Banharn Silpa-archa

Banharn Silpa-archa
บรรหาร ศิลปอาชา
Banharn Silpa-archa (cropped).jpg
21st Prime Minister of Thailand
In office
13 July 1995 – 24 November 1996
MonarchBhumibol Adulyadej
Preceded byChuan Leekpai
Succeeded byChavalit Yongchaiyudh
Leader of the Opposition
In office
27 May 1994 – 19 May 1995
Prime MinisterChuan Leekpai
Preceded byPramarn Adireksarn
Succeeded byChuan Leekpai
Minister of Transport
In office
7 April 1992 – 9 June 1992
Prime MinisterSuchinda Kraprayoon
Preceded byNukul Prachuabmoh
Succeeded byNukul Prachuabmoh
In office
5 August 1986 – 3 August 1988
Prime MinisterPrem Tinsulanonda
Preceded bySamak Sundaravej
Succeeded byMontri Pongpanich
Minister of Finance
In office
14 December 1990 – 23 February 1991
Prime MinisterChatichai Choonhavan
Preceded byVeeraopng Ramangkoon
Succeeded bySutee Singsane
Minister of Interior
In office
9 January 1990 – 9 December 1990
Prime MinisterChatichai Choonhavan
Preceded byPramarn Adireksarn
Succeeded byPramarn Adireksarn
Minister of Industry
In office
3 March 1988 – 9 January 1990
Prime MinisterChatichai Choonhavan
Preceded byPramual Sabhavasu
Succeeded byPramarn Adireksarn
Minister of Agriculture and Cooperatives
In office
3 March 1980 – 4 March 1981
Prime MinisterPrem Tinsulanonda
Preceded byKriangsak Chamanan
Succeeded byArnat Arpapirom
Personal details
Born19 August 1932
Suphan Buri, Siam
Died23 April 2016(2016-04-23) (aged 83)
Bangkok, Thailand
NationalityThai
Political partyThai Nation Party
SpouseJamsai Silpa-archa
Children
Relatives
Profession
  • Businessman
  • politician
Signature
Military service
AllegianceThailand
Branch/serviceVolunteer Defense Corps
Years of service1990-2016[1]
RankVDC Gen. (Honour Rank)

Banharn Silpa-archa[2][3] (also spelled Banhan, Silapa-, Sinlapa-, -acha; Thai: บรรหาร ศิลปอาชา, RTGSBanhan Sinlapa-a-cha, Thai pronunciation: [ban.hǎːn sǐn.lá.pà.ʔaː.t͡ɕʰaː]; Chinese: 馬德祥; 19 August 1932 – 23 April 2016) was a Thai politician. He was the Prime Minister of Thailand from 1995 to 1996. Banharn made a fortune in the construction business before he became a Member of Parliament representing his home province of Suphan Buri. He held different cabinet posts in several governments. In 1994, he became the leader of the Thai Nation Party. In 2008, the party was dissolved by the Constitutional Court and Banharn was banned from politics for five years.

Early life, education, and business career

Banharn was born on 19 August 1932 in Suphan Buri to a Teochew Chinese merchant family.[4] His Chinese name was Tekchiang Saebe (Chinese: 馬德祥; pinyin: Mǎ Déxiáng;[5] Thai: เต็กเชียง แซ่เบ๊). He married Khunying Jamsai Silpa-archa and they have three children.[4]

Banharn dropped out of secondary school during World War II. He went to work with his older brother, then founded his own building company. Years later, when he was a politician, he completed his education at the open admissions Ramkhamhaeng University, graduating with a Bachelor of Laws degree in 1986, and finally a Master of Laws.[6]

Banharn's construction company was very successful in the 1960s, when large sums were invested in major infrastructure projects, including military facilities. His business made Banharn a billionaire.[6]

Political career

Abhisit Vejjajiva and Banharn Silpa-archa (right)

Banharn Silpa-archa was persuaded to enter politics by Booneua Prasertsuwan, a veteran member of the House of Representatives.[7] In 1976, Banharn Silpa-archa made his political debut when he was elected a Member of Parliament, representing Suphan Buri Province. He joined the Thai Nation Party, a conservative party dominated by the "Rajakru clan" around Pramarn Adireksarn and Chatichai Choonhavan. His party participated in a coalition government under Prime Minister Seni Pramoj and Banharn was appointed deputy minister of industry. He was elected to the Senate in 1977, but returned to represent his constituency in the House of Representatives the next year. Banharn was re-elected Member of Parliament for Suphan Buri in all following elections, receiving steadily more than 100,000 votes (60 to 90 percent of the votes cast), what made him one of the highest vote-getters in the country.[6]

He sponsored the construction of schools, bridges, and other infrastructure in his home province, which in turn were named after him. This has led to the common saying that he "owns the province".[6] When his party was a junior partner in the government of Prem Tinsulanonda from 1980 to 1983, Banharn was Minister of Agriculture. In 1981, he became secretary-general of the Thai Nation Party. Banharn, being one of the main financiers of the party, accumulated considerable influence inside the party, although he was not a member of the originally dominant Rajakru clan. The local press has once dubbed him "Mr. (Mobile) ATM" (automated teller machine), due to the suspicion that he had bought the loyalty of political associates in exchange for money.[6]

