• אַשְׁדּוֹד
City (from 1968)
Hebrew transcription(s)
 • ISO 259ʔašdod
Flag of Ashdod
Ashdod is located in Ashkelon region of Israel
Ashdod is located in Israel
Coordinates: 31°48′0″N 34°39′0″E / 31.80000°N 34.65000°E / 31.80000; 34.65000Coordinates: 31°48′0″N 34°39′0″E / 31.80000°N 34.65000°E / 31.80000; 34.65000
Country Israel
Founded1700 BCE (Canaanite settlement)
1300 BCE (Philistine rule)
147 BCE (Hasmonean rule)
7th century CE (Muslim city)
1956 (Israeli city)
 • MayorYehiel Lasri
 • Total47,242 dunams (47.242 km2 or 18.240 sq mi)
 • Total226,838
 • Density4,800/km2 (12,000/sq mi)
Ashdod from above

Ashdod (Hebrew: אַשְׁדּוֹד ʾašdōḏ; Arabic: أسدود or إسدود ʾisdūd or ʾasdūd Arabic pronunciation: [ʔɪ, ʔa-sˈduːd]; Philistine: 𐤀𐤔𐤃𐤃 *ʾašdūd) is the sixth-largest city in Israel. Located in the country's Southern District, it lies on the Mediterranean coast 32 kilometres (20 miles) south of Tel Aviv and 20 km (12 mi) north of Ashkelon.

The first documented urban settlement at Ashdod dates to the 17th century BCE, when it was a fortified Canaanite city.[2] It was destroyed at the end of the Late Bronze Age. During the Iron Age, Ashdod was a prominent Philistine city, one of the five Philistine city-states. It is mentioned 13 times in the Hebrew Bible. After being captured by Uzziah, it was briefly ruled by the Kingdom of Judah before it was taken by the Assyrians. During the Persian period, Nehemiah condemned the returning Jews for intermarrying Ashdod's residents. Under Hellenistic rule, the city was known as Azotus. It was later incorporated into the Hasmonean kingdom. During the 1st century BCE, Pompey removed the city from Judean rule and annexed it to the Roman province of Syria. Ashdod was a bishopric under Byzantine rule, but its importance gradually slipped and by the Middle Ages it was a village.[3] The nearby site of Ashdod-Yam, today also part of the modern city, was a separate city for most of its history.

Modern Ashdod was established in 1956 on the sand hills near the site of the ancient town, and incorporated as a city in 1968, with a land-area of approximately 60 square kilometres (23 sq mi). Being a planned city, expansion followed a main development plan, which facilitated traffic and prevented air pollution in the residential areas, despite population growth. According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, Ashdod had a population of 225,939 in 2019,[1] with an area of 47,242 dunams (47.242 km2; 18.240 sq mi).[4]

Ashdod is today a major Israeli city, and contains the largest port in Israel accounting for 60% of the country's imported goods. Ashdod today is home to the largest Moroccan and Karaite Jewish communities in Israel,[5][6] and to the largest Georgian Jewish community in the world.[7] It is also an important regional industrial center.


Historical population

Stone Age

Three stone tools dating from the Neolithic era were discovered, but no other evidence of a Stone Age settlement in Ashdod was found, suggesting that the tools were deposited there in a later period.[8]

Bronze Age

The site of Ashdod in the Bronze Age was at a tell (Tel Ashdod [he]) just south of the modern city. It was excavated by archaeologists in nine seasons between 1962 and 1972. The effort was led during the first few years by David Noel Freedman of the Pittsburgh Theological Seminary and Moshe Dothan.[9][10] The remaining seasons were headed by Dothan for the Israel Antiquities Authority.[8]

Middle Bronze

The earliest major habitation in Ashdod dates to the 17th century BCE. Ashdod was fortified in MBIIC with a two-entryway city gate (similar to Shechem).[11]

Late Bronze

Ashdod is first mentioned in written documents from Late Bronze Age Ugarit, which indicate that the city was a center of export for dyed woolen purple fabric and garments. At the end of the 13th century BCE the Sea Peoples conquered and destroyed Ashdod. By the beginning of the 12th century BCE, the Philistines, generally thought to have been one of the Sea Peoples, ruled the city. During their reign, the city prospered and was a member of the Philistine Pentapolis (i.e. five cities),[12] which included Ashkelon and Gaza on the coast and Ekron and Gath farther inland, in addition to Ashdod.

Iron Age

Egyptian ruler Psamtik I during the fall of Ashdod in 635 BCE, illustration by Patrick Gray, 1900.

In 950 BCE Ashdod was destroyed during Pharaoh Siamun's conquest of the region. The city was not rebuilt until at least 815 BCE.

Asdûdu led the revolt of Philistines, Judeans, Edomites, and Moabites against Assyria after expulsion of king Ahimiti, whom Sargon had installed instead of his brother Azuri. Gath (Gimtu) belonged to the kingdom of Ashdod at that time.[13] Assyrian king Sargon II's commander-in-chief (turtanu), whom the King James Bible calls simply "Tartan" (Isaiah 20:1), regained control of Ashdod in 712/711 BCE[14][15] and forced the usurper Yamani to flee. Sargon's general[16] destroyed the city and exiled its residents, including some Israelites who were subsequently settled in Media and Elam.[17]

Mitinti (Akkadian: 𒈪𒋾𒅔𒋾 mi-ti-in-ti; Philistine: 𐤌𐤕𐤕 *Mītīt or *Matīt)[18] was king at the time of Sargon's son Sennacherib (r. 705–681 BCE), and Akhimilki in the reign of Sennacherib's son Esarhaddon (r. 681–669 BCE).

Psamtik I of Egypt (r. 664 – 610 BCE) is reported to have besieged the great city Azotus for twenty-nine years (Herodotus, ii. 157); the biblical references to the remnant of Ashdod (Jeremiah 25:20; cf. Zephaniah 2:4) are interpreted as allusions to this event.

The city absorbed another blow in 605 BCE, when Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia conquered it.[19]

In 539 BCE the city was rebuilt by the Persians. In 332 BCE it was conquered in the wars of Alexander the Great.

