Fourth-dimension roller coaster

Fourth-dimension roller coaster
X2-firstdrop.jpg
StatusIn Production
First manufactured2002
No. of installations18
ManufacturersArrow Dynamics (discontinued), S&S Worldwide, and Intamin
Riders per row4
Restraint StyleOver-the-shoulder

A fourth-dimension roller coaster is a type of steel roller coaster whereby riders are rotated independently of the orientation of the track, generally about a horizontal axis that is perpendicular to the track. The cars do not necessarily need to be fixed to an angle.

History

John F. Mares, a corporate attorney, invented a fourth-dimension roller coaster concept in 1995 and holds six US patents related to the technology of their spinning seat systems: U.S. Patent 5,791,254, U.S. Patent 6,098,549, U.S. Patent 6,227,121, U.S. Patent 6,386,115, U.S. Patent 6,477,961 & U.S. Patent 6,606,953. In this concept, riders control the spinning action themselves.

The first fourth dimension roller coaster to be built, X2, which opened at Six Flags Magic Mountain in 2002, was designed and patented by Alan Schilke.[1][2] In 2007, Intamin launched a variation of the 4th Dimension roller coaster under the name ZacSpin.[citation needed]

Design

Arrow Dynamics and S&S Worldwide

A) Rotation of Seats
B) Seat on Axle
C) Rack Gear
D) Four rails

Arrow Dynamics was the first company to produce a fourth dimension roller coaster, lending its name to the ride style. The trains feature seats capable of rotating forward or backward, 360 degrees in a controlled spin. This is achieved by having four rails on the track; two acting as per normal, and two to control the spin of the seats. The two rails that control the spin of the seats, known as "X Rails", vary in height relative to the track, and spin the train using a rack and pinion gear mechanism.[citation needed]

The first installation, ,[1][2] was a prototype and cost Arrow Dynamics and Six Flags itself a lot of money due to technical difficulties and design flaws. In 2002, the park sued Arrow Dynamics, which went into bankruptcy. Since then, Arrow was bought out by S&S Worldwide and became the company's steel coaster division, S&S Arrow. In 2006, a second installation opened at Fuji-Q Highland in Fujiyoshida, Yamanashi Japan under the name Eejanaika.[3] A third installation opened in 2012 at China Dinosaurs Park in China under the name Dinoconda.[4]

Intamin ZacSpin first generation

The Intamin ZacSpin was developed in response to the Arrow Dynamics fourth-dimension roller coaster. Some of the main differences between the Intamin and Arrow Dynamics/S&S Worldwide versions are the uncontrolled rotation of the seats, which produces a different ride each time, no need for an additional rail, and single cars with two riders back-to-back. Since these single cars don't rotate around the riders but around a common point quite far back behind their backs, this gave rise to complaints of rider discomfort. Another notable difference is the absence of any lateral movements, causing some enthusiasts to not consider the rides to be fourth-dimension roller coasters due to the fact that all movement is restricted to a two-dimensional plane.

Kirnu at Linnanmäki in Helsinki, Finland, opened for the 2007 season and was the first of its kind. Later that year Inferno opened at Terra Mitica in Spain with an identical compact layout. In 2009, Insane opened at Gröna Lund with a different track layout. In 2011, the first ZacSpin in the United States opened at Six Flags Magic Mountain as Green Lantern: First Flight, and was themed to the DC Comics superhero of the same name. It features the same layout as Insane.

S&S Free Spin

In late 2012, S&S Worldwide unveiled a new concept called Free Spin which features a similar ride to Intamin ZacSpin. Each vehicle features two seating rows, and each row rotates independently. Because the axis of rotation is at the center of mass of each guest, rider comfort is significantly improved. Like with ZacSpin, Seats spin freely, but during several track sections a system of magnets forces a controlled inversion.[5] The first installation of a 4D Free Spin was Batman: The Ride at Six Flags Fiesta Texas in 2015.[6]

Intamin ZacSpin second generation

In 2016, Intamin announced an updated version that like Free Spin also features a vehicle with two seating rows rotating independently, and an axis of rotation at the center of mass of each guest to improve rider comfort.[7]

