Al-Qubayba, Hebron

al-Qubayba
القبيبة
Qubeiba
Etymology: The little (eastern) dome[1]
Historical map series for the area of Al-Qubayba, Hebron (1870s).jpg 1870s map
Historical map series for the area of Al-Qubayba, Hebron (1940s).jpg 1940s map
Historical map series for the area of Al-Qubayba, Hebron (modern).jpg modern map
Historical map series for the area of Al-Qubayba, Hebron (1940s with modern overlay).jpg 1940s with modern overlay map
A series of historical maps of the area around Al-Qubayba, Hebron (click the buttons)
al-Qubayba is located in Mandatory Palestine
al-Qubayba
al-Qubayba
Location within Mandatory Palestine
Coordinates: 31°34′20″N 34°51′16″E / 31.57222°N 34.85444°E / 31.57222; 34.85444Coordinates: 31°34′20″N 34°51′16″E / 31.57222°N 34.85444°E / 31.57222; 34.85444
Palestine grid136/108
Geopolitical entityMandatory Palestine
SubdistrictHebron
Date of depopulation28 October 1948[4]
Area
[3]
 • Total11,912 dunams (11.912 km2 or 4.599 sq mi)
Population
 (1945)
 • Total1,060[2][3]
Cause(s) of depopulationMilitary assault by Yishuv forces
Current LocalitiesLakhish

al-Qubayba (Arabic: القبيبة, قبيبة ابن عوّاد), also known as Gbebah, Qubeiba or Qobebet Ibn 'Awwad,[5] was a Palestinian village, located 24 kilometers northwest of Hebron. It was depopulated in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

Name

The eponym of the village, "Ibn 'Awwad" or "Ibn 'Awadh", was named after the clan residing therein.[6][7]

History

Known in Crusader times as Deirelcobebe, the ruins of the ancient Canaanite and Judean city of Lachish lay adjacent to the village,[8][9][10] which was subject to extensive archaeological excavations by the British Mandatory authorities in Palestine, and by Israeli authorities subsequent to its capture during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war.[11]

In 1136 the King of Jerusalem, Fulk confirmed Deirelcobebe as a casale under the Knights Hospitallers.[12][13]

Ottoman period

In 1517, Al-Qubayba was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire with the rest of Palestine, and in 1596 it appeared in the tax registers as being in the nahiya (subdistrict) of Gaza under the liwa' (district) of Gaza. It had a population of 33 Muslim household, an estimated 182 persons. They paid a fixed tax-rate of 25 % on agricultural products, including wheat, barley, sesame, and fruit trees, as well as goats and beehives; a total of 4,600 akçe. 11/24 of the revenue went to a Waqf.[14][15]

In 1838 Edward Robinson noted 200 reapers and gleaners at work in a field near Al-Qubayba (which he called Kubeibeh). He added: "Some were taking their refreshment, and offered us some of their "parched corn." In the season of harvest, the grains of wheat, not yet fully dry and hard, are roasted in a pan or an iron plate, and constitute a very palliative article of bread; this is eaten along with bread, or instead of it."[16] Robinson further noted Kubeibeh as a Muslim village, in the Gaza district.[17]

In 1883, the PEF's Survey of Western Palestine described Al-Qubayba as a large village built of adobe brick, situated on rolling hills near a plain, surrounded by a barren and stony area.[15][18]

British Mandate era

In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Al-Qubaiba had a population of 646, all Muslims,[19] increasing in the 1931 census to 800, still all Muslim, in a total of 141 houses.[20]

The village had a school, a mosque, and a number of small shops. Two wells located northwest and southwest of it provided drinking water.[15]

el Qubeiba 1945 1:250,000

In the 1945 statistics the population of Al-Qubayba was 1,060, all Muslims,[2] who owned 11,912 dunams of land according to an official land and population survey.[3] 8109 dunams were for cereals[21] while 35 dunams were built-up (urban) land.[22]

el Qubeiba 1947 1:20,000

1948 and aftermath

Al-Qubayba was in the territory allotted to the Arab state under the 1947 UN Partition Plan.[23]

The village was first attacked during Operation Barak. Though defended by Egyptian forces, al-Qubayba was taken by Israeli forces in the final stages of Operation Yoav on 28 October 1948. The population had fled and the village was destroyed.