The Book of Nehemiah, referring to events in the 5th century BCE, mentions the Ashdodites[20] and the speech of Ashdod, which half of the children from mixed families are described as adopting. Hugo Winckler explains the use of that name by the fact that Ashdod was the nearest of the Philistine cities to Jerusalem.[21]

In the Hebrew Bible

There are Biblical episodes referencing Ashdod but they remain uncorroborated by archaeological finds:

  • Upon Joshua's conquest of the Promised Land, Ashdod was allotted to the Tribe of Judah (Book of Joshua 15:46).
  • In I Samuel 6:17 Ashdod is mentioned among the principal Philistine cities. After capturing the Ark of the covenant from the Israelites, the Philistines took it to Ashdod and placed it in the temple of Dagon. The next morning Dagon was found prostrate before the Ark; on being restored to his place, he was on the following morning again found prostrate and broken. The people of Ashdod were smitten with boils; a plague of mice was sent over the land (1 Samuel 6:5).[22]
  • According to the Bible, during the 10th century BCE Ashdod became, along with all the kingdom of Philistia, a patronage area of the Kingdom of Israel under the control of King David.
  • The capture of the city by King Uzziah of Judah shortly after 815 BCE is mentioned within 2 Chronicles (26:6) and in the Book of Zechariah (9:6), speaking of the false Jews.
  • In the Book of Nehemiah (Nehemiah 13:23–24), some 5th century BCE residents of Jerusalem are said to have married women from Ashdod, and half of the children of these unions were reportedly unable to understand Hebrew; instead, they spoke "the language of Ashdod".

Hellenistic period

Once Hellenised, the city changed its name to the more Greek-sounding Αzotus (Greek: Άζωτος) and prospered until the Hasmonean Revolt. During the rebellion Judas Maccabeus "took it, and laid it waste" (Antiquities of the Jews Book 12, 8:6)[23] His brother Jonathan conquered it again in 147 BCE and destroyed the temple of Dagon of biblical fame (Antiquities Book 13, 4:4; 1 Samuel 5:1-5).[24] During the rule of Alexander Jannæus, Ashdod was part of his territory (Antiquities Book 13, 15:4).[23]

Roman period

After the destruction wreaked during the succession wars between Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II, Pompey restored the independence of Azotus, as he did with all Hellenising coastal cities (Antiquities Book 14, 4:4).[23] A few years later, in 55 BCE, after more fighting, Roman general Gabinius helped rebuild Ashdod and several other cities left without protective walls (Antiquities Book 14, 5:2).[23][25] In 30 BCE Ashdod came under the rule of King Herod, who then bequeathed it to his sister Salome (Antiquities Book 17, 8:1).[23][25] By the time of the First Jewish–Roman War (66-70), there must have been a large enough Jewish presence in Ashdod for Vespasian to feel compelled to place a garrison in the city.[25]

Despite its location four miles (6 km) from the coast, Ptolemy (c. 90 – c. 168 CE) described it as a maritime city, as did Josephus in Antiquities Book 13, 15:4.[23] The same Josephus though describes Ashdod as "in the inland parts" (Antiquities Book 14, 4:4).[23] This curious contradiction may refer to Ashdod's control of a separate harbor, called Azotus Paralios, or Ashdod-on-the-Sea (παράλιος - "paralios", Greek for "on the coast").[26][27] The landlocked city was called by the Romans Hippinos, "of the horsemen", and by the Greeks until late in the medieval period, Azotus mesogaios or "inland Azotus".[25]

In the New Testament

The 1st century CE Book of Acts refers to Azotus as the place in which Philip the Evangelist reappeared after he converted the Ethiopian eunuch to Christianity.[28] Philip preached the gospel throughout the area until he reached Caesarea, about 90 km to the north.[citation needed]

Byzantine period

During the Byzantine period, the port city overshadowed its inland counterpart in size and importance. The 6th-century Madaba Map shows both under their respective names.[29]

The prominence of Hellenised, then Christian Azotus continued until the 7th century, when it came under Muslim rule. The city was represented at the Council of Chalcedon by Heraclius of Azotus.

In November 2017, archaeologists discovered a church, later fully excavated and called “Church of the Deaconesses.”[30] An inscription was discovered between two modern houses, about a mile from the coast.[31] According to a medieval Christian Georgian calendar, a four-line Greek mosaic inscription dated back to "the 3rd indiction, year 292", which corresponds to the 6th century AD on the Gregorian calendar. Archaeologists thought they could have found the remains of the Roman-Byzantine city of Ashdod-Yam.[32][33][34]

Early Muslim period

Aerial view of Minat al-Qal'a

A coastal fort was erected by the Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik, the builder of the Dome of the Rock, at or near the former Azotus Paralios,[35] which was later reconstructed by the Fatimids and Crusaders.[36]

The medieval Arabic name of the port town was Mahuz Azdud, "harbour of Azdud", a very interesting combination between the by then already ancient Aramaic word for harbour, mahuz, and "Azdud", a return to a form much closer to the old Semitic name "Ashdod".[37][38]

The geographer Ibn Khordadbeh (c. 820 – 912) referred to the inland city as "Azdud" and described it as a postal station between al-Ramla and Gaza.[39]

Crusader period

Documents from the Crusader period indicate that Ashdod belonged to the lordship of Ramla, and it appears probable that in 1169 the old Arab sea fort was given by Hugh, lord of Ramla, to his knight Nicolas de Beroard. From this period the fort is known as Castellum Beroart.[37]

Ayyubid and Mamluk periods

The port stops being mentioned during the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods, making it likely that it was destroyed by the Muslims along with the other port cities, due to fears that they might again be used by Crusader invasions from the sea.[36] With the destruction of the port city, its inland counterpart regains its importance.

Ottoman period

Isdud, c. 1914–1918

The location of the village on Via Maris enhanced the city's importance during the Ottoman rule. In 1596 CE, administrated by nahiya ("subdistrict") of Gaza under the liwa' ("district") of Gaza, the population of Ashdod (named Sdud) numbered 75 households, about 413 persons, all Muslims. The villagers paid a fixed tax rate of 33,3% on wheat, barley, sesame and fruit crops, as well as goats and beehives; a total of 14,000 Akçe.[40][41]

In 1838, Esdud was noted as a Muslim village in the Gaza district.[42][43]

In the late nineteenth century, Isdud was described as a village spread across the eastern slope of a low hill, covered with gardens. A ruined khan stood southwest of the village. Its houses were one-storey high with walls and enclosures built of adobe brick. There were two main sources of water: a pond and a masonry well. Both were surrounded by groves of date-palm and fig-trees.[44]

British Mandate

In the 1922 census of Palestine, conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Isdud had a population of 2,566 inhabitants; 2,555 Muslims and 11 Christians,[45] where the Christians were all Catholics.[46] The population increased in the 1931 census to 3,240; 3,238 Muslims and 2 Christians, in a total of 764 houses.[47]

