped leaves of the Bodhi) and a meal of kheer, the Buddha's first meal ending his six-year asceticism.[30]

Bodhi Puja

Bodhi Puja, meaning "the veneration of Bodhi-tree" is the ritual to worship the Bodhi tree and the deity residing on it (Pali: rukkhadevata; Sanskrit; vrikshadevata). It is done by giving various offerings such as food, water, milk, lamps, incense, etc. and chanting the verses of glory of Bodhi tree in Pali. The most common verse is:

"Ime ete mahabodhi lokanathena pujita ahampi te namassami bodhi raja namatthu te."

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Gethin, Rupert (1998). The Foundations of Buddhism. Oxford University Press. p. 22. ISBN 9780192892232.
  2. ^ "Buddhism Fast Facts". CNN. 11 November 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  3. ^ Simon Gardner, Pindar Sidisunthorn and Lai Ee May, 2011. Heritage Trees of Penang. Penang: Areca Books. ISBN 978-967-57190-6-6
  4. ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam (ed.). India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 176.
  5. ^ For more on the topic see also the chapter "Buddha, Buddhism, and the bodhi tree" in "Belief, Bounty, and Beauty" by Albertina Nugteren. doi:10.1163/9789047415619_004
  6. ^ "Ficus religiosa - Plant Finder". www.missouribotanicalgarden.org. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  7. ^ "Botanic Notables: The Bodhi Tree - Garden Design". GardenDesign.com. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  8. ^ Kazmi, S M A (7 August 2007). "Forest institute suggests methods to save Bodhi tree - Indian Express". The Indian Express Archives. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  9. ^ Qadir, Abdul (31 August 2017). "Two Forest Research Institute scientists examine Bodhi tree, collect sample". The Times of India. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  10. ^ Sahay, Anand Mohan (25 October 2007). "Branch of bodhi tree was cut 3 years ago: Report". www.rediff.com. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  11. ^ a b c Bedi, Rahul (9 April 2008). "Scientists turn to cloning in attempt to save Buddhism's holiest tree for posterity". The Irish Times. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  12. ^ A small Hindu temple beneath a banyan tree, Bodhgaya British Library.
  13. ^ Malalasekera, G. P. (14 September 2003). Dictionary of Pali Proper Names. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 9788120618237 – via Google Books.
  14. ^ a b "CHAPTER XVII_The Arrival Of The Relics". Mahavamsa, chap. 17, 17.
  15. ^ "CHAPTER XX_The Nibbana Of The Thera". Mahavamsa, chap. 20, 4f.
  16. ^ "CHAPTER XXIX_The Beginning Of The Great Thupa". Mahavamsa, chap. 29, 41.
  17. ^ J. Gordon, Melton; Martin, Baumann (2010). Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices (Second ed.). ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara. p. 358. ISBN 978-1598842043.
  18. ^ Archaeological Survey of India, Volume 1, Four Reports Made During the Years 1862-63-64-66
  19. ^ a b "Buddhist Studies: Bodhi Tree". Buddhanet.net. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  20. ^ Mahâbodhi, or the great Buddhist temple under the Bodhi tree at Buddha-Gaya, Alexander Cunningham, 1892: "I next saw the tree in 1871 and again in 1875, when it had become completely decayed, and shortly afterwards in 1876 the only remaining portion of the tree fell over the west wall during a storm, and the old pipal tree was gone. Many seeds, however, had been collected and the young scion of the parent tree were already in existence to take its place."
  21. ^ Luders, Heinrich (1963). Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Vol.2 Pt.2 Bharhut Inscriptions. p. 95.
  22. ^ K.H.J. Wijayadasa. "Śrī Maha Bodhi". Srimahabodhi.org. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  23. ^ "Rain-makers: The Sacred Bodhi Tree Part 2". Srimahabodhi.org. 24 April 2003. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  24. ^ Madhavan, Chitra. "Buddhist shrine in Adyar". Madras Musings. Madras Musings. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  25. ^ "Statement by the President of India, Shri Pranab Mukherjee to the media on board the special aircraft on his way back from his state visit to the socialist republic of Vietnam". pib.gov.in. Retrieved 22 December 2022.
  26. ^ See "Navel in Buddha" on Academia.edu https://www.academia.edu/43042460/Navel_in_Buddha. Text is quoted verbatim. Multiple internet sites show the same text, but only this one appears to be a more reliable source.
  27. ^ Sayadaw, Mingun, ed. (1992). "Appendix: List of the Mahabodhi Trees of 24 Buddhas". The Great Chronicle of Buddhas. Vol. 1, Part 2. Yangon, Myanmar: Ti=Ni Press. pp. 316–317, 322.
  28. ^ "Cakkavatti Sutta: The Wheel-turning Emperor". www.accesstoinsight.org.
  29. ^ "University of Hawaii".[dead link]
  30. ^ Prasoon, Shrikant (2007). Knowing Buddha : [life and teachings]. [Delhi]: Hindoology Books. ISBN 9788122309638.

Further reading

  • "Sacred Bodhi tree's journey to Oz 2300 years in the making". Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment. Australian Government. 25 August 2021.
  • "India's gift to South Korea: A sacred Bodhi Tree sapling". NDTV. Indo-Asian News Service. 8 March 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  • Kalam, Farhana (8 November 2018). "Steps taken to protect sacred Bodhi tree". Telegraph India.
  • Khan, Zeyad Masroor (4 May 2018). "The Bodhi Tree the Buddha Sat Under is Dead. Meet the scientist who keeps its sacred descendant alive". Vice.
  • Kalam, Farhana (1 December 2018). "Pruning to help Bodhi tree shed weight". Telegraph India.
  • Krishnan, D. (3 April 2017). "Chennai and the Bodhi tree". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X.
  • Lam, Raymond (31 August 2021). "Sacred Bodhi Sapling in Australian Quarantine to Be Released in May 2022". Buddhistdoor Global.

External links

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