In 1986 Prime Minister Prem again called him up to the government, this time naming him Minister of Transport. After his party had won the elections in 1988 and Thai Nation leader Chatichai Choonhavan had become Prime Minister, Banharn was appointed Minister of Industry. In January 1990, he switched offices with Pramarn Adireksarn and became interior minister. In December of the same year, Chatichai made him Minister of Finance. The Chatichai government was deposed by a military coup d'état in 1991. Banharn returned to the cabinet as early as April 1992, when he once again became Minister of Transport in the short-lived government of General Suchinda Kraprayoon. His party went into opposition after early elections in September 1992. Banharn took over the leadership of the Thai Nation Party from Pramarn Adireksarn in 1994 and also became official leader of the opposition.[4]

Premiership

Under the leadership of Banharn, the Thai Nation Party won the parliamentary election in 1995, and he became the 21st Prime Minister of Thailand, leading a seven-party coalition. Banharn was involved in numerous corruption scandals, one of which diminished confidence in his administration and caused him to resign.[8] His short-lived yet inept administration is believed to have paved the way for the economic crisis of 1997.[9]

Later life and death

Portrait of Banharn on a Thai Nation Party campaign poster for the 2007 general election

On 21 January 2008, Banharn announced that his Thai Nation Party would join a coalition with the People's Power Party, successor to the Thai Rak Thai Party of former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. Because he had earlier vowed before the Emerald Buddha never to rejoin Thaksin because of the corruption scandals, this move reinforced Banharn's image as a "slippery eel".[10]

Upon the dissolution of his Thai Nation Party by the Constitutional Court on 2 December 2008, Banharn Silpa-archa was banned from politics for five years. Non-executive members of the Thai Nation Party immediately founded the Chartthaipattana Party (Thai National Development), chaired by Banharn's younger brother, Chumpol Silpa-archa. Chumphol was Minister of Tourism and Sports in the cabinet of Abhisit Vejjajiva. His son Varawut was deputy transport minister, and his daughter Kanchana was deputy education minister.[11]

Banharn died of asthma on the morning of 23 April 2016 at Siriraj Hospital at the age of 83.[12][13]

On 23 April 2019, a bronze statue of Banharn Silpa-archa was opening in the vicinity of the province's city shrine by the donations of Suphanburi people and the Silpa-archa family contributed to the remaining part to commemorate the things that Banharn has done for Suphanburi Province for over 40 years.[14][15]

Royal decorations

Banharn has received the following royal decorations in the Honours System of Thailand:

Foreign Honours

References

  1. ^ http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2533/D/041/1.PDF[bare URL PDF]
  2. ^ Biography at www.cabinet.thaigov.go.th Archived 18 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "The Nation online search". Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 6 December 2008.
  4. ^ a b c "Former PM Banharn dies at 83". Bangkok Post. 23 April 2016.
  5. ^ "泰前總理馬德祥過世 享壽83" [Former Thai Prime Minister Ma Dexiang passes away, aged 83]. Yahoo! Hong Kong (in Chinese). 23 April 2016.
  6. ^ a b c d e Surin Maisrikrod (1992), Thailand's Two General Elections in 1992: Democracy Sustained, Institute of South East Asian Studies, p. 13, ISBN 9789813016521
  7. ^ "Ex-House speaker Boon-eua dies at 97". Bangkok Post. 13 October 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  8. ^ Poole, Peter A. (2009), Politics and Society in Southeast Asia, McFarland, p. 23, ISBN 9780786458028
  9. ^ Sharma, Shalendra D. (2003), The Asian financial crisis: Crisis, reform and recovery, Manchester University Press, p. 100, ISBN 9780719066030
  10. ^ "Pro-Thaksin party finalises coalition", The Peninsula, 18 January 2008, archived from the original on 7 July 2012, retrieved 29 January 2012
  11. ^ Tumcharoen, Surasak (4 January 2009), "Keeping it in the family", Bangkok Post, retrieved 9 July 2011
  12. ^ "บรรหาร ศิลปอาชา" ถึงแก่อนิจกรรมในวัย 83 ปี ปิดตำนาน"มังกรสุพรรณ" (in Thai), ASTV Manager, archived from the original on 23 April 2016, retrieved 23 April 2016
  13. ^ "Former PM Banharn passes away at 83", The Nation, 23 April 2016, retrieved 23 April 2016
  14. ^ "เตรียมเปิดอนุสาวรีย์ "บรรหาร" ที่จ.สุพรรณ วันที่ 23 เม.ย.นี้".
  15. ^ "ชาวสุพรรณฯจัดยิ่งใหญ่ เปิดอนุสาวรีย์ "บรรหาร ศิลปอาชา"".
  16. ^ ประกาศสำนักนายกรัฐมนตรี เรื่อง พระราชทานพระบรมราชานุญาตให้ประดับเครื่องราชอิสริยาภรณ์ต่างประเทศ เล่ม 113 ตอนที่ 19 ข ราชกิจจานุเบกษา 4 พฤศจิกายน 2539

External links

Media related to Banharn Silpa-Archa at Wikimedia Commons

Political offices
Preceded by Prime Minister of Thailand
1995–1996
Succeeded by
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by Chairperson of ASEAN
1995
Succeeded by
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