Isdud 1930 1:20,000
Isdud 1945 1:250,000
Courtyard of house in Isdud, about 1945

During the Mandatory period, Isdud had two elementary schools; one for boys which was opened in 1922, and one for girls which started in 1942. By the mid-1940s the boy-school had 371 students, while the girl-school had 74.[48]

The official Village Statistics, 1945 for "Isdûd" gave a population of 4,620 Arabs and 290 Jews in a total land area of 47,871 dunams [4,787.1 hectares (11,829 acres)].[49][50] Of this, 3,277 dunams were used citrus and bananas, 8,327 for plantations and irrigable land, 23,762 for cereals,[51] while 131 dunams were built-on land.[52]

State of Israel

Ashdod in 1957

1948 Arab-Israeli War

The village of Isdud was occupied by the Egyptian army on May 29, 1948, and became the Egyptians' northernmost position during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. While the Israelis failed to capture territory, and suffered heavy casualties, Egypt changed its strategy from offensive to defensive, thus halting their advance northwards.[53] Egyptian and Israeli forces clashed in the surrounding area, with the Egyptians being unable to hold the Ad Halom bridge over the Lachish River. Israeli forces surrounded the town during Operation Pleshet, and shelled and bombed it from the air.[54] For three nights from 18 October the Israeli Air Force bombed Isdud and several other locations.[55] Fearing encirclement, Egyptian forces retreated on October 28, 1948, and the majority of the residents fled.[56] The 300 townspeople who remained were driven southwards by the Israel Defense Forces.[57][58] The village was part of territory that was granted to Israel in the 1949 Armistice Agreements following the end of the war.

Isdud 1948

1950 and after

In 1950, the moshavim of Sde Uziyahu and Shtulim were established to the east of Isdud, and in 1949 and 1953, Bnei Darom and Gan HaDarom were established north of Isdud. According to Khalidi, they were established on the village lands.[59]

The modern city of Ashdod was founded in 1956. On May 1, 1956, then finance minister Levi Eshkol approved the establishment of the city of Ashdod. "Ashdod Company Ltd.", a daughter company of City-Builders Company Ltd., was created for that purpose by Oved Ben-Ami and Philip Klutznick. The first settlers, 22 families from Morocco, arrived in November 1956, followed by a small influx of immigrants from Egypt.[60][61] In July 1957, the government granted a 24 square kilometres (9 square miles), approximately 32 kilometres (20 mi) from Tel Aviv, to the Ashdod Company Ltd., for building the modern city of Ashdod.[61] The building of the Eshkol A power station in Ashdod was completed in 1958 and included 3 units: 2 units of 50 megawatt, and one unit of 45 megawatt (with sea water desalination capabilities).

The city's development was made possible by the large investment of industrialist Israel Rogosin who opened his main Israeli factory in the city of Ashdod on August 9, 1960.[62][63] Three of the high schools he funded were also built in Ashdod.[64] The Main boulevard in Ashdod is named in his honour as a founder of the city.

The first local council was appointed in October 1959. Dov Gur was appointed the first local council head on behalf of the Israeli Ministry of Interior.[65] In 1961, Ashdod was a town of 4,600. The Magistrates' Court in the city was inaugurated in 1963. The building of the port of Ashdod began in April 1961. The port was inaugurated in November 1963, and was first utilized in November 1965, with the coming of the Swedish ship "Wiengelgad".[61] The city expanded gradually, with the construction of two quarters in the 1960s, followed by four more in the 1970s and two more in the 1980s. In 1972, the population was 40,300, and this grew to 65,700 by 1983.

Large-scale growth of the city began in 1991, with the massive arrival of immigrants from the Soviet Union and Ethiopia and infrastructure development. From 1990 to 2001 the city accepted more than 100,000 new inhabitants, a 150% growth.[66] Five more quarters of the city were completed, and a business district was built. In the 2000s, three more quarters and the marina districts were completed.

Ashdod was one of six cities that won the 2012 Education Prize awarded by the Israel Ministry of Education.[67]

Urban development

Menachem Begin Boulevard

The modern city of Ashdod city was built outside the historic settlement site, on virgin sands. The development followed a main development plan.[68] The planners divided the city into seventeen neighborhoods of ten to fifteen thousand people. Wide avenues between the neighborhoods make traffic flow relatively freely inside the city. Each neighborhood has access to its own commercial center, urban park, and health and education infrastructure. The original plan also called for a business and administrative center, built in the mid-1990s, when the city population grew rapidly more than doubling in ten years.[66]

Three industrial zones were placed adjacent to the port in the northern part of the city, taking into account the prevailing southern winds which take air pollution away from the city.[68] The plan had its problems, however, including asymmetric growth of upscale and poorer neighborhoods and the long-time lack of a main business and administrative center.[69]

The city was planned for a maximum of 250,000 inhabitants, and an additional area in the south was reserved for further development.[68]

In 2012, a plan to build an industrial zone on part of the Ashdod Sand Dune was approved. The plan calls for a hi-tech industrial park, events halls, and coffee shops to be built adjacent to the train station. It will cover 400 dunams (0.4 km2; 0.2 sq mi), including 130 dunams of built-up space, with the rest of the area being preserved as a nature reserve.[70][71] In addition, the Port of Ashdod is undergoing a massive expansion program.[72]


The Ashdod-Nitzanim sand dune nature reserve is a 20-kilometer (12-mile) stretch of sand dunes on the southern outskirts of Ashdod.


Ashdod has a Mediterranean climate with hot summers, pleasant spring and fall, and cool, rainy winters. As a seaside town, the humidity tends to be high many times year round, and rain occurs mainly from November to March. In winter, temperatures seldom drop below 5 °C (41 °F) and are more likely to be in the range of 10–15 °C (50–59 °F), while in summer the average is 27 °C (81 °F). The average annual rainfall is 510 mm (20.1 in).


Ashdod Sea Mall

Ashdod is one of the most important industrial centers in Israel. All industrial activities in the city are located in northern areas such as the port area, the northern industrial zone, and around the Lachish River. The port of Ashdod is the largest port in Israel, handling about 60% of Israel's port cargo. It was mainly upgraded in recent years and will be able to provide berths for Panamax ships.[73][74] Various shipping companies offices are also located in the port area which also is home to an Eshkol A power station and coal terminal.

