4F4D 1~1.JPG
A mural from Akchakhan-Kala
Akchakhan-Kala is located in West and Central Asia
Shown within West and Central Asia
Akchakhan-Kala is located in Uzbekistan
Akchakhan-Kala (Uzbekistan)
Alternative nameAkchakhan-Kala
LocationKarakalpakstan, Uzbekistan
Coordinates41°49′41.17″N 60°43′8.67″E / 41.8281028°N 60.7190750°E / 41.8281028; 60.7190750[1]
PeriodsParthian, Sasanian
Site notes

Akchakhan-Kala, or Akcha-khan Kala, also named after the locality Kazakly-Yatkan/ Kazakl'i-Yatkan, in modern Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan, was an ancient fortress in Chorasmia built in the 4th/ 3rd century BCE and occupied until it was despoiled in the 2nd century CE.[2][3] It is part of the "Fifty fortresses oasis" in modern-day Uzbekistan.[4] The abandonment of Akchakhan-Kala was apparently followed by the establishment of the new capital of Toprak-Kala, 14 km to the northeast.[5]


Akcha-khan Kala has been the object of numerous excavations, still ongoing. A ceremonial complex with a hypostyle hall was discovered.[5]


Many decorations have been found, belonging to the period from the 1st century BCE to the 2nd century CE: a large quantity of frescoes, unbaked-clay modelled sculptures including fragments of a Ketos in Hellenistic style, and a Zoroastrian fire altar with paintings of colossal Avestan gods.[5] Parthian artistic influences have also been described.[6]


  1. ^ Dodson, John R (2015). "The nature of fluctuating lakes in the southern Amu-dar'ya delta". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 437: 63. Bibcode:2015PPP...437...63D. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2015.06.026.
  2. ^ KIDD, F.; CLEARY, M. NEGUS; YAGODIN, V. N.; BETTS, A.; BRITE, E. BAKER (2004). "Ancient Chorasmian Mural Art". Bulletin of the Asia Institute. 18: 69–95. ISSN 0890-4464. JSTOR 24049142.
  3. ^ Minardi, Michele. "Columned Halls in Ancient Chorasmia". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. ^ Adrianov, Boris V.; Mantellini, Simone (31 December 2013). Ancient Irrigation Systems of the Aral Sea Area: Ancient Irrigation Systems of the Aral Sea Area. Oxbow Books, Limited. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-78297-167-2.
  5. ^ a b c Minardi, Michele (January 2020). "The Ancient Chorasmian Unbaked-clay Modelled Sculptures: Hellenistic Cultural 'Impacts' on an Eastern Iranian Polity". Religion, Society, Trade and Kingship. Art and Archaeology in South Asia Along the Silk Road 5500 BCE-5th Century CE (South Asian Archaeology and Art 2016, Volume 1): 195–205.
  6. ^ Kidd, Fiona J. (2011). "Complex Connections : Figurative Art from Akchakhan-Kala and the Problematic Question of Relations between Khorezm and Parthia". Topoi. Orient-Occident. 17 (1): 229–276. doi:10.3406/topoi.2011.2406.

External links

  • Excavations of Kazakl'i-yatkan (Akchakhan-Kala)
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