Fourth-dimension roller coaster
This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2010)
|Fourth-dimension roller coaster|
|No. of installations||18|
|Manufacturers||Arrow Dynamics (discontinued), S&S Worldwide, and Intamin|
|Riders per row||4|
A fourth-dimension roller coaster is a type of steel roller coaster whereby riders are rotated independently of the orientation of the track, generally about a horizontal axis that is perpendicular to the track. The cars do not necessarily need to be fixed to an angle.
John F. Mares, a corporate attorney, invented a fourth-dimension roller coaster concept in 1995 and holds six US patents related to the technology of their spinning seat systems: U.S. Patent 5,791,254, U.S. Patent 6,098,549, U.S. Patent 6,227,121, U.S. Patent 6,386,115, U.S. Patent 6,477,961 & U.S. Patent 6,606,953. In this concept, riders control the spinning action themselves.
The first fourth dimension roller coaster to be built, X2, which opened at Six Flags Magic Mountain in 2002, was designed and patented by Alan Schilke. In 2007, Intamin launched a variation of the 4th Dimension roller coaster under the name ZacSpin.
Arrow Dynamics and S&S Worldwide
Arrow Dynamics was the first company to produce a fourth dimension roller coaster, lending its name to the ride style. The trains feature seats capable of rotating forward or backward, 360 degrees in a controlled spin. This is achieved by having four rails on the track; two acting as per normal, and two to control the spin of the seats. The two rails that control the spin of the seats, known as "X Rails", vary in height relative to the track, and spin the train using a rack and pinion gear mechanism.
The first installation, X², was a prototype and cost Arrow Dynamics and Six Flags itself a lot of money due to technical difficulties and design flaws. In 2002, the park sued Arrow Dynamics, which went into bankruptcy. Since then, Arrow was bought out by S&S Worldwide and became the company's steel coaster division, S&S Arrow. In 2006, a second installation opened at Fuji-Q Highland in Fujiyoshida, Yamanashi Japan under the name Eejanaika. A third installation opened in 2012 at China Dinosaurs Park in China under the name Dinoconda.
Intamin ZacSpin first generation
The Intamin ZacSpin was developed in response to the Arrow Dynamics fourth-dimension roller coaster. Some of the main differences between the Intamin and Arrow Dynamics/S&S Worldwide versions are the uncontrolled rotation of the seats, which produces a different ride each time, no need for an additional rail, and single cars with two riders back-to-back. Since these single cars don't rotate around the riders but around a common point quite far back behind their backs, this gave rise to complaints of rider discomfort. Another notable difference is the absence of any lateral movements, causing some enthusiasts to not consider the rides to be fourth-dimension roller coasters due to the fact that all movement is restricted to a two-dimensional plane.
Kirnu at Linnanmäki in Helsinki, Finland, opened for the 2007 season and was the first of its kind. Later that year Inferno opened at Terra Mitica in Spain with an identical compact layout. In 2009, Insane opened at Gröna Lund with a different track layout. In 2011, the first ZacSpin in the United States opened at Six Flags Magic Mountain as Green Lantern: First Flight, and was themed to the DC Comics superhero of the same name. It features the same layout as Insane.
S&S Free Spin
In late 2012, S&S Worldwide unveiled a new concept called Free Spin which features a similar ride to Intamin ZacSpin. Each vehicle features two seating rows, and each row rotates independently. Because the axis of rotation is at the center of mass of each guest, rider comfort is significantly improved. Like with ZacSpin, Seats spin freely, but during several track sections a system of magnets forces a controlled inversion. The first installation of a 4D Free Spin was Batman: The Ride at Six Flags Fiesta Texas in 2015.
Intamin ZacSpin second generation
In 2016, Intamin announced an updated version that like Free Spin also features a vehicle with two seating rows rotating independently, and an axis of rotation at the center of mass of each guest to improve rider comfort.
There is considerable debate within the roller coaster community as to whether or not the spinning of these coasters qualifies as an inversion for the purpose of records. Guinness World Records gave Eejanaika the record with 14 inversions. However, other more coaster-specific record bodies such as the Roller Coaster Database do not recognize this claim and instead count only track inversions, which gives the record of 14 to The Smiler.
|Batman: The Ride||Six Flags Fiesta Texas||2015 to present||S&S Worldwide 4D Free Spin||Operating|||
|Six Flags Discovery Kingdom||2019 to present|
|Arashi||Nagashima Spa Land||2017 to present||S&S Worldwide 4D Free Spin||Operating|
|The Joker||Six Flags Great Adventure||2016 to present||S&S Worldwide 4D Free Spin||Operating|||
|Six Flags Great America||2017 to present|
|Six Flags Over Texas|
|Six Flags New England|
|Wonder Woman Coaster||Six Flags México||2018 to present||S&S Worldwide 4D Free Spin||Operating|||
|Dinoconda||China Dinosaur Park||2012 to present||S&S Worldwide 4th Dimension||Operating|||
|Dragon Slayer||Adventureland Park||2021 to present||S&S Sansei 4D Free Spin||Operating|||
|Eejanaika||Fuji-Q Highland||2006 to present||S&S Arrow 4th Dimension||Operating|||
|Inferno||Terra Mítica||2007 to present||Intamin ZacSpin||Operating|||
|Insane||Gröna Lund||2009 to present||Intamin ZacSpin||Operating|||
|John Wick: Open Contract||Motiongate Dubai||2022 to present||S&S Worldwide 4D Free Spin||Operating|
|Kirnu||Linnanmäki||2007 to present||Intamin ZacSpin||Operating|||
|Tumbili||Kings Dominion||2022 to present||S&S Sansei 4D Free Spin||Operating|||
|Six Flags Magic Mountain||2002 to present||Arrow Dynamics 4th Dimension||Operating|||
|Green Lantern: First Flight
was to be relocated to La Ronde as Vipère
|Six Flags Magic Mountain||2011-2017: operated
|La Ronde||2019-2022: stored
- Wing Coaster – a type of ride by Bolliger & Mabillard which features similar trains to the S&S/Arrow design
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- Marden, Duane. "Eejanaika (Fuji-Q Highland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
- "4D Roller Coaster". Retrieved 24 January 2012.
- Alvey, Robb; Rowher, Kevin (13 November 2012). "IAAPA 2012 Trade Show Coverage Part 1 - S&S Silver Dollar City Rocky Mountain Construction". Theme Park Review. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2013 – via YouTube.
- Marden, Duane. "4D Free Spin Roller Coasters". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
- "Media". Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 6 September 2017 – via YouTube CoasterForce channel.
- Marden, Duane. "Record Holders (Inversions)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
- Marden, Duane. "Batman: The Ride (Six Flags Fiesta Texas)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
- Marden, Duane. "Total Mayhem (Six Flags Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- Marden, Duane. "Wonder Woman Coaster (Six Flags México)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
- Marden, Duane. "Dinoconda (China Dinosaur Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- Marden, Duane. "Dragon Slayer (Adventureland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
- Marden, Duane. "Inferno (Terra Mítica)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
- Marden, Duane. "Insane (Gröna Lund)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
- Marden, Duane. "Kirnu (Linnanmäki)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
- Marden, Duane. "Tumbili (Kings Dominion)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
- Marden, Duane. "Vipère (La Ronde)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
- Marden, Duane. "Green Lantern (Six Flags Magic Mountain)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
- "La Ronde donne des nouvelles de la montagne russe Vipère qui devait ouvrir en 2020".
- A list of fourth-dimension roller coasters at the Roller Coaster DataBase