The Northern industrial zone is located on Highway 41 and includes various industry including an oil refinery, which is one of only two in the country. The heavy industry zone located south of the Lachish River was once the main industrial center in Ashdod. Recently, however, leisure facilities have moved into the area. There is still some industry here, however, such as a Teva Pharmaceutical Industries plant, construction components producer Ashtrom, and Solbar a soybean oil producer. Ashdod is also home to Elta, a part of Israel Aircraft Industries where radar equipment, electronic warfare systems, and ELINT are developed.

Retail and entertainment

Historically each neighborhood of Ashdod had its own commercial center. In 1990, however, when the mall shopping culture developed in Israel, the main commercial activity in Ashdod moved to malls. The first mall to open in Ashdod was the Forum Center in the industrial zone. Restaurants, bars and night clubs were opened in the area. Today, the Forum center is mainly used for offices. Lev Ashdod Mall, which opened in 1993, has been enlarged and upgraded since then.[75] Ashdod Mall, billed at the time as the city's largest shopping mall, has also been redesigned since its opening in 1995.[76] City Mall, Ashdod was opened in a combined building with the central bus station in 1996,[77] following the examples of the Tel Aviv Central Bus Station and the Jerusalem Central Bus Station. The Sea Mall, a three-story mall near the government offices, has a climbing wall and movie theater. Star Center doubled in size in 2007.[78]


In 2013, Ashdod had 500 schools employing 3,500 teachers. The student population was 55,000. The city's education budget was NIS 418 million shekels.[67]

Lycée français Guivat-Washington, a French international high school, is in Givat Washington, in proximity to Ashdod.[79]


Assuta Ashdod Medical Center, Ashdod's only general hospital, serves the city and the surrounding area. It is a 300-bed hospital, and its "bomb shelter" design with thick concrete walls offers sufficient protection so as to keep operating without having to transfer patients during a time of war. It is also a university hospital affiliated with Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.[80] The hospital opened in 2017. Prior to the opening of the hospital, Ashdod did not have a general hospital, and residents in need of hospitalization had to travel to Kaplan Medical Center in Rehovot or Barzilai Medical Center in Ashkelon.

There are public and private clinics operating in the city. A special clinic run by Hatzalah operates at times when all other clinics in the city are closed.[81]


Ashdod central bus station


Ashdod is located on the historic Via Maris. Highway 4 was developed following this route along the southern sea shore of Israel; it serves as the main connection to the north, towards the Tel Aviv metropolitan area, and to the south, towards Ashkelon. Ad Halom junction was planned as the main entrance to the city from the east.[69]

Ashdod Interchange was opened in 2009.[82] The interchange continues the freeway section of Highway 4 further south, by removing the traffic light at this junction, and also added grade separation with the railway.[83] The other main road in the area is Highway 41 which served the city from the start of its modern history. This road runs from west to east towards Gedera and it is the main transport link to the port of Ashdod and the industrial zones, and connects to Highway 4 with an interchange.

In late 2012, Ashdod won a NIS 220 million grant from the Israeli Transport Ministry to improve public transportation and decrease private car use. According to the municipality's plans, a 20-kilometer ring of road arteries will be given priority in public transportation. These arteries will carry four bus rapid transit lines. In the city's more crowded areas, such as Herzl Boulevard or the western part of Menachem Begin Boulevard, a public transportation lane will be paved in the center of the road. In other areas, the right-hand lane will be reserved for public transportation. Buses will also be given priority at traffic lights; electronic devices will allow a bus to signal its approach, causing the light to turn green. In addition, an electric-powered bicycle rental network will be set up, and 22 kilometres (14 miles) of bicycle paths will be paved in the city.[84]


Ashdod Ad Halom Railway Station

The passenger railway connection to Ashdod opened in 1992[85] after the renovation of the historical railway to Egypt.[86] Ashdod railway station is on Israel Railways' Binyamina/NetanyaTel AvivAshkelon line and it is located near Ad Halom Junction. The station was upgraded in 2003[85] when a new terminal building was built. The station building is modern, but proper road access to it was only organized on September 23, 2008, when a new road to the station was opened.[87]

There is also heavy freight traffic in the area. Port of Ashdod has its own railway spur line as well as a special terminal for potash brought from the Sodom area and exported abroad.


A new central bus station opened in 1996. It serves as the terminus both for inter- and intracity lines. The central bus station is attached to the City Mall. Intercity bus lines connect the city with most population centers in central and southern Israel. Following is the list of bus companies serving routes at the central bus station:

Company name Major destinations
Egged Jerusalem, a seasonal line to Eilat
Metropoline[88] Be'er Sheva, Kiryat Gat, Sderot, Netivot
Connex[89] Tel Aviv (CBS and Arlozorov Terminal), Bar Ilan University, Tel HaShomer, Rishon LeTziyon, Rehovot, Yavne, Ashkelon, Kiryat Mal'akhi, Gedera, Gan Yavne
Egged Ta'avura Intracity service

The Egged Ta'avura company has been operating urban buses in Ashdod since 2007.[90][91] In addition, a share taxi service exists in Ashdod, operated by Moniyot HaIr.[92] Most share taxi lines coincide with intracity bus lines.

Cruise ships and yachts

Ashdod beach

There is a passenger pier in the Port of Ashdod. The traffic at this gateway is constantly growing, especially due to cruise ship activities. The other sea gateway is Blue Marina.


LaMimunia Moroccan culture center
Year Population
1961 4,600[93]
1972 40,300
1983 65,700[94]
1990 83,900
1995 125,820
1996 137,100
2000 174,224
2001 187,000
2003 192,200[95]
2006 204,400
2008 209,200
2016 220,883

According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, Ashdod had a population of about 225,939 at the end of 2019, making it the sixth largest city in Israel.[1] The annual population growth rate is 2.6% and the ratio of women to men is 1,046 to 1,000. The population age distribution was recorded as 19.7% under the age of 10, 15.7% from age 10 to 19, 14.9% from 20 to 29, 19.1% from 30 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, and 11.3% were 65 or older. The population of Ashdod is significantly younger than the Israeli average because of the large number of young couples living in the city. The city is ranked medium-low in socio-economic grading, with a rating of 4 out of 10. 56.1% of 12th grade students in Ashdod were eligible for matriculation certificates in 2000. The average salary in 2000 was NIS 4,821 compared to the national average of NIS 6,835.