The area was subsequently incorporated into the State of Israel and in 1955 the moshav of Lakhish was established to the southwest of the village site on what had been village lands.[24]

Of the village mosque, an elementary school, and more than 141 houses that made up al-Qubayba, Walid Khalidi notes that all that remains to mark the site in contemporary times are cacti and a handful of olive trees.[11]

Culture and village life

The inhabitants of the village mostly grew cereals; wheat and barley were grown by the well off, and corn by the rest. The village mostly bartered with surrounding villages such as Al-Dawayima and Beit Gibrin, most of the cereals harvest was used to sustain sheep herds, from where in most of the village income is derived.[6]

A woman's thob (loose fitting robe with sleeves), from Qubeiba dated to about 1910 forms part of the Museum of International Folk Art (MOIFA) collection at Santa Fe. The dress is a collage of different fabrics, textures and colors. The front and the upper half of the back are of black cotton. The chest panel, the side panels and the lower back of the skirt are handwoven indigo linen. Colorful silk cross-stitch embroidery, in red, violet, orange, yellow, green and black, create an effect described as "particularly gay, twinkling"[8] The qabbeh (square chest panel) is embroidered with the qurunful ("clove") motif, and it has vertical rows of eight-pointed stars, called qamr ("moons"), and a row of the mushut ("combs") pattern. There are eight embroidered columns on each side panel of the dress. The patterns which are used are fanajin qahweh ("coffee cups"), khem-el-basha ("the pashas tent"), irq el-ward ("rose branch"), and miftah Khalil ("key of Hebron"). There is also a pattern (with flowers, moons, trees, tents and tiles) not seen anywhere else in the MOMA collection. Finally, there is also some embroidery at the wrists.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 376
  2. ^ a b Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 23
  3. ^ a b c Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 50 Archived 2011-06-04 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Morris 2004, p. xix, village #323, Also gives cause of depopulation
  5. ^ Weir, Shelagh (2009). Palestinian costume (1st paperback ed.). Northampton, MA: Interlink Books. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-56656-727-5. OCLC 233026166.
  6. ^ a b Abu 'Awwad, Hussein (July 14, 2008). "Video Nakba Oral History Podcast: Interview with Hussein Abu 'Awwad". Palestine Remembered.
  7. ^ Weir, Shelagh (2009). Palestinian costume (1st paperback ed.). Moreton-in-Marsh: Arris Books. pp. 159, 184, 187, 260, 267. ISBN 978-1-84437-079-5. OCLC 988774780.
  8. ^ a b c Stillman 1979, p. 57.
  9. ^ Dauphin, 1998, p. 880
  10. ^ King, Philip J. (August 2005). "Why Lachish Matters". Biblical Archaeology Review. 31 (4). Retrieved November 18, 2013.
  11. ^ a b "Welcome to Al-Qubayba". Palestine Remembered. Retrieved 2007-12-06.
  12. ^ Röhricht, 1893, #164, pp. 40-41
  13. ^ Delaville Le Roulx, 1894, vol I, p. 98
  14. ^ Hütteroth & Abdulfattah 1977, p. 146.
  15. ^ a b c Khalidi 1992, p. 220.
  16. ^ Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 2, p. 394
  17. ^ Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 3, Appendix 2, p. 119
  18. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1883, SWP III, p. 258
  19. ^ Barron, 1923, Table V, Sub-district of Hebron, p. 10
  20. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 33
  21. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 93 Archived 2012-09-07 at archive.today
  22. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 143 Archived 2013-01-31 at archive.today
  23. ^ "Map of UN Partition Plan". United Nations. Archived from the original on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
  24. ^ Khalidi 1992, p. 221.

Bibliography

  • Barron, J.B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine. Table VII, Sub-district of Ramallah.
  • Conder, C.R.; Kitchener, H.H. (1883). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology. Vol. 3. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
  • Dauphin, C. (1998). La Palestine byzantine, Peuplement et Populations. BAR International Series 726 (in French). Vol. III : Catalogue. Oxford: Archeopress. ISBN 0-860549-05-4.
  • Delaville Le Roulx, J. (1894). Cartulaire général de l'Ordre des Hospitaliers (in Latin). Vol. 1. Paris.
  • Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics (1945). Village Statistics, April, 1945.
  • Hadawi, S. (1970). Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine. Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center. Archived from the original on 2018-12-08. Retrieved 2009-07-28.
  • Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). "Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century". Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten. Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft: 146. ISBN 3-920405-41-2.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  • Khalidi, W. (1992). All That Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies. ISBN 0-88728-224-5.
  • Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas. Jerusalem: Government of Palestine.
  • Morris, B. (2004). Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-00967-7.
  • Palmer, E.H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
  • Robinson, E.; Smith, E. (1841). Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea: A Journal of Travels in the year 1838. Vol. 2. Boston: Crocker & Brewster.
  • Robinson, E.; Smith, E. (1841). Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea: A Journal of Travels in the year 1838. Vol. 3. Boston: Crocker & Brewster.
  • Röhricht, R. (1893). (RRH) Regesta regni Hierosolymitani (MXCVII-MCCXCI) (in Latin). Berlin: Libraria Academica Wageriana.
  • Stillman, Yedida Kalfon (1979). Palestinian Costume and Jewelry. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-0490-7. (A catalog of the Museum of International Folk Art (MOIFA) at Santa Fe's collection of Palestinian clothing and jewelry.)

External links

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