Inversion ambiguity

There is considerable debate within the roller coaster community as to whether or not the spinning of these coasters qualifies as an inversion for the purpose of records. Guinness World Records gave Eejanaika the record with 14 inversions. However, other more coaster-specific record bodies such as the Roller Coaster Database do not recognize this claim and instead count only track inversions, which gives the record of 14 to The Smiler.[8]

Installations

Name Park Years Model Status Image
Batman: The Ride United States Six Flags Fiesta Texas 2015 to present S&S Worldwide 4D Free Spin Operating [9] Batman The Ride SFFT.jpg
United States Six Flags Discovery Kingdom 2019 to present
Arashi Japan Nagashima Spa Land 2017 to present S&S Worldwide 4D Free Spin Operating
The Joker United States Six Flags Great Adventure 2016 to present S&S Worldwide 4D Free Spin Operating [10] Joker (Six Flags Over Texas).png
United States Six Flags Great America 2017 to present
United States Six Flags Over Texas
United States Six Flags New England
Wonder Woman Coaster Mexico Six Flags México 2018 to present S&S Worldwide 4D Free Spin Operating [11]
Dinoconda China China Dinosaur Park 2012 to present S&S Worldwide 4th Dimension Operating [12]
Dragon Slayer United States Adventureland Park 2021 to present S&S Sansei 4D Free Spin Operating [13]
Eejanaika Japan Fuji-Q Highland 2006 to present S&S Arrow 4th Dimension Operating [3] Eejanaika coaster FujiQ 1024.jpg
Inferno Spain Terra Mítica 2007 to present Intamin ZacSpin Operating [14] Inferno.inversió.jpg
Insane Sweden Gröna Lund 2009 to present Intamin ZacSpin Operating [15] Insane Gröna Lund 2011.jpg
John Wick: Open Contract United Arab Emirates Motiongate Dubai 2022 to present S&S Worldwide 4D Free Spin Operating
Kirnu Finland Linnanmäki 2007 to present Intamin ZacSpin Operating [16] Kirnu linnanmäki.jpg
Tumbili United States Kings Dominion 2022 to present S&S Sansei 4D Free Spin Operating [17]

Formerly X
United States Six Flags Magic Mountain 2002 to present Arrow Dynamics 4th Dimension Operating [2] Six Flags Magic Mountain X (1).jpg
Green Lantern: First Flight
was to be relocated to La Ronde as Vipère
United States Six Flags Magic Mountain 2011-2017: operated
2017-2019: inactive
Intamin ZacSpin Removed [18]
[19]
[20]
Green Lantern First Flight (Six Flags Magic Mountain).jpg
Canada La Ronde 2019-2022: stored
2022: cancelled
Cancelled

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "Roller Coaster Search Results – 4th Dimension". Database. RCDB. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
  2. ^ a b c Marden, Duane. "X2  (Six Flags Magic Mountain)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
  3. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "Eejanaika  (Fuji-Q Highland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
  4. ^ "4D Roller Coaster". Retrieved 24 January 2012.
  5. ^ Alvey, Robb; Rowher, Kevin (13 November 2012). "IAAPA 2012 Trade Show Coverage Part 1 - S&S Silver Dollar City Rocky Mountain Construction". Theme Park Review. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2013 – via YouTube.
  6. ^ Marden, Duane. "4D Free Spin Roller Coasters". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  7. ^ "Media". Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 6 September 2017 – via YouTube CoasterForce channel.
  8. ^ Marden, Duane. "Record Holders  (Inversions)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
  9. ^ Marden, Duane. "Batman: The Ride  (Six Flags Fiesta Texas)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
  10. ^ Marden, Duane. "Total Mayhem  (Six Flags Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  11. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wonder Woman Coaster  (Six Flags México)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
  12. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dinoconda  (China Dinosaur Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
  13. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dragon Slayer  (Adventureland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  14. ^ Marden, Duane. "Inferno  (Terra Mítica)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
  15. ^ Marden, Duane. "Insane  (Gröna Lund)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
  16. ^ Marden, Duane. "Kirnu  (Linnanmäki)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
  17. ^ Marden, Duane. "Tumbili  (Kings Dominion)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  18. ^ Marden, Duane. "Vipère  (La Ronde)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  19. ^ Marden, Duane. "Green Lantern  (Six Flags Magic Mountain)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  20. ^ "La Ronde donne des nouvelles de la montagne russe Vipère qui devait ouvrir en 2020".

External links

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