Immigrant absorption

Ashdod has seen much of its growth as the result of absorption of immigrants. The first settlers were Jewish immigrants from Morocco and Egypt.[61] In the 1960s Ashdod accepted a large number of immigrants from Romania, followed by a large number from Georgia (then part of the Soviet Union) in the 1970s.[61] More than 60,000 Russian Jews from the former Soviet Union who immigrated to Israel in the 1990s following the collapse of the Soviet Union settled in Ashdod. Recent demographic figures suggest that about 32%[96] of the city's population are new immigrants, 85% of whom are originally from the former Soviet Union. During the 1990s the city absorbed a large number of Beta Israel immigrants from Ethiopia, and in more recent years Ashdod absorbed a large number of immigrants from the United States, United Kingdom, France, Argentina, and South Africa. Many of the 60,000 Marathi-speaking Bene Israel from Maharashtra, India who moved to Israel also settled there. Ashdod also receives a significant amount of internal migration,[97] especially from the Gush Dan region.


Orot Haim yeshiva

Over 95% of Ashdod's population is Jewish, over 30% of whom are religiously observant. Despite this, the city is generally secular, although most of the non-Jewish population is a result of mixed marriages. About 100 families are affiliated with the Pittsburg Hasidic group, established there in 1969 by Grand Rabbi Avraham Abba Leifer and continued today by his son, Grand Rabbi Mordechai Yissachar Ber Leifer.[98] Ashdod has many synagogues serving different streams of Judaism. The city is also home to the world's largest[99] Karaite community, about five thousand strong.[100] There is also a Scandinavian Seamen Protestant church, established by Norwegian Righteous Among the Nations pastor Per Faye-Hansen.[101][102]

Local government

Ashdod city hall

Ashdod was declared a city in 1968. The Ashdod City Council has twenty-five elected members, one of whom is the mayor. The mayor serves a five-year term and appoints six deputies. The current mayor of Ashdod, Yehiel Lasri, was last elected in 2008 after Zvi Zilker has been in office continuously since 1989.[103] Within the city council there are various factions representing different population groups. The headquarters of the Ashdod Municipality and the mayor's office are at city hall. This new municipal building is located in the main culture and business area.


Ashdod MonArt Arts Center

Culture and art

Music and performing arts

Amphi Ashdod - more than 6,400 seats
Outdoor sculpture of Samson in Ashdod
Maccabi Ashdod basketball game

Ashdod is home to the Israeli Andalusian Orchestra, which performs Andalusian classical music. It is an Arabic music style that originates from Moorish Iberia or Al-Andalus, has been jealously preserved in its original form by Arab and Jewish musicians of the Maghreb over the centuries, and has left its mark on the cante flamenco, the flamenco singing style, perhaps better known in the West. The orchestra was awarded the Israel Prize in 2006.[104][105]

Ashdod also has one of the biggest open theaters in Israel - Amphi Ashdod that can hosts more than 6,400 guests. The Amphi hosts Ashdod's international art festival "Méditerranée".

The MonArt Centre for the Arts, which includes a ballet school, a music center and the Ashdod Museum of Art,[106] is a performing arts center which comprises different galleries, art schools, studios and events. The ambitious architectural complex[106] has been inaugurated in 2003. Theatre and concerts are hosted in several cultural venues; the most important are performed at the Ashdod Performing Arts Center, a new 938-seat concert hall[107] of distinct elegance and originality designed by Israeli architect Haim Dotan[108] and inaugurated in 2012 in the city's cultural center. Ashdod plays host to many national and international music festivals, including the annual Super Jazz Ashdod Festival managed by Leonid Ptashka.[109]

The ACADMA conservatory is a professional educational institute for music and performance studies based in Ashdod. Operated under the supervision of the Ministry of Education, the institute was established in 1966,[110] and serves as a home for 600 young musicians in different fields.


The Corinne Mamane Museum of Philistine Culture[111] is worldwide the only museum dedicated to this topic. It reopened in 2014 with a new interactive exhibition. The Museum displays significant Philistine artifacts form each of the five cities in the Philistine pentapolis.

The Ashdod Museum of Art, located in the MonArt center (see above at "Music and performing arts"), has 12 galleries and two exhibition halls. In an architectural echo of the Louvre, the entrance to the museum is through a glass pyramid.[112] In 2003 the internal spaces of the museum were redesigned by the architects Eyal Weizman, Rafi Segal and Manuel Herz.


Ashdod's football team, F.C. Ironi Ashdod represents the city in the Israeli Premier League. The club is known for its successful football school. It is also home to Hapoel Ashdod F.C., which plays in Liga Alef. The city's top basketball team is Maccabi Ashdod. The men squad plays in First League, Israel's First tier league, and the women squad Maccabi Bnot Ashdod plays in top division.

Ashdod plays host to many national and international sporting tournaments, including the annual Ashdod International Chess Festival. The city has a cricket team,[113] a rarity in Israel. It is run and organized by citizens of Indian descent. Ashdod's beaches are a venue for water sports, like as windsurfing and Scuba diving. The Ashdod Marina offers yachting services.

Notable athletes from Ashdod include:

Twin towns–Sister cities

Ashdod is twinned with

Notable people


Georgy Adelson-Velsky resided in the city from 1992 until his death in 2014

See also


  1. ^ a b c "Population in the Localities 2019" (XLS). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
  2. ^ Moshe Dothan (1990). Ashdod – Seven levels of excavations (in Hebrew). Israel: Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel, Ashdod branch. p. 91. ULI Sysno. 005093624.
  3. ^ "Ashdod | Israel | Britannica". Retrieved 2022-06-25.
  4. ^ "Local Authorities in Israel 2005, Publication #1295 – Municipality Profiles – Ashdod" (PDF) (in Hebrew). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-05-29. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  5. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-12-23. Retrieved 2019-05-19.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ "קהילת אשדוד - היהדות הקראית העולמית". Archived from the original on 2017-10-16. Retrieved 2017-10-16.
  7. ^ The chess queen was hosted in Ashdod Archived 2017-10-16 at the Wayback Machine mynet, 19.03.09
  8. ^ a b Moshe Dothan, Ashdod VI: The Excavations of Areas H and K (1968–1969) (Iaa Reports) (v. 6), Israel Antiquities Authority, 2005, ISBN 965-406-178-3
  9. ^ M. Dothan and David Noel Freedman, Ashdod I, The First Season of Excavations 1962, Atiqot, vol. 7, Israel Antiquities Authority, 1967
  10. ^ David Noel Freedman, The Second Season at Ancient Ashdod, The Biblical Archaeologist, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 134–139, 1963
  11. ^ Dothan 1971
  12. ^ B.Frenkel (1990). The Philistines (in Hebrew). Israel: Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel, Ashdod branch. p. 119. ULI Sysno. 005093624.
  13. ^ J. Kaplan (1990). Yamani stronghold in Ashdod-Yam (in Hebrew). Israel: Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel, Ashdod branch. p. 125. ULI Sysno. 005093624.
  14. ^ "Introducing Ashdod-Yam: History and Excavations". Ashdod-Yam Archaeological Project, website of. The Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University, Institut für Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft Universität Leipzig. 2014. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  15. ^ H. Tadmor (1966). "Philistia under Assyrian Rule". The Biblical Archaeologist. The American Schools of Oriental Research. 29 (3): 86–102. doi:10.2307/3211004. JSTOR 3211004. S2CID 165315779.
  16. ^ Cogan, Mordechai (1993). "Judah under Assyrian Hegemony: A Reexamination of Imperialism and Religion". Journal of Biblical Literature. The Society of Biblical Literature. 112 (3): 403–414. doi:10.2307/3267741. JSTOR 3267741.
  17. ^ Price, Massoume (2001). "A brief history of Iranian Jews". Iran Chamber Society. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved October 11, 2007.
  18. ^ NAVEH, JOSEPH. “Writing and Scripts in Seventh-Century B.C.E. Philistia: The New Evidence from Tell Jemmeh.” Israel Exploration Journal, vol. 35, no. 1, Israel Exploration Society, 1985, pp. 8–21,
  19. ^ O. Kolani; B. Raanan; M. Brosh; S. Pipano (1990). Events calendar in Israel and Ashdod (in Hebrew). Israel: Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel, Ashdod branch. p. 79. ULI Sysno. 005093624.
  20. ^ at 13:23,24.
  21. ^ Geschichte Israels. 1898. p. 224.
  22. ^ Harris JC (2006). "The plague of Ashdod". Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 63 (3): 244–5. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.3.244. PMID 16520427.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g Josephus Flavius. "The Antiquities of the Jews". Archived from the original on 13 June 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  24. ^ S.Shapira (1990). Battle of Ashdod (147BC) (in Hebrew). Israel: Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel, Ashdod branch. p. 135. ULI Sysno. 005093624.
  25. ^ a b c d Raphael Patai (1999). The Children of Noah: Jewish Seafaring in Ancient Times. Princeton University Press. pp. 144–145. ISBN 9780691009681. Archived from the original on 29 May 2021. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  26. ^ "Strong's Greek: 3882. παράλιος (paralios) -- by the sea, the sea coast". Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  27. ^ S. Piphano (1990). Ashdod-Yam in the Byzantine period (in Hebrew). Israel: Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel, Ashdod branch. p. 143. ULI Sysno. 005093624.
  28. ^ Acts 8:40)
  29. ^ "Madaba Map, numbers 96 (Azotus) and 97 (Azotus-on-the-Sea) with discussions". Archived from the original on 2015-03-31. Retrieved 2018-12-28.
  30. ^ Ariel David (15 November 2021). "Byzantine Basilica With Graves of Female Ministers and Baffling Mass Burials Found in Israel". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 16 November 2021. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  31. ^ Bohstrom, Philippe (23 November 2017). "Archaeologists May Have Found Long-lost Byzantine City Ashdod-Yam". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 14 May 2018. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  32. ^ "Mysterious ancient city missing for over a millennium may have been finally found in Israel". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 2018-05-14. Retrieved 2020-12-30.
  33. ^ Forman, Abra (2017-11-23). "Discovery of 1,500-Year-Old Byzantine Church May Lead to 'Lost' City of Ashdod-Yam". Israel365 News | Latest News. Biblical Perspective. Archived from the original on 2021-05-29. Retrieved 2020-12-30.
  34. ^ Anant Raje (1989). "Ravi Mathai Centre". Projects at the Indian Institute of Management. 26 (3). Archived from the original on 2021-05-29. Retrieved 2020-12-30.
  35. ^ Reuven Vunsh, Oren Tal and Dorit Sivan (8 August 2013). "Horbat Ashdod-Yam". Hadashot Arkheologiyot. Archived from the original on 12 April 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  36. ^ a b Andrew Petersen, The Towns of Palestine under Muslim Rule: AD 600-1600 Archived 2016-09-13 at the Wayback Machine", BAR International Series 1381, 2005, pp. 90 Archived 2016-03-06 at the Wayback Machine-91
  37. ^ a b Pringle, 1998, p. 72
  38. ^ "Tel Aviv University, History of Yavneh-Yam". Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2015-04-06.
  39. ^ Khalidi, 1992, p. 110
  40. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 143. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p. 110
  41. ^ A. Petersen (2005). The Towns of Palestine under Muslim Rule AD 600–1600. BAR International Series 1381. p. 133.
  42. ^ Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 3, 2nd appendix, p. 118 Archived 2015-04-08 at the Wayback Machine
  43. ^ Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 2, p. 368 Archived 2017-10-20 at the Wayback Machine
  44. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 409 Archived 2016-10-28 at the Wayback Machine. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, pp. 110-111
  45. ^ Barron, 1923, Table V, Sub-district of Gaza, p. 8 Archived 2015-04-04 at the Wayback Machine
  46. ^ Barron, 1923, Table XIII, p. 44 Archived 2017-10-20 at the Wayback Machine
  47. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 4 Archived 2016-06-10 at the Wayback Machine.
  48. ^ Khalidi, 1992, p.111.
  49. ^ Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 31 No. 33 Archived 2016-10-05 at the Wayback Machine
  50. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 45 Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine
  51. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 87 Archived 2018-09-06 at the Wayback Machine
  52. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 137 Archived 2018-09-06 at the Wayback Machine
  53. ^ New York Times[permanent dead link] June 8, 1948
  54. ^ Yehudah Ṿalakh ... (2003). Battle Sites in the Land of Israel (in Hebrew). Israel: Carta. p. 24. ISBN 965-220-494-3.
  55. ^ Khalidi, 1992, p. 112
  56. ^ "Zochrot - Isdud". Archived from the original on 2018-04-28. Retrieved 2018-07-16.
  57. ^ "From Isdud to Ashdod: One man's immigrant dream; another's refugee nightmare". International Middle East media Center. April 13, 2006. Archived from the original on 26 September 2007. Retrieved September 21, 2007.
  58. ^ Morris, 2004, p.471
  59. ^ Khalidi, 1992, pp. 112-13
  60. ^ Davis, Barry. "Ashdod on offer | JPost | Israel News". JPost. Archived from the original on 2013-10-20. Retrieved 2013-08-08.
  61. ^ a b c d e R.Yaniv (1990). Ashdod. From repatriants settlement to the City (in Hebrew). Israel: Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel, Ashdod branch. p. 163. ULI Sysno. 005093624.
  62. ^ "Rogosin Plant in Israel to Start Production of Nylon Yarn Today". August 8, 1960. Archived from the original on March 2, 2020. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
  63. ^ "Israel Rogosin Is Dead at 85; Textile Man and Philanthropist". The New York Times. April 29, 1971. Archived from the original on March 2, 2020. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
  64. ^ "Israel Rogosin Dedicates Three New Schools in Ashdod". February 15, 1968. Archived from the original on March 2, 2020. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
  65. ^ a b R.Yaniv (1990). Head of the local council and the city (in Hebrew). Israel: Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel, Ashdod branch. p. 179. ULI Sysno. 005093624.
  66. ^ a b "Data of population in the city of Ashdod" (in Hebrew). The Center for Research and Information, Knesset. April 17, 2001. Archived from the original (Word) on 27 September 2007. Retrieved September 21, 2007.
  67. ^ a b Ziri, Danielle. "Six cities across the country win 2012 education prize". Archived from the original on 2013-05-07. Retrieved 2013-08-08.
  68. ^ a b c "Development Plan for city of Ashdod" (PDF) (in Hebrew). The Society of Protection of Nature in Israel, Ashdod branch. 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 28, 2007.
  69. ^ a b J. Herz U. Fogel (1990). New lineation plan to the city of Ashdod (in Hebrew). Israel: Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel, Ashdod branch. p. 29. ULI Sysno. 005093624.
  70. ^ Rinat, Zafrir (2012-12-18). "Israeli greens up in arms over building plans on last stretch of major sand dunes Israel News | Haaretz Daily Newspaper". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 2013-04-21. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  71. ^ Rinat, Zafrir (2012-07-06). "High-tech and banquets creep into Israel's last surviving dunes Israel News | Haaretz Daily Newspaper". Archived from the original on 2013-04-21. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  72. ^ "Royal HaskoningDHV - Consultants, Project Managers and Engineers". Archived from the original on 2013-01-21. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  73. ^ "Ashdod Port Development, Israel". Port Technology. Archived from the original on November 23, 2007. Retrieved September 20, 2007.
  74. ^ "Eitan Port – A NIS 3 Billion Project Among Israel's Largest Infrastructure Projects". Ports and Railways Authority. Archived from the original on December 27, 2007. Retrieved September 20, 2007.
  75. ^ "Lev Ashdod Mall" (in Hebrew). Archived from the original on 2007-10-31. Retrieved 2007-09-17.
  76. ^ Ashdod News (December 1, 2005). "Ashdod Mall closed its gates" (in Hebrew). Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
  77. ^ "City Mall, Ashdod" (in Hebrew). Archived from the original on 2007-11-01. Retrieved 2007-09-17.
  78. ^ "Filgar broaden Star Center cite in Ashdod" (in Hebrew). Debby Communications Ltd. 2006. Archived from the original (Word) on October 25, 2007. Retrieved September 25, 2007.
  79. ^ "La maison" (Archive). Lycée français Guivat-Washington. Retrieved on September 17, 2015. "L 'Oulpena Francaise se trouve dans le campus de Guivat Washington, a un quart d`heure d`Ashdod"
  80. ^ "Friends of Assuta Ashdod". Archived from the original on 2018-12-04. Retrieved 2019-05-28.
  81. ^ "Hatzolah Darom - Emergency Response of Southern Israel - the Ashdod Clinic". Archived from the original on 2017-02-12. Retrieved 2017-04-14.
  82. ^ "Ad Halom interchange was opened". MYnet. May 26, 2009. Archived from the original on June 9, 2009. Retrieved August 21, 2009.
  83. ^ "Government approved today (11/12/05) Minister of Finance and Minister of Transport proposal for a five-year plan for the design, development, paving, safety and maintenance of intercity roads, at a volume of NIS 19 billion". Israeli Ministries of Finance and Transport. December 11, 2005. Archived from the original (Word) on November 28, 2007. Retrieved September 20, 2007.
  84. ^ Bassok, Moti (2013-01-25). "Ashdod aspires to become a public transportation paradise - Israel News". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 2013-06-25. Retrieved 2013-08-08.
  85. ^ a b "The duplication of section Pleshet jnct. – Ashdod, Ad Halom and upgrading of railway station Ashdod, Ad Halom" (in Hebrew). Railway News Israel. May 30, 2004. Archived from the original on 9 October 2007. Retrieved September 26, 2007.
  86. ^ "General Information – Milestones". Israel Railways official site. Archived from the original on November 24, 2007. Retrieved September 26, 2007.
  87. ^ Harush, Yair (September 24, 2008). "New Access Road to the Railway Station Opened" (in Hebrew). Mynet. Archived from the original on January 3, 2009. Retrieved September 28, 2008.
  88. ^ "Metropoline line maps" (in Hebrew). Metropoline. Archived from the original on December 17, 2008. Retrieved November 27, 2008.
  89. ^ A schematic map of Connex bus lines in the Ashdod area, Connex (in Hebrew)
  90. ^ "List of intracity lines in Ashdod" (in Hebrew). Egged Ta'avura. Archived from the original on August 22, 2008. Retrieved November 23, 2008.
  91. ^ "New lines of public transportation". (in Hebrew). September 19, 2005. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved November 26, 2008.
  92. ^ "List of share taxi lines operated by Moniyot HaIr" (in Hebrew). Moniyot HaIr. Archived from the original on October 31, 2007. Retrieved November 27, 2008.
  93. ^ Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. "Israel in Figures, Population". Archived from the original on 2012-02-07. Retrieved 2007-07-09.
  94. ^ City Population. "The districts of Israel and all Israeli cities of more than 20,000 inhabitants". Archived from the original on 2007-08-09. Retrieved 2007-07-09.
  95. ^ Jewish Virtual Library. "Latest Population Figures for Israel". Archived from the original on 2018-06-12. Retrieved 2019-05-28.
  96. ^ Ashdod Municipality. "Absorption and immigration". Archived from the original on 2015-12-08.
  97. ^ Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. "Internal migration in Israel" (PDF). Labour Force Surveys. ISSN 0793-5382. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-07. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
  98. ^ "Overview of Pittsburgh: A Warm Hasidic Community in Ashdod, Israel". Archived from the original on 2009-04-26. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
  99. ^ Last Days Reporters. "7 Stages of the beginning of Judaism". Archived from the original on September 28, 2007.
  100. ^ "קהילת אשדוד | היהדות הקראית העולמית".
  101. ^ Righteous Among the Nations, Norway. "Per Faye-Hansen". Yad Vashem The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority. Archived from the original on January 29, 2008. Retrieved September 26, 2007.
  102. ^ Bilateral Relations. "Per Faye-Hansen recognised as Righteous Among the Nations". Norway – the official site in Israel. Archived from the original on November 7, 2007. Retrieved September 26, 2007.
  103. ^ Local council elections 2003 results Archived 2007-10-02 at the Wayback Machine. Haaretz (October 29, 2003). (in Hebrew)
  104. ^ Barnea, Or (April 4, 2006). "Israel Prize awarded to Dvora Omer". Ynetnews. Ynet. Archived from the original on November 7, 2007. Retrieved September 16, 2007.
  105. ^ "Israel Prize Recipients 2006– Israeli Andalusit Orchestra" (in Hebrew). Israel Ministry of Education. Archived from the original on December 26, 2008. Retrieved September 16, 2007.
  106. ^ a b "Monart Arts Center". 2012-05-02. Archived from the original on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  107. ^ "המשכן לאמנויות הבמה אשדוד". Archived from the original on 23 June 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  108. ^ "Haim Dotan". Archived from the original on 2015-07-09. Retrieved 2015-04-06.
  109. ^ "White will light up Ashdod". Archived from the original on 2015-11-26. Retrieved 2015-11-25.
  110. ^ Yannai, Bezalel (July 11, 2002). "Sounds from the South". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 15 August 2007. Retrieved September 16, 2007.
  111. ^ "המוזאון לתרבות הפלשתים". Archived from the original on 2014-12-23. Retrieved 2014-12-23.
  112. ^ Collins, Liat (September 18, 2008). "Ashdod has an artsy side". Retrieved September 20, 2009.[permanent dead link]
  113. ^ Kaplan, Reuven. "Cricket Revolution in Ashdod" (in Hebrew). Ashdod News. Archived from the original on December 13, 2007. Retrieved October 20, 2008.
  114. ^ "Identity. Vered Borochovsky". Archived from the original on December 24, 2007. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  115. ^ "Bordeaux - Rayonnement européen et mondial". Mairie de Bordeaux (in French). Archived from the original on 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
  116. ^ "Bordeaux-Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Archived from the original on 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
  117. ^ "Ashdod, jumelée à Bordeaux le 7décembre 1984" (in French). Official Bordeaux website. Archived from the original on December 8, 2006. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  118. ^ "Bahía Internacional Ciudades Hermanas" (in Spanish). Official Bahia Blanca website. Archived from the original on September 2, 2007. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  119. ^ "Städtepartnerschaften des Bezirks Spandau" (in German). Official Spandua website. Archived from the original on November 16, 2007. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  120. ^ "Tampa Sister Cities". Official site for the city of Tampa, Florida. Archived from the original on 18 October 2007. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  121. ^ "С сегодняшнего дня у Тирасполя ещё один побратим – город-герой Волгоград". Ольвия-пресс. 2006-04-12. Archived from the original on 2013-11-13. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
  122. ^ ""Города содружества Тирасполя"". Новости Приднестровья. 2013-04-18. Archived from the original on 2013-11-13. Retrieved 2013-04-24.
  123. ^ "Израиль | Официальный сайт Государственной администрации г.Тирасполя и г.Днестровска". Retrieved 2021-08-06.
  124. ^ "Ašdoda (Izraēla)" (in Latvian). Jūrmalas dome. Archived from the original on October 28, 2018. Retrieved November 26, 2017.


  • Barron, J. B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine.
  • Conder, C.R.; Kitchener, H.H. (1882). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology. Vol. 2. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
  • Department of Statistics (1945). Village Statistics, April, 1945. Government of Palestine. Archived from the original on 2019-04-02. Retrieved 2016-12-30.
  • Hadawi, S. (1970). Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine. Palestine Liberation Organization Research Centre. Archived from the original on 2018-12-08. Retrieved 2011-10-30.
  • Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. ISBN 3-920405-41-2. Archived from the original on 2019-10-14. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  • Khalidi, W. (1992). All That Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies. ISBN 0-88728-224-5. Archived from the original on 2019-03-21. Retrieved 2016-12-30.
  • Le Strange, G. (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems: A Description of Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. (p.405)
  • Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas. Jerusalem: Government of Palestine.
  • Morris, B. (2004). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-00967-7. Archived from the original on 2020-07-25. Retrieved 2017-08-30.
  • Nasser, G.A. (1955/1973): "Memoirs" in Journal of Palestine Studies
    • , pdf-file, downloadable
  • Petersen, Andrew (2001). A Gazetteer of Buildings in Muslim Palestine (British Academy Monographs in Archaeology). Vol. 1. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-727011-0. Archived from the original on 2021-05-29. Retrieved 2018-12-25. (Isdud, p.  155-158 Archived 2019-08-10 at the Wayback Machine)
  • Pringle, D. (1997). Secular buildings in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: an archaeological Gazetter. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521-46010-7. Archived from the original on 2020-06-08. Retrieved 2017-08-30.
  • Robinson, E.; Smith, E. (1841). Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea: A Journal of Travels in the year 1838. Vol. 2. Boston: Crocker & Brewster.
  • Robinson, E.; Smith, E. (1841). Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea: A Journal of Travels in the year 1838. Vol. 3. Boston: Crocker & Brewster.
  • Sharon, M. (1997). Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae, A. Vol. 1. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-10833-5. Archived from the original on 2019-12-21. Retrieved 2018-12-10. (Isdud: p.124 Archived 2019-12-21 at the Wayback Machine)
  • Rudiger Schmitt, "Ashdod and the Material Remains of Domestic Cults in the Philistine Coastal Plain," in John Bodel and Saul M. Olyan (eds), Household and Family Religion in Antiquity (Malden, MA/Oxford: Blackwell, 2008) (The Ancient World: Comparative Histories), 159–170.

External links

  • Survey of Western Palestine, Map 16: IAA, Wikimedia commons
  • Official website
  • Ashdod Port official website
  • Map of Ashdod region, 1960 - Eran Laor Cartographic Collection, The National Library of Israel

Retrieved from ""